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Book part
Publication date: 25 November 2019

Amira L. Allen, Wendy D. Manning, Monica A. Longmore and Peggy C. Giordano

In the US, approximately 70% of mothers and 93% of fathers with children who are under 18 years are in the paid labor force, and studies have documented that employed…

Abstract

In the US, approximately 70% of mothers and 93% of fathers with children who are under 18 years are in the paid labor force, and studies have documented that employed parents with young children often experience high levels of stress as they attempt to manage or balance the demands of their work and family roles. The current study focused on factors associated with observed variability in reports about work–family stress and considered the roles of parenting stress, child characteristics, as well as conflict with the other parent. Prior research has shown that parenting a more “difficult” child is a source of parenting stress, but such studies have not focused specifically on work–family conflict as a consequential outcome, have tended to be limited to older parents, and often have focused only on mothers. We also investigated the role of partner disagreements about assistance with parenting responsibilities as a further complication to family life that may influence perceived work–family stress among co-residential parents. Drawing on data from employed young adult parents, the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study (TARS) (n=263), we found that having a child perceived as more difficult was associated with greater work–family stress. Among co-residential parents, stress but not parenting disagreements with the other parent was associated with greater work–family stress. The findings highlight the importance of providing institutional and informal support to such parents.

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Transitions into Parenthood: Examining the Complexities of Childrearing
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-222-0

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Article
Publication date: 21 March 2016

Stanley Chan, Cynthia Leung and Matthew Sanders

The purpose of this paper is to compare the effectiveness of directive programmes led by professionals where parents were taught specific parenting knowledge and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to compare the effectiveness of directive programmes led by professionals where parents were taught specific parenting knowledge and strategies (Triple P – Positive Parenting Program) and non-directive parenting programmes in the form of mutual-aid support group as a universal prevention programme.

Design/methodology/approach

This study employed a randomised controlled trial design. Participants included 92 Hong Kong Chinese parents with preschool children recruited from eight kindergartens and a local church. They were randomised into Group Triple P, non-directive group and control group. They completed measures on their perception of child behaviour problems and their parental stress before and after intervention.

Findings

At post-intervention, results indicated significantly greater decrease in child disruptive behaviours among participants in the Triple P group than those in the non-directive group and control group while no significant group difference was found between the latter two groups. No significant difference was found in post-intervention parental stress level among the three groups.

Originality/value

This study provides empirical evidence to demonstrate the effectiveness of a directive parenting programme vs a non-directive one.

Details

Journal of Children's Services, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-6660

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Article
Publication date: 16 September 2011

Hannah‐Jane Braiden, Benny McDaniel, Joseph Duffy and Monica McCann

Bereaved parents often face the complex situation of managing their own grief while parenting bereaved children who are at increased risk of social, emotional and…

Abstract

Purpose

Bereaved parents often face the complex situation of managing their own grief while parenting bereaved children who are at increased risk of social, emotional and behavioural difficulties. The current evaluation was a pilot study aimed at determining the feasibility of the Incredible Years (IY) BASIC parenting programme as an intervention for bereaved families.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of seven parents of children (aged four to 12) participated in a 12‐week IY BASIC parenting programme. Participants completed a range of pre‐intervention, post‐intervention, six month follow‐up measures and semi‐structured interviews.

Findings

The results showed statistically significant reductions in parental stress, parental wellbeing, child behaviour problems, and grief.

Originality/value

There is strong evidence for the effectiveness of IY with diverse parenting populations but this is the first known study of the programme with bereaved families. The findings support its use with such families where child behaviour is a concern.

Details

Journal of Children's Services, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-6660

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Book part
Publication date: 18 July 2007

Ana Miranda, Rafaela Marco and Dolores Grau

In this chapter, we present the results of a study designed to investigate: (a) the family relations of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), (b…

Abstract

In this chapter, we present the results of a study designed to investigate: (a) the family relations of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), (b) the sources of stress parents in families of children with this disorder experience and (c) the possible modulating role that ADHD subtype and comorbid oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) have on parenting stress level. One hundred and sixty seven families, divided into two groups, an ADHD group (N=114) and a control group (N=53), participated in the study. Parents of both groups completed a Semi-Structured Interview that gathered information on socio-demographics, family structure and the presence of oppositional behaviour symptoms, as well as the Parenting Stress Index Questionnaire (Abidin, 1990) to evaluate parent stress. The results showed that the relations of children with ADHD with their parents and siblings were significantly more tense than those of children without this disorder with their families. Parenting stress was higher in parents with ADHD children than in parents of non-ADHD children in most scales relating to parent personal variables, with even more sharp differences in measures of parenting stress that are triggered by the child's behaviour. Finally, our results evidenced how the ADHD subtype and ODD comorbidity influence the level of stress in parents. The results of the study suggest that interventions focused only on the behaviour of ADHD children are not likely to improve the developmental course of the disorder in the long run.

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International Perspectives
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-503-1

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Article
Publication date: 16 March 2015

Catrin Eames, Rebecca Crane, Eluned Gold and Sophie Pratt

Behavioural parent training (PT) interventions partially mediate risk factors for the development of child behavioural problems. Mindfulness skills could have benefit in…

Abstract

Purpose

Behavioural parent training (PT) interventions partially mediate risk factors for the development of child behavioural problems. Mindfulness skills could have benefit in alleviating the impact of these risk factors for parents who are socio-economically disadvantaged. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

A pre-post single group comparison of disadvantaged mothers attending the Mindfulness-Based Wellbeing for Parents (MBW-P) programme.

Findings

Changes were observed in facets of parental stress (Parenting Stress Index-Short Form; Abidin, 1995), depression (Beck Depression Inventory-II; Beck et al., 1996) and brooding (Ruminative Responses Scale; Nolen-Hoeksema and Morrow, 1991), with moderate to large effect sizes and incidences of clinical change.

Research limitations/implications

The research design, although pragmatic, includes a small sample and no control or long-term comparison group.

Social implications

Mothers considered as the “hardest to reach” group in terms of vulnerability, risk factors and being likely to gain from intervention demonstrated positive shifts post-intervention. A targeted mindfulness-based intervention, delivered pragmatically within a health service context, may have benefit in reducing the impact of risk factors on parental wellbeing.

Originality/value

To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first evaluation of a targeted mindfulness group delivered within routine health care settings, in identified “high risk” areas, by routine staff.

Details

Journal of Children’s Services, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-6660

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Article
Publication date: 9 December 2011

Charlotte Reedtz, Monica Martinussen, Fredrik Wang Jørgensen, Bjørn Helge Handegård and Willy‐Tore Mørch

The main aim of this study is to explore characteristics of parents who signed up for parenting classes offered to the universal population and their reasons for participation.

Abstract

Purpose

The main aim of this study is to explore characteristics of parents who signed up for parenting classes offered to the universal population and their reasons for participation.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were obtained from parents in a study on parent training for children aged two to eight years (n=189), and a follow up survey on these parents (n=118).

Findings

Parents had high education, were married, and employed in full time jobs. The mean age of the children was under four years, and their Intensity and Problem scores on ECBI were higher than the Norwegian mean scores for their age group. Parent stress, parental concern, and parenting practices predicted the ECBI Intensity scores to a rather large extent.

Practical implications

Parents with high SES risk factors may not come forward to participate in face‐to‐face mental health promotion interventions even if the parenting intervention is offered in a non‐stigmatising way.

Originality/value

By offering a universal health promoting and preventive parent training service in the community, a large proportion of children with behaviour problems were identified and referred to treatment. This demonstrates how parent training services, offered to the universal population, may contribute to increase the reach for the youngest children in need of treatment.

Details

Journal of Children's Services, vol. 6 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-6660

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Book part
Publication date: 12 November 2008

Casey A. Holtz and Robert A. Fox

Behavior problems are common in toddlers and preschoolers. Richman, Stevenson, and Graham (1975) identified difficulties with eating, sleeping, toileting, temper, fears…

Abstract

Behavior problems are common in toddlers and preschoolers. Richman, Stevenson, and Graham (1975) identified difficulties with eating, sleeping, toileting, temper, fears, peer relations, and activity as typical in this young population. While all young children should be expected to experience behavior problems as part of their normal development, an ongoing challenge in the field has been to determine when these “normal” developmental problems rise to the level of being considered “clinical” behavior problems (Keenan & Wakschlag, 2000). For example, when does a two-year-old child's tantrum behavior, a three-year-old's urinary accidents, and a four-year-old's defiance become clinically significant? To answer these questions, clinicians must examine the frequency, intensity, and durability of these difficulties, their potential to cause injury to the child or others, the extent to which they interfere with the child development, and the degree to which they disrupt the lives of their siblings, caregivers, peers, teachers, and others.

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Autism and Developmental Disabilities: Current Practices and Issues
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-357-6

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2006

Cynthia Leung, Matthew Sanders, Francis Ip and Joseph Lau

This study examined the effectiveness of the Triple P‐Positive Parenting Program in a government child health service delivery context with Chinese parents in Hong Kong…

Abstract

This study examined the effectiveness of the Triple P‐Positive Parenting Program in a government child health service delivery context with Chinese parents in Hong Kong. Specifically, the study sought to identify pre‐intervention variables that might predict programme outcomes such as level of clinical improvement and programme completion. Participants were 661 parents of pre‐school and primary aged children participating in a group version of the Triple P‐Positive Parenting Program. There were significant decreases in disruptive child behaviours, levels of parenting stress, general stress and anxiety and an increase in parenting sense of competence. Greater change in reports of child behaviour problems was related to lower levels of family income, new immigrant family status, and higher pre‐intervention levels of parenting stress. The present study provides a profile of parents who are most likely to benefit from parent training programmes.

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Journal of Children's Services, vol. 1 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-6660

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Book part
Publication date: 7 January 2019

Kammi K. Schmeer

Past research on the immigrant health paradox suggests that children with immigrant parents may have a health advantage over those with US-born parents, especially if the…

Abstract

Past research on the immigrant health paradox suggests that children with immigrant parents may have a health advantage over those with US-born parents, especially if the parent is a recent immigrant. Other research emphasizes the social and economic challenges children with immigrant parents face, in part due to disadvantaged social class and racial/ethnic positions. Underlying physiological changes due to chronic stress exposures among children in immigrant families is one potential health disadvantage that may not yet be apparent in traditional health measures. To explore these biological disparities during childhood, I use national biomarker and survey data from the National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES) (N = 11,866) to evaluate parent nativity and educational status associations with low-grade inflammation, indicated by C-reactive protein (CRP), in children ages 2–15 years. I find that children with an immigrant parent, and particularly a low-educated immigrant parent, have higher CRP, net of birth, body mass index (BMI) and other factors, than children with a US-born parent with either a low or higher education. Comparing children with low-educated parents, those with a foreign-born parent have higher predicted CRP. The findings from this study provide new evidence that children living in immigrant families in the US may be facing higher levels of chronic stress exposure, as indicated by the increased risk of low-grade inflammation, than those with US-born parents. The physiological changes related to increased risk of inflammation, could set children in immigrant families on pathways toward mental and physical health problems later in the life course.

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Immigration and Health
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-062-4

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2006

Jacqueline Barnes, Kristen MacPherson and Rob Senior

The study reported here aimed to evaluate the impact on parenting and the home environment of community volunteer home visiting offered during or soon after pregnancy to…

Abstract

The study reported here aimed to evaluate the impact on parenting and the home environment of community volunteer home visiting offered during or soon after pregnancy to potentially vulnerable mothers. A cluster‐randomised study allocated Home‐Start schemes to intervention or comparison (existing services) conditions. Mothers were screened at routine health checks. Families in intervention and comparison areas were assessed at two and 12 months. The results showed that comparing families receiving support and those in comparison areas, there were few differences. There was a greater reduction in parent‐child relationship difficulties for supported families, but they offered their children fewer healthy foods. There was no evidence of enhanced parenting, organisation of the home environment or more appropriate use of health services. Comparing families receiving support with a second comparison group, living in intervention areas but not receiving support, no differences were found. The article concludes that a more structured approach may be required to make changes in parenting behaviour and the home environment.

Details

Journal of Children's Services, vol. 1 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-6660

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