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Article

Gillian Harris

The introduction of solid food to an infant is usually addressed interms of a “correct” time for introduction. There is usuallyalso a discussion of “appropriate” foods…

Abstract

The introduction of solid food to an infant is usually addressed in terms of a “correct” time for introduction. There is usually also a discussion of “appropriate” foods which may be introduced to the infant; these foods will change according to prevailing health priorities. Concentrates on the contribution made by the infant to the timing and type of the first foods introduced. Places emphasis on the development of the infant′s taste preferences which determine the infant′s response to foods which may be offered by the parent.

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British Food Journal, vol. 95 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article

Alison Mills

Gives a brief overview of a national survey conducted by theMinistry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food of the diets of 488 infantsaged 6 to 12 months from Britain…

Abstract

Gives a brief overview of a national survey conducted by the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food of the diets of 488 infants aged 6 to 12 months from Britain. Presents selected information on the amounts of foods eaten by older infants and the nutrients obtained from them, and explores the adequacy of the infants′ diet.

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Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 93 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article

M.N. Anokwulu

Reviews the various ways of feeding infants from birth to one year since what an infant eats at this stage in life is crucial to his/her future health. Critically…

Abstract

Reviews the various ways of feeding infants from birth to one year since what an infant eats at this stage in life is crucial to his/her future health. Critically discusses the various practices of feeding infants, which are breast‐feeding, artificial feeding, mixed feeding, and weaning. Reports on the investigations done in various countries of Europe, North America, some countries in South America, Africa and Asia. Suggests the proper ways of infant feeding based on the investigations and recommendations from WHO and UNESCO; then concludes that breast‐feeding is the best method of infant feeding and the best time to start weaning infants is between five and six months old.

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Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 32 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article

Claire E.A. Seaman, Diane D’Alessandro and Marlene Swannie

Choice of weaning and infant foods was established among a group of 56 mothers resident in Edinburgh who had infants under 18 months of age. The survey looked at the use…

Abstract

Choice of weaning and infant foods was established among a group of 56 mothers resident in Edinburgh who had infants under 18 months of age. The survey looked at the use of commercial and home‐made infant foods and aimed to identify the factors which influenced the decision to use commercial or homemade foods during weaning. Results indicate that, while convenience and perceived suitability for infants are a major factor in the decision to use commercial infant foods, first or only children are much more likely to be fed commercial infant foods. Mothers who were employed outside the home did not use commercial baby foods more than mothers who were at home with their children and, although older mothers were slightly more likely to make infant foods in the home, the differences were not statistically significant. While further work is essential to establish a nationwide view, these provisional results provide further insight into factors which affect choice of infant foods.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 98 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article

Yi‐lin Kwok, Kar‐yin Wong, Bo‐an Ying, Kit‐lun Yick, Li Yi and Yeung Chap‐yung

The purpose of this paper is to present anthropometric measurements on 42 premature infants nursed in the neonatal intensive care unit of Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present anthropometric measurements on 42 premature infants nursed in the neonatal intensive care unit of Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong.

Design/methodology/approach

Birth information, including maturity, age, gender, birth weight and present weight, were recorded. About 13 body size measurements, including stature, hand girth, armscye girth, chest girth, arm length, max girth, abdomen girth, hand length, thigh girth, shoulder width, head to nape length, inside leg to heel length and foot length, were measured for each infant. Using these data, the body size distribution, the correlation between each body size measurement, and linear regressions of present weight and stature with other body size measurement were analyzed.

Findings

It was found that present weight and stature of premature infants were the most desirable and significant size parameters for the development of a measurement chart for premature infants.

Originality/value

The paper provides anthropometric measurement details of premature infants.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 19 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

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Book part

Laurette T. Liesen

Safe haven laws arose as a compassionate response to the perceived increase in the number of mothers who killed their infants or abandoned them in unsafe places, such a…

Abstract

Safe haven laws arose as a compassionate response to the perceived increase in the number of mothers who killed their infants or abandoned them in unsafe places, such a dumpsters, toilets, outdoors, etc. (Appell, 2002b; Sanger, 2006). The policy problem of infant abandonment arrived on the local policy agenda in Mobile, Alabama in 1997 and early 1998. During that time, 20 infants were reported abandoned. In one case, a mother and grandmother drowned an hour-old infant in a toilet, and each received a 25-year prison sentence (Sanger, 2006). In response to this case, the program called “A Secret Safe Place for Newborns” was established. Prosecutors promised anonymity and immunity if the infant was relinquished unharmed. In 1999 Texas also experienced a surge in abandoned babies – 13 were abandoned in a 10-month period, 3 of whom died. Texas' Baby Moses Law was the nation's first safe haven law passed in 1999. Within two years, dozens of states passed safe haven laws with little debate, analysis, or opposition (Baran, 2003; Sanger, 2006). In order to reduce the occurrences of neonaticide and infanticide in which infants were left to die, all 50 states in the United States have passed safe haven laws.

Details

Biology and Politics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-580-9

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Book part

Elaine S. Barry

Throughout human history and around the world, co-sleeping was the context for human evolutionary development. Currently, most of the world’s peoples continue to practice…

Abstract

Throughout human history and around the world, co-sleeping was the context for human evolutionary development. Currently, most of the world’s peoples continue to practice co-sleeping with infants, but there is increasing pressure on families in the West not to co-sleep. Research from anthropology, family studies, medicine, pediatrics, psychology, and public health is reviewed through the lens of a developmental theory to place co-sleeping within a developmental, theoretical context for understanding it. Viewing co-sleeping as a family choice and a normative, human developmental context changes how experts may provide advice and support to families choosing co-sleeping, especially in families making the transition to parenthood. During this transition, many decisions are made by parents “intuitively” (Ball, Hooker, & Kelly, 1999), making understanding the developmental consequences of some of those choices even more important. In Western culture, families are making “intuitive” decisions that research has shown to be beneficial, but families are not receiving complete messages about benefits and risks of co-sleeping. Co-sleeping can be an important choice for families as they make the life-changing transition to parenthood, if individualized messages about safe infant sleep practices (directed toward their individual family circumstances) are shared with them.

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Transitions into Parenthood: Examining the Complexities of Childrearing
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-222-0

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Article

Lubna Naz and Kamalesh Kumar Patel

The aim of this paper is to examine biological, maternal and socioeconomic determinants of infant mortality in Sierra Leone.

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to examine biological, maternal and socioeconomic determinants of infant mortality in Sierra Leone.

Design/methodology/approach

It uses an analytical framework and Cox proportional hazards regression to break down the effects of factors determining infant mortality. Factors utilized in the empirical investigation include sex of the child, birth size, birth spacing, mother's working status, age of mother, antenatal care, postnatal care, mother's anemia level, religion, mother's education and wealth status.

Findings

Results suggest that birth spacing of three years and above associated with a reduced risk of infant mortality contrasted with short birth intervals. Children born to nonanemic mothers have a lower hazard (22%) of infant mortality compared to those born to anemic mothers (HR = 0.78; 95% CI: 0.64–0.96). At least one antenatal care visit by mothers lowers infant mortality rate by 41% compared to no antenatal visits at all ( HR = 0.59; 95% CI: 0.36–0.96). Similarly, infants whose mothers have received postnatal care are at lower risk (31%) of dying than those whose mothers have not received (HR = 0.69; 95% CI: 0.52, 0.93). Infant mortality is likely to decrease with the increase in the birth order.

Practical implications

The family health and planning programs should aim at educating men and women about the usefulness of birth spacing methods.

Originality/value

This paper might be the first attempt to analyze the determinants of infant mortality by utilizing a methodological framework and Cox regression.

Peer review

The peer review history for this article is available at: https://publons.com/publon/10.1108/IJSE-08-2019-0478.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 47 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article

Johan Rewilak

This article examines whether increasing the income of the poor – measured as the income of the lowest quintile – is more beneficial in reducing infant and child mortality…

Abstract

Purpose

This article examines whether increasing the income of the poor – measured as the income of the lowest quintile – is more beneficial in reducing infant and child mortality rates compared with increases in average income. Given the global importance in reducing infant mortality, the value of this research is important to academics, policymakers and practitioners alike.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a sample of 86 countries from 1995–2014 inclusive, our preferred estimation strategy uses an instrumental variable fixed-effects estimator.

Findings

Our results propose that the elasticity of the income of the lowest quintile never exceeds that of average income. Therefore, if reducing infant and child mortality is a key policy goal, then boosting average income may be preferable to raising incomes at the lower end of the distribution.

Originality/value

Given these findings, we open a gateway for new literature to add to this unexplored area of research in the income and health relationship.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 48 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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Article

Johanna Sjöberg

The purpose of the paper is to analyze what notions of infants parents are visually met through addressed direct marketing. Questions discussed are: How are infants

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the paper is to analyze what notions of infants parents are visually met through addressed direct marketing. Questions discussed are: How are infants visually constructed as a category? and How are they argued to be in need of consumption?

Design/methodology/approach

Unsolicited direct marketing sent to three Swedish first-time parents during their child’s first year has been collected and analyzed. Using critical visual discourse analysis, attention is paid to recurring visual patterns and contradictions in how infants are visualized and described at the intersection of materiality, image and text.

Findings

The analysis shows three dominant visual commercial discourses of infants, here called “the angel”, “the adventurer” and “the transformer”. These discourses are articulated in such a way and with such a strong claim to truth that it appears as if it is not the marketer that is arguing for consumption, but that it is the infant’s character that demands and drives parents toward consumption.

Social implications

As the visualizations of the age category infants, as well as of parents, are shown to be very uniform and that the marketing play on especially mothers’ fear of not providing the optimal conditions for the child, the study highlights the necessity of a critical dialogue between marketers, producers, parents and other actors in the child consumer business about their respective responsibilities and needs.

Originality/value

The youngest children are practically invisible in childhood studies as well as in the field of consumer culture. The paper thus contributes to those fields and to the study of visualization of children.

Details

Young Consumers, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-3616

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