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Article

Eugénia Pedro, João Leitão and Helena Alves

The purpose of this paper is to present an innovative operational proposal for measuring the intellectual capital (IC) of higher education institutions (HEIs) through a

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present an innovative operational proposal for measuring the intellectual capital (IC) of higher education institutions (HEIs) through a strategic prospective lens of analysis.

Design/methodology/approach

After providing a literature review on the methods for measuring IC that focuses on the organisational IC of HEIs, four case studies applied to Portuguese HEIs are presented, using a matrix of cross-referenced impactsmultiplications applied to a classification (MICMAC) approach.

Findings

The empirical findings reveal how human capital, structural capital and relational capital make up the core components and provide a fairly diversified list of the measurement indicators for the operational evaluation of the IC of HEIs.

Practical implications

It contributes into the literature of strategic prospective analysis of HEIs by: analysing the measurement systems for the organisational IC interrelated with HEIs; identifying the key components to the organisational IC of HEIs and their respective measurement indicators; and draufting a new method for operationally implementing organisational IC through the systematic application of the components and indicators identified.

Originality/value

Through an innovative vision, the present study reconciles and systematically structures the methods already proposed by other authors before presenting an innovative operational approach and an alternative to the already existing methods. In addition, the structure of this proposal itself enables HEIs to choose from among the various indicators proposed for IC, correspondingly those that best align with the type of institution under evaluation.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. 20 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1469-1930

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Article

Sanjay Sampat Wakchaure and Kumar Neeraj Jha

The failure of a bridge is a complex phenomenon due to the involvement of a large number of factors. Bridge failure cannot be attributed to a single cause due to the…

Abstract

Purpose

The failure of a bridge is a complex phenomenon due to the involvement of a large number of factors. Bridge failure cannot be attributed to a single cause due to the intricacies involved in the relationship among the factors causing failure. The aim of this paper is to identify the various factors causing bridge failure and show an interdependence/relationship among them.

Design/methodology/approach

Interpretive structural modeling (ISM), which is a tool of structural analysis for interactive learning, has been used to develop a hierarchical structure of the phenomenon of bridge failure showing the interrelationship of the causative factors. Impact Matrix Cross Reference Multiplication Applied to a Classification (MICMAC) tool has been used to quantify and classify the factors for bridge failure on the basis of their influence and dependence.

Findings

In total, 14 factors, which may contribute to the failure of a bridge, have been identified through the literature survey and interaction with bridge experts. Even though all the 14 factors are important, the authors have found that the environmental factor has the maximum influence, while the age factor is the most dependent of all factors.

Research limitations/implications

The proposed research utilizes the ISM and MICMAC tools and thus has all the limitations of structural modeling. The application of structural equation modeling in the civil engineering field is limited, but it is hoped that a similar approach can be applied in other areas of engineering.

Originality/value

The factors causing bridge failure have been identified and hierarchical interdependence model has been arrived at by using ISM. On the basis of MICMAC analysis, the factors have also been classified into three categories, namely, influent, autonomous and dependent. The study reaffirms the importance of all factors in the overall performance of a bridge.

Details

Journal of Advances in Management Research, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0972-7981

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Article

Jih Kuang Chen

The development and application of systematic procedures enabling Kaizen methodology development are still very rare, especially in the service industry. The purpose of…

Abstract

Purpose

The development and application of systematic procedures enabling Kaizen methodology development are still very rare, especially in the service industry. The purpose of this paper is to suggest a set of innovative improvement methodologies of service quality to enhance the extent and depth of Kaizen in the service domain.

Design/methodology/approach

Combining the importance-performance analysis (IPA) method with impact matrix cross-reference multiplication applied to a classification (MICMAC), which is more convenient in calculation and application, and Fuzzy theory not only effectively integrates opinions of multiple experts, but also improves the conventional MICMAC method, which can only make binary judgment on the mutual influence of elements, by making it able to judge the degree of influence, thereby delivering more accuracy in evaluating the results.

Findings

This innovative method which integrates Fuzzy-MICMAC with IPA displayed its usability in the analysis and research of a certain university library on service quality, and significant differences were found on comparing it with the conventional IPA method. The comparison and suggestion were proposed.

Research limitations/implications

The number of the experts involved and samples under investigation were limited, hence findings were not comprehensive enough and cannot be generalized. This sets the direction for future research.

Originality/value

This proposed method helps in overcoming the lack of systematic procedures enabling Kaizen methodology for service quality. It has the advantage of integrating existing tools and models effectively, which not only improve the shortcomings of the conventional methods, but also result in more convenient calculation and application, to promote Kaizen in service domain.

Details

The TQM Journal, vol. 30 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2731

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Article

Nishant Agrawal

The purpose of this paper is to examine Philip B. Crosby’s 14 quality principles and analyze the interaction between them. Hitherto no research has been published on the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine Philip B. Crosby’s 14 quality principles and analyze the interaction between them. Hitherto no research has been published on the implementation of total quality management (TQM) using Crosby’s 14 principles. To fill this gap, interpretive structural modeling (ISM) and Matrix Impact Cross-Reference Multiplication Applied to a Classification (MICMAC) analysis have been designed to prioritize, sequence and categorize variables to find both the dependence and driving power of these variables.

Design/methodology/approach

At the initial stage experts from industry as well as from academia were contacted to provide an input for ISM methodology and examine interactions between identified variables. In this approach, interpretations of the interrelationships among variables have been discussed, whereas MICMAC analysis is used to discover dependence and driving power.

Findings

The results of the investigation revealed that “Management Commitment,” “Quality Improvement Team,” “Quality Awareness,” “Supervisor Training,” “Goal Setting” and “Cost of Quality Evaluation” are strategic requirements; “Corrective Action,” “Zero Defects Day” and “Error Cause Removal” are tactical requirements. “Recognition,” “Quality Measurement,” “Quality Councils” and “Do It Over Again” are operational requirements for TQM applications.

Originality/value

ISM is used as a part of this research to provide valuable insights into interrelationships among Crosby’s quality principles through a systematic framework. The research opens up a new focus area on the implementation of TQM for services as well as for the manufacturing industry.

Details

The TQM Journal, vol. 32 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2731

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Article

Johan Veltmeyer and Sherif Mohamed

The purpose of this paper is to provide the empirical evidence supporting the existence of a multi-level hierarchical TQM model showing the structural inter-relationships…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide the empirical evidence supporting the existence of a multi-level hierarchical TQM model showing the structural inter-relationships among a total of 16 TQM variables (i.e. drivers, enablers and outcomes).

Design/methodology/approach

The set of identified TQM variables is the product of an in-depth review of the literature, and a robust reiterative process of verification and validation. Inter-relationships among the TQM variables were subjected to the scrutiny of a panel of experts, and were used as a basis for developing a web-based survey to explore the existence as well as strength of the structural relationship between each and every pair of the identified variables using interpretive structural modelling and MICMAC (Impact Matrix Cross-Reference Multiplication Applied to a Classification).

Findings

TQM variables were classified and clustered based on their influence and dependence on each other. Variables such as commitment by top management and customer satisfaction appear to have a strong chance to affect change, whereas variables such suppliers and competitors are very dependent on, and sensitive to, the evolution of the influent variables.

Originality/value

The paper demonstrates a multi-level TQM model encompassing all identified TQM drivers, enablers, and outcomes. The paper not only addresses a gap in the relevant literature (reduces the evidence scarcity about the hierarchical nature of TQM variables), but also gives insights into the variables with most driving power needing greater management attention.

Details

International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, vol. 34 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-671X

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Article

Pallab Biswas

The purpose of this paper is to identify, analyze, and categorize the major enablers of reconfigurability that can facilitate structural changes within a supply chain in a

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify, analyze, and categorize the major enablers of reconfigurability that can facilitate structural changes within a supply chain in a global scenario. The paper also addresses five reconfigurability dimensions in the perspective of supply chains and the major enablers to attain them. The paper further aims to understand the mutual interactions among these enablers through the identification of hierarchical relationships among them.

Design/methodology/approach

A framework that holistically considers all the major enablers of reconfigurability has been developed. The hierarchical interrelationships between major enablers have been presented and interpreted using a novel qualitative modeling technique, i.e., total interpretive structural modeling (TISM), which is an extension of ISM. SPSS 22.0 is employed to carry out a one-tailed one-sample t-test further to test the hypotheses for validating the results of TISM. Impact matrix cross-reference multiplication applied to a classification (MICMAC) analysis has been employed to identify the driving and dependence powers of these reconfigurability enablers.

Findings

In this paper, 15 enablers for reconfigurability paradigm have been identified through literature review and expert opinions. The authors established interrelationships and interdependencies among these enablers and categorized them as enablers of each dimension. New product development and customer satisfaction come at the highest level of priority. The levels of these enablers were obtained using TISM. The authors compared the results with the clusters derived from MICMAC analysis, and the results are found to be well within the acceptable range.

Research limitations/implications

The study has implications for both practitioners and academia. The work provides a comprehensive list of enablers that are relevant to reconfigure supply chains in today’s volatile global market. This research will also help decision makers to strategically focus on the top-level enablers and their concerned dimensions. The research is based on an automobile company case study and can be extended to products with volatile and changing demands.

Originality/value

The proposed model for reconfigurability enablers using TISM is a new effort altogether in the area of supply chain management. The novelty of this research lies in its identification of specific enablers to reconfigure a supply chain through different dimensions.

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Article

Bijoylaxmi Sarmah and Zillur Rahman

With increased competition in service sector due to dynamic nature of customers’ taste and preferences, service providers have realized the importance of co-creating with…

Abstract

Purpose

With increased competition in service sector due to dynamic nature of customers’ taste and preferences, service providers have realized the importance of co-creating with customers across various stages of new service development. Co-creating with customers require a focused attention on the psychological variables that influence customers to participate in developing a new service. However, availability of scant literature creates difficulty in comprehending co-creative hotel service innovation practices, especially in developing country like India. The purpose of this paper is to explore the inter-relationships among the customer participation in hotel service innovation variables with the help of interpretive structural modeling (ISM) approach.

Design/methodology/approach

ISM approach is used to determine the direction of customer participation and categorization of psychological variables with their driving and dependence power. Identification of related variables was done through a review of literature initially and arrived at a common consensus through brainstorming sessions with academicians and hotel industry experts.

Findings

The results indicate that a few variables possess higher driving power that include: consumer innovativeness, customer participative behavior, customer socialization, willingness to co-create, role clarity, customer ability and their interlinking. Thus, the research contributes in the development of relationship among various identified variables of customer participation in service innovation (CPSI) using ISM.

Research limitations/implications

This study suggests that hoteliers should co-create with customers to develop new services by understanding their psychological variables that play a crucial role determining their active participation in new hotel service offerings.

Practical implications

This study suggests that hoteliers should co-create with customers to develop new services by understanding the enablers of customer participation in co-creative hotel service innovation. Hoteliers can have hierarchical map of their customers for co-creating at different stages of service innovation or can segregate the variables as per their driving and dependence power for enhanced applicability of the variables. Further, the observed inter-relationships among the CPSI variables can guide the managers in planning and implementing identified relationships for successful implementation of co-creative service innovation.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge this study is the first to provide an integrated model using ISM and Matrix Impact Cross-Reference Multiplication Applied to a Classification (MICMAC) analysis with a goal to identify and classify various key enablers of customer participation in co-creative hotel service innovation in India. The authors believe that this study will enhance the understanding of the psychological factors influencing customer-firm co-creative service innovation activities and help the academicians and industry practitioners to select right enablers for customer participation in co-creative hotel service innovation. Thus, this study will be the foundation for studying co-creative service innovation using the ISM and MICMAC approaches.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. 25 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

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Article

Rahul Priyadarshi, Srikanta Routroy and Girish Kant

The purpose of the paper is to identify, analyze and select the enablers for vertical integration of Aloe vera supply chain (AVSC) so that rural employability will be…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the paper is to identify, analyze and select the enablers for vertical integration of Aloe vera supply chain (AVSC) so that rural employability will be enhanced in the context of Rajasthan, India.

Design/methodology/approach

Interpretive structural modeling (ISM) was proposed to develop a structural model to identify the right enablers for enhancing the rural employability and business prospects. Also, fuzzy-matrix cross-reference multiplication applied to classification (F-MICMAC) was applied to segregate the enablers into four clusters on the basis of their driving and dependence power. Finally, the significant enablers were selected.

Findings

Out of identified 13 enablers, three enablers (i.e. institute for training and research, transportation infrastructure and government incentives for value addition) were appearing at the bottom of the ISM structural model and also in the driving quadrant of driver-dependent diagram. Therefore, they are the significant enablers for vertical integration of AVSC to enhance the rural employability in the context of Rajasthan, India.

Research limitations/implications

The interactions among enablers are not statistically validated. However, the empirical analysis and total interpretive structural modeling may be used for this purpose.

Practical implications

The outcomes of the study will provide the guidelines for implementation of vertical integration at the village level to enhance rural employability in the context of Rajasthan, India in specific.

Originality/value

Although a few studies have been reported in the literature related to value-addition process (vertical integration), but the modeling of enablers to segregate and identify the appropriate enablers for vertical integration of AVSC for enhancing employability at the rural areas is unique.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 34 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

Keywords

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Article

Habibullah Khan, Faisal Talib and Mohd. Nishat Faisal

The purpose of this paper is to identify and develop a hierarchical model for the barriers affecting the growth of mobile commerce (M-commerce). Based on the model…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify and develop a hierarchical model for the barriers affecting the growth of mobile commerce (M-commerce). Based on the model developed, the authors’ objective is to identify those variables that are of strategic nature and are the root cause of the issue.

Design/methodology/approach

Variables considered as barriers are identified, and utilizing the interpretive structural model approach, a relationship model is developed. Further, the impact matrix cross-reference multiplication applied to a classification approach is used to analyze the effect and dependence among these factors.

Findings

The research in the area of M-commerce in the Arab world and related to the strategic aspect is limited in the extant literature. The present study tries to fill this gap by investigating the variables that inhibit the growth of M-commerce in Qatar. The research shows that there exists a group of barriers having a high driving power and low dependence requiring maximum attention and of strategic importance, while another group consists of those variables that have high dependence and are the resultant actions.

Practical implications

There is a growing concern that although the numbers of mobile subscribers are increasing at a very fast pace in Qatar, actual M-commerce activities in the country remain low. The findings of this study can be used to understand the differences between the independent and dependent variables and their mutual relationships. The study would also help the policy makers to develop suitable strategies to facilitate growth of M-commerce in the country.

Originality/value

This research was the first attempt to investigate the relationships among the variables inhibiting the growth of M-commerce in a fast-growing economy in a Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) region. Given that there is limited research on M-commerce in the GCC context, the study can be viewed as an investigation that provides a good understanding of the variables and their interrelationships affecting M-commerce proliferation.

Details

Journal of Systems and Information Technology, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1328-7265

Keywords

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Article

Vivek Agrawal, Rajendra P. Mohanty and Anand Mohan Agrawal

The purpose of this paper is to differentiate the empowering influences of critical enablers of supply chain management (SCM) along with their interrelationships. These…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to differentiate the empowering influences of critical enablers of supply chain management (SCM) along with their interrelationships. These empowering enablers are significant, as they encourage productive execution to improve organizational performance and stakeholder's satisfaction.

Design/methodology/approach

From the literature review, incidence of a number of SCM enablers were found and they were subjected to critical scrutiny by a considerable number of experts engaged in SCM research and application to identify significant and applicable empowering enablers by grounded interactions. By using Impact Matrix Cross-Reference Multiplication Applied to a Classification analysis, the driving and dependence power were analyzed and the empowering enablers were ordered. This was pursued by building up a structural model of the empowering enablers using interpretive structure modeling, followed with measuring cause–effect relationship using decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL).

Findings

Among these identified enablers of SCM, operational performance, green SCM, employee empowerment and motivation and strategic association came out to be strategic enablers.

Research limitations/implications

The findings may help the practicing professionals to develop clarity in understanding of these essential enablers and their contextual as well as cause–effect relationship in SCM. The practicing professionals need to focus on all these enablers during implementation of SCM for enhancing the organizational performance and stake holders' satisfaction.

Originality/value

This study is of practical utility in real-life implementation of SCM. The algorithm used in applying the multi-criteria decision-making approach is very user-friendly, and the application of DEMATEL is an innovation compared to previous research. Further, the findings can be used as a benchmark for improving the performance of SCM by considering the cause–effect relationship.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. 27 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

Keywords

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