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Abstract

Details

Review of Marketing Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-727-8

Book part
Publication date: 26 July 2016

Patrick J. W. McGinty

The purpose of this conceptual chapter is to analyze the current state of the astructural bias in symbolic interactionism as it relates to three inter-related processes over time…

Abstract

The purpose of this conceptual chapter is to analyze the current state of the astructural bias in symbolic interactionism as it relates to three inter-related processes over time: (1) the formalization of critiques of symbolic interactionism as ahistorical, astructural, and acritical perspectives; (2) an ahistorical understanding of early expressions of the disjuncture between symbolic interactionism and more widely accepted forms of sociological theorizing; and (3) persistent and widespread inattentiveness to past and present evidence-based arguments that address the argument regarding symbolic interactionism as an astructural, ahistorical, and acritical sociological perspective. The argument frames the historical development of the astructural bias concept in an historically and socially conditioned way, from its emergence through its rejection and ultimately including conclusions about contemporary state of the astructural bias as evidenced in the symbolic interactionist literatures of the last couple of decades. The analysis and argument concludes that the contemporary result of these intertwined historical and social conditioning processes is that the astructural bias myth has been made real in practice, and that the reification of the myth of an astructural bias has had the ruinous effect of virtually eradicating a vital tradition in the interactionist perspective which extends back to the earliest formulations of the perspective. As a result, a handful of suggestions that serve to aid in reclaiming the unorthodox structuralism of symbolic interactionism and the related interactionist study of social organization are provided in the conclusion.

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The Astructural Bias Charge: Myth or Reality?
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-036-7

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 31 July 2019

Dandan Qiu, Lei Luo, Songtao Wang, Bengt Ake Sunden and Xinhong Zhang

This study aims to focus on the surface curvature, jet to target spacing and jet Reynolds number effects on the heat transfer and fluid flow characteristics of a slot jet…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to focus on the surface curvature, jet to target spacing and jet Reynolds number effects on the heat transfer and fluid flow characteristics of a slot jet impinging on a confined concave target surface at constant jet to target spacing.

Design/methodology/approach

Numerical simulations are used in this research. Jet to target spacing, H/B is varying from 1.0 to 2.2, B is the slot width. The jet Reynolds number, Rej, varies from 8,000 to 40,000, and the surface curvature, R2/B, varies from 4 to 20. Results of the target surface heat transfer, flow parameters and fluid flow in the concave channel are performed.

Findings

It is found that an obvious backflow occurs near the upper wall. Both the local and averaged Nusselt numbers considered in the defined region respond positively to the Rej. The surface curvature plays a positive role in increasing the averaged Nusselt number for smaller surface curvature (4-15) but affects little as the surface curvature is large enough (> 15). The thermal performance is larger for smaller surface curvature and changes little as the surface curvature is larger than 15. The jet to target spacing shows a negative effect in heat transfer enhancement and thermal performance.

Originality/value

The surface curvature effects are conducted by verifying the concave surface with constant jet size. The flow characteristics are first obtained for the confined impingement cases. Then confined and unconfined slot jet impingements are compared. An ineffective point for surface curvature effects on heat transfer and thermal performance is obtained.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 29 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 September 2007

Ahad Ramezanpour, Iraj Mirzaee, David Firth and Hassan Shirvani

This paper seeks to conduct a numerical study to investigate heat transfer in turbulent, unconfined, submerged, and inclined impinging jet discharged from a slot nozzle, utilising…

1143

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to conduct a numerical study to investigate heat transfer in turbulent, unconfined, submerged, and inclined impinging jet discharged from a slot nozzle, utilising finite volume code FLUENT.

Design/methodology/approach

Two re‐normalisation group kε and the basic Reynolds stress models by using enhanced wall treatment for near wall turbulent modelling were applied and the local Nusselt numbers were compared with experiments. The enhanced wall treatment solves the fully turbulent region and viscous sublayer by considering a single blended function of both layers.

Findings

In inclined impinging jet by movement of stagnation point to the uphill side of the impinging plate, the location of the maximum Nusselt number moves to the uphill side of the plate. However, this movement increases by increasing of H/D and by decreasing of Reynolds number and inclination angle. For a flat plate impinging jet, the results were found to be less than 8 per cent different and for inclined impinging jet, more sensitive to H/D, 5‐20 per cent different in comparison with experiments. In addition, the flow streamlines were consistent with location of the heat transfer peak on the impinging surface.

Research limitations/implications

Reynolds numbers in range of 4,000‐16,000, the ratio of nozzle height to hydraulic diameter of the nozzle (H/D) in range of 4‐10, and inclination angle of air jet and plate in range of 40‐90° were considered.

Originality/value

A unique achievement of this study in comparison with experimental data was locating the exact peak of the local Nusselt number on impinging plate by change of Reynolds number, H/D, and inclination angle.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 17 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 26 July 2016

Gil Richard Musolf

A history of the intellectual origins of the debate over the astructural bias is presented. The chapter summarizes both the emergent bias thesis and the charge of an astructural…

Abstract

A history of the intellectual origins of the debate over the astructural bias is presented. The chapter summarizes both the emergent bias thesis and the charge of an astructural bias. The major works within this debate are reviewed. It has been found that the astructural bias still exists within the work of contemporary interactionists. The conclusion is that if interactionists want their work to be taken seriously, then they must seriously confront the distinguishing concept in sociology: social structure.

Details

The Astructural Bias Charge: Myth or Reality?
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-036-7

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 July 2005

K.J. Hsieh and F.S. Lien

Performance of various kε models on turbulent forced convection in a channel with periodic ribs is assessed.

Abstract

Purpose

Performance of various kε models on turbulent forced convection in a channel with periodic ribs is assessed.

Design/methodology/approach

The influence of the Yap correction and the non‐linear stress‐strain relation on the predictions of mean‐flow, turbulence quantities and local heat transfer rate is examined. The effect of thermal boundary conditions on the heat transfer predictions is investigated by employing both the prescribed heat flux approach and the conjugate heat transfer approach.

Findings

It was found that the inclusion of the Yap correction in the ε‐equation significantly improves the predictions of mean velocity and wall heat transfer for both high‐Reynolds number and low‐Reynolds number kε models in the present ribbed channel flow with massive flow separation. The employment of the non‐linear stress‐strain relation only marginally improves the predictions of turbulence quantities: the turbulence anisotropy is reproduced although the level of turbulence intensity is still too low. In general, the conjugate heat transfer approach predicts better average Nusselt number than the prescribed heat flux approach. However, both approaches under‐predict the experimental value by about 28‐33 percent when the low‐Reynolds number kε model of Lien and Leschziner (1999) with the Yap term is adopted.

Originality/value

Thorough numerical treatments of the thermal boundary conditions at the solid‐liquid interface, and detailed periodic condition in the periodic regime, were given in the paper to benefit researchers interested in solving similar problems.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 15 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 1985

J. Tylee Wilson

The effectiveness of strategic planning has been subject to much criticism lately. But R.J. Reynolds Industries is one successful company that attributes its substantial profits…

Abstract

The effectiveness of strategic planning has been subject to much criticism lately. But R.J. Reynolds Industries is one successful company that attributes its substantial profits to careful planning. With the merger of Nabisco Brands into RJR, the company will become the largest consumer products company in the United States.

Details

Journal of Business Strategy, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0275-6668

Article
Publication date: 16 January 2009

Joan M. Phillips and Thomas J. Reynolds

This paper aims to outline the fundamental assumptions regarding the laddering methodology (Reynolds and Gutman), examine how some “hard” laddering approaches meet or violate…

3125

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to outline the fundamental assumptions regarding the laddering methodology (Reynolds and Gutman), examine how some “hard” laddering approaches meet or violate these assumptions, provide a review and comparison of a series of studies using “soft” and “hard” laddering approaches to examine the hierarchical structure of means‐end theory, and assess if the discrepant conclusions from this series of studies may be attributed to violations of the fundamental assumptions of the laddering methodology.

Design/methodology/approach

A series of published empirical works using “hard” and “soft” laddering approaches, which aim to examine the hierarchical structure of means‐end theory (Gutman), are reviewed and compared to integrate research findings and to examine discrepancies. Discrepant conclusions, which appear to be attributable to violations of the assumptions underlying the laddering methodology, are explored through a reanalysis and reclassification of the content codes.

Findings

The paper validates the case for laddering and the care needed to gauge how conclusions can be affected when violations of fundamental assumptions of the laddering methodology occur.

Research limitations/implications

Means‐end chain research and, more specifically, the laddering methodology are in need of investigations that assess the importance of its underlying assumptions. Additional work validating both the “hard” and “soft” laddering approaches is also needed.

Practical implications

Results of means‐end research are more interpretable and less ambiguous when the fundamental assumptions of the laddering methodology are met. In practice, means‐end theory benefits managers by providing a useful structure to aid in the interpretation of laddering data.

Originality/value

This paper outlines the fundamental assumptions regarding the laddering methodology to provide methodological guidelines for laddering researchers. This paper also reviews the academic literature examining the hierarchical structure of means‐end theory and explores how violations of the fundamental assumptions of the laddering methodology may impact research findings.

Details

Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-2752

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 9 April 2019

Barrie Gunter

Abstract

Details

Gambling Advertising: Nature, Effects and Regulation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-923-6

Article
Publication date: 26 October 2012

M. Tutar and Ü. Sönmez

The purpose of this paper is to numerically study inflow turbulence effects on the transitional flow in a high pressure linear transonic turbine at the design incidence.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to numerically study inflow turbulence effects on the transitional flow in a high pressure linear transonic turbine at the design incidence.

Design/methodology/approach

The three‐dimensional (3‐D) compressible turbulent flow in a turbine inlet guide vane is simulated using a finite volume based fluid solver coupled with dynamic large eddy simulation (LES) computations to investigate the effects of varying inflow turbulence length scale and the turbulence intensity on the aero‐thermal flow characteristics and the laminar‐turbulent transition phenomena. The computational analyses are extended to very high exit Reynolds number flow conditions to further study the effect of high exit Reynolds numbers on the transitional behavior of the present flow around the inlet guide vane cascades of the turbine. The calculations are performed with varying degree of inflow turbulence intensity values ranging from 0.8 to 6 percent and the inflow turbulence length scales ranging from one to five percent of pitch for different exit isentropic Mach and Reynolds numbers.

Findings

The numerical predictions in comparison with the experimental data demonstrate that the level of inflow turbulence closure provided by the present LES computations offers a reliable framework to predict complex turbulent flow and transition phenomena in high free‐stream turbulence environments of high pressure linear turbines.

Originality/value

This is the first instance in which both artificially modified random flow generation method in association with the dynamic procedure of LES application is employed to represent the realistic inflow turbulence conditions in the high pressure turbine and to resolve the transitional flow in a dynamic approach.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 22 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

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