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Article
Publication date: 7 May 2019

Salwa Zolkaflil, Normah Omar and Sharifah Nazatul Faiza Syed Mustapha Nazri

Malaysia has implemented a comprehensive AML/CFT framework, yet its effectiveness remains questionable due to low number of prosecutions on money laundering cases…

Abstract

Purpose

Malaysia has implemented a comprehensive AML/CFT framework, yet its effectiveness remains questionable due to low number of prosecutions on money laundering cases. Therefore, this study aims to understand the reasons for low number of prosecutions, by addressing the challenges faced by the law enforcement agencies in conducting money laundering investigation. This study then identifies future improvement actions to enhance their effectiveness in combating money laundering in future.

Design/methodology/approach

This study distributed surveys to the law enforcement agencies that are responsible for conducting money laundering investigation in Malaysia. In total, 65 surveys were distributed; however, only 61 were returned to the researchers. Out of the 61 surveys returned, only 39 can be analysed due to incomplete answers given by respective respondents.

Findings

The results show that the investigating officers are facing difficulties in gathering sufficient information to support their charges. Besides information gathering, they are also facing difficulties due to short investigation timeframe regulated in the Anti-Money Laundering, Anti-Terrorism Financing and Proceeds of Unlawful Activities Act (AMLATFPUAA) 2001. This study concludes that, although the law enforcement agencies have the power to investigate money laundering and terrorism financing under the act, Malaysia is lacking in having a good investigative support system to assist the law enforcement agencies during the investigation process.

Practical implications

The results of this study are helpful to the regulators and law enforcement agencies in determining the flaws of the current money laundering investigation practices. This study also provides suggestions for future improvement action.

Originality/value

Lack of study focuses on money laundering investigation conducted by the law enforcement agencies, especially in the Malaysian setting, makes the study valuable to the money laundering research.

Details

Journal of Money Laundering Control, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1368-5201

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1994

JAN BRÖCHNER

This paper presents an analytical framework for determining efficient levels and durations of precontractual investigation. Economic efficiency in the allocation of…

Abstract

This paper presents an analytical framework for determining efficient levels and durations of precontractual investigation. Economic efficiency in the allocation of investigation tasks between client and tenderer is shown to depend on how closely related the technologies of investigation and construction are. Moreover, risk aversion and the interest rate affect the efficient allocation. The framework is also used as a basis for an investment analysis of the balance between client's investigation efforts and expected claims in the future. Finally, the framework is used to show how the optimal length of the investigation period can be derived from the expected cash flow associated with a project over its total life cycle, from inception to demolition. Results indicate the economic potential of tailoring risk sharing in construction procurement, according to the type of construction project and the attitudes to risk among client and contractors.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 1 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1998

Marcel Pheijffer

This article starts with a short introduction to the department of the Dutch Fiscal Investigation and Information Service (FIOD). There will be an introduction on…

Abstract

This article starts with a short introduction to the department of the Dutch Fiscal Investigation and Information Service (FIOD). There will be an introduction on financial investigations in general, a definition and goals. Attention will also be given to the recommendations of the Financial Action Task Force. There are two examples of financial investigations, one in the area of so‐called ‘organised crime’ and one in the area of ‘organisational crime’. These examples make clear that financial investigations can be a successful investigation method. Through the use of this method both tactical information and evidence are given. The examples will also show that financial investigations may have to be connected to other forms of investigation: the use of informers, surveillance, wire tapping and crown witnesses. They will also make clear that, from the point of view of a financial investigator, there is no big or relevant distinction in the way of tackling these sorts of crime.

Details

Journal of Money Laundering Control, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1368-5201

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2003

Melanie A. Kastl and Brian H. Kleiner

Specifies that the vast majority of employers hire workers based on lawful criteria such as skills and qualifications, using those same criteria to promote within the…

Abstract

Specifies that the vast majority of employers hire workers based on lawful criteria such as skills and qualifications, using those same criteria to promote within the organization. Identifies various employment situations that arise and need investigation, due to wrongdoing in some way. Discusses, in depth, ways to conduct investigations in a fair and meaningful way without bias.

Details

Management Research News, vol. 26 no. 2/3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0140-9174

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Article
Publication date: 12 July 2013

Rick Brown

This paper aims to examine 12 cases in which financial investigation was used in the UK to secure a conviction of an organised crime group. Importantly, no conviction…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine 12 cases in which financial investigation was used in the UK to secure a conviction of an organised crime group. Importantly, no conviction would have been achieved in these cases without the use of financial investigation.

Design/methodology/approach

Qualitative interviews were undertaken with investigating officers/financial investigators/prosecutors associated with 60 cases in which a conviction and subsequent confiscation order were achieved. Of these 60 cases, a conviction would not have been achieved without the use of financial investigation in 12 cases. In other cases (not examined here), financial investigation played a supporting role for other methods of investigation to achieve a conviction. This paper provides a reanalysis of the 12 cases concerned.

Findings

The study shows that financial investigation was often introduced at the pre‐arrest stage in an investigation, although there were still opportunities to introduce financial investigation earlier in the case in some instances. While a range of different types of criminality were investigated, all 12 were eventually convicted of financial crime.

Research limitations/implications

The research was limited by the small number of cases examined and by the fact that it relied on the recollections of those involved in the cases, rather than analysis of case files. Further research should examine a wider range of cases in which a conviction was secured solely through financial investigation.

Originality/value

This paper is the first to analyse cases in which convictions for organised crime would not have been achieved without financial investigation.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. 20 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

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Article
Publication date: 7 May 2021

Dana Wilson-Kovacs

In-depth knowledge about specific national approaches to using digital evidence in investigations is scarce. A clearer insight into the organisational barriers and…

Abstract

Purpose

In-depth knowledge about specific national approaches to using digital evidence in investigations is scarce. A clearer insight into the organisational barriers and professional challenges experienced, alongside a more detailed picture of how digital evidence can help police investigations are required to empirically substantiate claims about how digital technologies are changing the face of criminal investigations. The paper aims to focus on the introduction of digital media investigators to support investigating officers with the collection and interpretation of digital evidence.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing on ethnographic and interview data collected as part of an Economic and Social Research Council-funded project on the application of digital forensics expertise in policing in England and Wales, this paper examines the changing face of investigations in relation to escalating digital demand.

Findings

The analysis presents the national and regional organisational parameters of deploying digital expertise in criminal investigation and examines some of the challenges of being a digital media investigator (DMI). Through testimonies from DMIs, digital forensic practitioners, investigating and senior officers and forensic managers, the analysis explores the organisational tensions in the collection, processing, interpretation and use of information from digital devices for evidential purposes.

Research limitations/implications

The paper offers an empirical basis for the comparative study of how the DMI role has been implemented by law enforcement agencies and its fit within broader institutional considerations and processes.

Practical implications

The development of the DMI role has raised questions about the supply of digital expertise, especially to volume crime investigations, and tensions around occupational divisions between scientific and operational units.

Social implications

The findings show that while the introduction of the DMI role was much needed, the development of this valuable provision within each force and the resources available require sustained and coordinated support to protect these professionals and retain their skills.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the growing sociological and criminological literature with an ethnographically based perspective into the organisational and occupational tensions in the identification and processing of digital evidence in England and Wales.

Details

Policing: An International Journal, vol. 44 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Article
Publication date: 7 June 2021

Syed Mahmood Ali Shah

This study aims to investigate the behavior of investigating officers in performance of their official duties of conducting inquiries and investigations of money…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the behavior of investigating officers in performance of their official duties of conducting inquiries and investigations of money laundering cases and their views about real problems and issues encountered during such investigations.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 15 interviews were conducted with Inland Revenue Service (IRS) investigating officers and money laundering experts, whose responses were subjected to qualitative content analysis. Observation method was also used by the researcher during the whole process of investigation in multiple cases of money laundering investigations. Rationale for conducting qualitative study is to acquire original information from respondents which may not have been possible through a closed-ended questionnaire.

Findings

Findings of the study reveal that change in the behavior of investigating officers may result in better performance by way of conducting money laundering investigations in an effective and efficient manner. And the behavior of investigating officers may be changed by addressing the problems and issues encountered by them while at work and conducting anti money laundering investigations, better performance of investigating officers may result in better performance of investigating agency which may portray better image of the government in combating against terrorism financing and money laundering.

Research limitations/implications

Findings of the study are limited to the perspectives of 15 interviewees. For this reason, it is probable that a study with a larger sample conducted in other offices of IRS Intelligence as well as other investigating agencies could have provided different or more concrete results.

Practical implications

Evidently, the addressal of such issues may invariably enhance the effective enforcement of money laundering activities by way of improving the performance of investigating officers in performance of their duties relating to money laundering investigations. It also provides legislators and money laundering investigating agencies with valuable insight into the whole process of money laundering investigations and challenges encountered by investigating officers. By enhanced understanding the specific problems of investigations, the enabling authorities should be able to more effectively combat both money laundering and terrorism financing.

Originality/value

This is the first study, to the best of the author’s knowledge, which tries to explain the behavior of investigating officer toward their work and their perceived understanding of the problems being faced while conducting investigations in money laundering.

Details

Journal of Money Laundering Control, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1368-5201

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Article
Publication date: 30 April 2021

Thomas Scott and Charles Wellford

This paper addresses the clearance of aggravated assaults (AAs). Specifically, the authors consider variations in these clearances over time for large agencies and test…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper addresses the clearance of aggravated assaults (AAs). Specifically, the authors consider variations in these clearances over time for large agencies and test which crime, investigation and agency factors are associated with the likelihood of clearance by arrest or exceptional means. In doing this work, they seek to extend the understanding of how police can improve their investigations and ability to solve serious offenses.

Design/methodology/approach

Using case, investigative and organizational data collected from seven large police departments selected on the basis of their trajectory of index crime clearances, and measures of case characteristics, investigative effort and organizational best practices, this paper uses descriptive and inferential statistics to analyze AA investigations and case clearance.

Findings

Key findings include the following: trajectories of AA clearance vary across large agencies and covary with a measure of organizational best practices, and the relationship between investigative effort and case clearance can depend on organizational practices. The authors find that measures of investigative effort are either not related to case clearance or there is a negative association.

Research limitations/implications

Now that police researchers have a better understanding of AAs and their investigations, they need to test how this knowledge can be used to improve the quality of police investigations. Tests, preferably multi-agency randomized control trials, of new investigative strategies and organizational practices are needed.

Originality/value

This research is original in that it uses a multi-agency sample and crime, investigation and organizational measures to understand AA clearance.

Details

Policing: An International Journal, vol. 44 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

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Abstract

Details

Addressing Student Sexual Violence in Higher Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-141-9

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Book part
Publication date: 29 August 2018

Paul A. Pautler

The Bureau of Economics in the Federal Trade Commission has a three-part role in the Agency and the strength of its functions changed over time depending on the…

Abstract

The Bureau of Economics in the Federal Trade Commission has a three-part role in the Agency and the strength of its functions changed over time depending on the preferences and ideology of the FTC’s leaders, developments in the field of economics, and the tenor of the times. The over-riding current role is to provide well considered, unbiased economic advice regarding antitrust and consumer protection law enforcement cases to the legal staff and the Commission. The second role, which long ago was primary, is to provide reports on investigations of various industries to the public and public officials. This role was more recently called research or “policy R&D”. A third role is to advocate for competition and markets both domestically and internationally. As a practical matter, the provision of economic advice to the FTC and to the legal staff has required that the economists wear “two hats,” helping the legal staff investigate cases and provide evidence to support law enforcement cases while also providing advice to the legal bureaus and to the Commission on which cases to pursue (thus providing “a second set of eyes” to evaluate cases). There is sometimes a tension in those functions because building a case is not the same as evaluating a case. Economists and the Bureau of Economics have provided such services to the FTC for over 100 years proving that a sub-organization can survive while playing roles that sometimes conflict. Such a life is not, however, always easy or fun.

Details

Healthcare Antitrust, Settlements, and the Federal Trade Commission
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-599-9

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