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Article
Publication date: 8 May 2017

J. Jena, Sumati Sidharth, Lakshman S. Thakur, Devendra Kumar Pathak and V.C. Pandey

The purpose of this paper is to elucidate the methodology of total interpretive structural modeling (TISM) in order to provide interpretation for direct as well as…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to elucidate the methodology of total interpretive structural modeling (TISM) in order to provide interpretation for direct as well as significant transitive linkages in a directed graph.

Design/methodology/approach

This study begins by unfolding the concepts and advantages of TISM. The step-by-step methodology of TISM is exemplified by employing it to analyze the mutual dependence among inhibitors of smartphone manufacturing ecosystem development (SMED). Cross-impact matrix multiplication applied to the classification analysis is also performed to graphically represent these inhibitors based on their driving power and dependence.

Findings

This study highlights the significance of TISM over conventional interpretive structural modeling (ISM). The inhibitors of SMED are explored by reviewing existing literature and obtaining experts’ opinions. TISM is employed to classify these inhibitors in order to devise a five-level hierarchical structure based on their driving power and dependence.

Practical implications

This study facilitates decision makers to take required actions to mitigate these inhibitors. Inhibitors (with strong driving power), which occupy the bottom level in the TISM hierarchy, require more attention from top management and effective monitoring of these inhibitors can assist in achieving the organizations’ goals.

Originality/value

By unfolding the benefits of TISM over ISM, this study is an endeavor to develop insights toward utilization of TISM for modeling inhibitors of SMED. This paper elaborates step-by-step procedure to perform TISM and hence makes it simple for researchers to understand its concepts. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study that analyzes the inhibitors of SMED by utilizing TISM approach.

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Article
Publication date: 31 December 2020

Vishal Pradhan and Sonali Bhattacharya

Researchers have studied processes of improving road traffic-safety culture by explicitly evaluating the socio-psychological phenomenon of traffic-risk. The implicit…

Abstract

Purpose

Researchers have studied processes of improving road traffic-safety culture by explicitly evaluating the socio-psychological phenomenon of traffic-risk. The implicit traffic-system cues play an important role in explaining urban traffic-culture. This paper aims to ascertain an interpretive framework of the alternative processes of road traffic safety culture is antecedent to promote traffic-safety behaviour in Indian urban context. Subsequently, the authors discussed the reasons for those relationships exists.

Design/methodology/approach

Four experts of the urban traffic-safety domain participated in total interpretive structural modelling (TISM) study by completing an interpretive consensus-driven questionnaire. The drafted interpretive model was evaluated for road users proactive action orientation about the traffic-safety decision.

Findings

The evolved directed graph (digraph) of the culture of urban traffic-safety management was a serial three-mediator model. The model argued: In the presence of traffic-risk cues, people may become apprised to safety goals that initiate traffic-safety action. Consequently, expectancy-value evaluation motivates the continuation of traffic-safety intention that may lead to the implementation of adaptation plan (volitional control), thus habituating road users to traffic-safety management choice.

Practical implications

The modellers of traffic psychology may empirically estimate and test for the quality criteria to ascertain the applicability of the proposed mechanism of urban traffic-safety culture. The decision-makers should note the importance of arousal of emotions regarding traffic-risk, reduce the impact of maladaptive motivations and recursively improve control over safety actions for promoting safety interventions.

Originality/value

The authors attempted to induce an interpretive model of urban traffic-safety culture that might augment extant discussion regarding how and why people behave in an urban traffic system.

Details

International Journal of Innovation Science, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-2223

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2018

Nidhi Sehgal and Saboohi Nasim

The purpose of this paper is to present a qualitative analysis of the significant factors that influence graduate employability in information technology (IT) sector. This…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a qualitative analysis of the significant factors that influence graduate employability in information technology (IT) sector. This is imperative, given the rising “employability gap” confronted by this sector, especially in context of India. The key factors that influence graduate employability have been drawn from the literature. This research paper aims to conduct a preliminary validation of these predictors of employability and analyse the contextual relationship between them through Total Interpretive Structural Modelling (TISM) technique (Nasim, 2011; Sushil, 2012). This technique is an innovative version of Interpretive Structural Modelling proposed by Warfield (1973).

Design/methodology/approach

The antecedents of graduate employability have been identified through qualitative analysis of available literature. Further, TISM has been used to derive a structural model and analyse the contextual relationship among these identified antecedents. The structural model has been derived through in-depth interviews with experts that include senior middle management professionals from reputed IT companies in India. The developed TISM model has been further validated through assessment surveys with a larger set of domain experts to enhance the credibility of the obtained results.

Findings

Based on the data collected from the domain experts, eight elements including employability and its seven antecedents were hierarchically modelled into four levels. While all the seven identified factors were endorsed by the industry experts as the drivers of employability, some of the key factors affecting employability emerged to be technical specialties knowledge, technology management skills and communication skills. Furthermore, the developed model has been subsequently validated and accepted based on the results of the assessment surveys conducted with a larger set of domain experts.

Research limitations/implications

The findings are expected to help the graduates seeking jobs in IT and allied sectors and the higher education institutions (HEIs) offering academic programmes in this domain. These findings would enable the graduates to understand the significance of the different knowledge/skill areas that influence their employability and increase the chances of securing job. Also, the HEIs can comprehend the developed model to understand the demands of the employers, the rationale behind it and further align their course curriculum/teaching methodologies in sync with their expectations. The developed model should be put to empirical validation for greater reliability.

Originality/value

The qualitative analysis of the antecedents of graduate employability using TISM technique is an original methodological contribution to the field. Though the TISM technique has been used in research studies across different sectors like e-government (Nasim, 2011), higher education (Prasad and Suri, 2011) and flexible manufacturing systems (Dubey and Ali, 2014), the application of this technique to employability in IT sector in India is a novel contribution.

Details

Higher Education, Skills and Work-Based Learning, vol. 8 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-3896

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Article
Publication date: 26 July 2021

Vishal Ashok Wankhede and Vinodh S.

The purpose of this paper is to develop a model based on the total interpretive structural modeling (TISM) approach for analysis of factors of additive manufacturing (AM…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a model based on the total interpretive structural modeling (TISM) approach for analysis of factors of additive manufacturing (AM) and industry 4.0 (I4.0) integration.

Design/methodology/approach

AM integration with I4.0 is attributed due to various reasons such as developing complex shapes with good quality, real-time data analysis, augmented reality and decentralized production. To enable the integration of AM and I4.0, a structural model is to be developed. TISM technique is used as a solution methodology. TISM approach supports establishing a contextual relationship-based structural model to recognize the influential factors. Cross-impact matrix multiplication applied to classification (MICMAC) analysis has been used to validate the TISM model and to explore the driving and dependence power of each factor.

Findings

The derived structural model indicated the dominant factors to be focused on. Dominant factors include sensor integration (F9), resolution (F12), small build volumes (F19), internet of things and lead time (F14). MICMAC analysis showed the number of driving, dependent, linkage and autonomous factors as 3, 2, 12 and 3, respectively.

Research limitations/implications

In the present study, 20 factors are considered. In the future, additional factors could be considered based on advancements in I4.0 technologies.

Practical implications

The study has practical relevance as it had been conducted based on inputs from industry practitioners. The industry decision-makers and practitioners may use the developed TISM model to understand the inter-relationship among the factors to take appropriate measures before adoption.

Originality/value

The study on developing a structural model for analysis of factors influencing AM and I4.0 is the original contribution of the authors.

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Article
Publication date: 27 November 2020

Sarita Prasad, Milen Baltov, Neelakanteswara Rao A. and Krishnanand Lanka

The paper aims to analyse the contextual relationship and dependency amongst enablers for lean manufacturing implementation in Bulgarian small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs).

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to analyse the contextual relationship and dependency amongst enablers for lean manufacturing implementation in Bulgarian small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs).

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, the interpretive structural modelling (ISM) technique was used to develop a hierarchical structural model for enablers. Also, the interpretive ranking process (IRP) was used to analyse and rank enablers with reference to performance variables. For the ISM approach, a structural self- integration matrix was developed with the help of experts’ suggestions and opinions. Cross-impact matrix multiplication applied to classification (MICMAC) analysis was used to analyse the relationship amongst enablers. A total of nine experts were chosen for collecting the primary data in which seven experts belong to the industry and two experts were academicians. The dominant relationship amongst the enablers was analysed through IRP modelling.

Findings

A total of 11 enablers were identified for the purpose of this study. The model shows that “leadership and commitment by management”, “human resource management”, “customer relation management”, “supplier relation management” and “information technology system” are the most significant enablers for lean implementation in Bulgarian SMEs as these are positioned at the bottom levels in ISM model. MICMAC analysis shows that five enablers fall in the independent factor, two enablers in linkage factor and four enablers in the dependant factor while there is no enabler in the autonomous factor. ISM and IRP models show that “continuous improvement” is an essential enabler for the successful implementation of lean in Bulgarian SMEs. This study also helps to explain the comparative analysis of ISM and IRP, which indicates that IRP is a more robust modelling approach than ISM, as it incorporates the relationship of enablers with performance variables.

Research limitations/implications

ISM and IRP modelling approaches are based solely on expert opinions and responses. This limitation can be overcome with the help of empirical study.

Practical implications

This study supports the professionals/experts to prioritise and manage enablers at strategic and tactical levels while implementing lean manufacturing practices in Bulgarian SMEs. The models developed in the study will be helpful for practitioners to understand and analyse the interdependence of enablers for lean manufacturing implementation.

Originality/value

This study helps to identify and prioritise enablers that affect lean manufacturing adoption using ISM and IRP approaches. Literature shows that numerous authors have used the ISM approach but the use of IRP approach is limited. The models were developed in the study, totally dependent on data collected from the experts to ensure their real-life validity.

Details

International Journal of Lean Six Sigma, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-4166

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Article
Publication date: 8 March 2013

Alok Kumar Singh and Sushil

The purpose of this paper is to identify and analyze the interactions among different enablers of total quality management (TQM) and its outcome variables in service…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify and analyze the interactions among different enablers of total quality management (TQM) and its outcome variables in service sector specific to Indian domestic airline industry. No study has been done regarding the implementation of TQM in Indian domestic aviation sector. To fill this gap interpretive structural modeling (ISM) and total interpretive structural modeling (TISM) based quality framework model has been developed to understand the mutual interactions among the variables and to identify the driving and dependence power of these variables.

Design/methodology/approach

An ISM and TISM based approach have been used to study and analyze the interactions between identified variables.

Findings

In this research work, a total of 14 variables have been identified based on extensive literature review, brainstorming and experts opining from the Indian airline industry and academia. The result showed that top management commitment, training, continuous improvement, benchmarking, employee involvement and commitment have strong driving power and weak dependence power and are at the lowest level in hierarchy in the ISM and TISM model, while the outcome variables of TQM have low driving power but have high dependence power.

Practical implications

Top management must stress on variables having strong driving power for efficient implementation of TQM. By implementation of TISM model in the Indian airline industry, organizations would become more productive, competitive and would eventually become more profitable.

Originality/value

In this research work, ISM and TISM based quality framework structural model have been proposed for Indian domestic aviation industry which is a new effort in the area of TQM implementation in this sector.

Details

International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, vol. 62 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0401

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 13 February 2019

Zuby Hasan, Sanjay Dhir and Swati Dhir

The purpose of this paper is to examine the elements of asymmetric motives, i.e., initial cross-border joint venture (CBJV) conditions and relative partner characteristics…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the elements of asymmetric motives, i.e., initial cross-border joint venture (CBJV) conditions and relative partner characteristics in emerging nations. The two main objectives of the present research are to identify the elements affecting asymmetric motives in Indian bilateral CBJV and to construct modified total interpretive structural modelling (TISM) for the identified elements of asymmetric motives.

Design/methodology/approach

For the current study, the qualitative technique named total interpretive structural modelling was used. The TISM (Sushil, 2012) is a novel extension of interpretive structural modelling (ISM) where ISM helps to understand the “what” and “how” of research (Warfield, 1974) and TISM answers the third question, i.e., “why” in the form of TISM; further checks for the correctness of TISM are given in Sushil (2016). TISM provides a hierarchical model of the elements selected for study and the interpretation of each element by iterative process and also a digraph that systematically depicts the relationship among various elements. TISM is an innovative modelling technique used by researchers in varied fields (Srivastava and Sushil, 2013; Wasuja et al., 2012; Nasim, 2011; Prasad and Suri, 2011). Steps involved in TISM are shown in Figure 1. It uses reachability matrix and partitioning of elements similar to ISM. Also, along with traditional TISM, the modified TISM process was also used where both paired comparisons and transitivity checks were done simultaneously which helped in minimising the redundant comparisons being made in the original process. Furthermore, for identifying the elements of study, SDC Platinum database was used, which was taken from research papers of major journals namely British Journal of Management, Administrative Science Quarterly, Strategic Management Journal, Management Science, Academy of Management Journal and Organization Science (Schilling, 2009). The database included all joint ventures that were formed in India, having India as one of the partner firms during fiscal year April 2000 and March 2010. From these, 361 CBJVs and 76 domestic joint ventures were identified. Although 54 CBJVs were excluded from these, a total number of 307 CBJVs were studied in the current research. Among these 307 CBJVs, 201 were from super-advanced nations (G7), 40 CBJVs from developing nations and 66 CBJVs from other developed nations. As 65 per cent of the CBJVs came from G7 nations (France, Italy, Japan, Canada, Germany, USA and UK), in the current study, we tried to examine Indian CBJVs with G7 partners only for a period of ten years as mentioned above.

Findings

The results of the study indicate that asymmetric motives are directly affected by critical activity alignment and interdependency. Thus, we can conclude that critical activity alignment of partners in CBJV is an antecedent of CBJV motive and thereby minimises the number of asymmetric motives. Bottom level variables such as culture difference and relative capital structure are considered as strong drivers of asymmetric motives. Diversification, resource heterogeneity and inter-partner conflict are middle level elements. Effect of these elements on asymmetric motives can only be improved and enhanced when improvement in bottom level variables is found. It has been believed that as the relative capital structure among firm increases, CBJVs’ asymmetric motives also increase, the reason being that as the difference in capital structure occurs, gradual change in bargaining power will also occur.

Originality/value

TISM used in the present study provides valuable insights into the interrelationship between identified elements through a systematic framework. The methodology of TISM used has its implications for researchers, academicians as well for practitioners. Further study also examines driver-dependent relationship among elements of interest, i.e., relative partner characteristics and initial CBJV conditions by using MICMAC analysis, which can be viewed as a significant step in research related to bilateral CBJV.

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Article
Publication date: 8 April 2014

Neetu Yadav and

The purpose of this paper is to develop a total interpretive structural modelling (TSIM) of strategic factors related to performance management in the context of Indian…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a total interpretive structural modelling (TSIM) of strategic factors related to performance management in the context of Indian Telecom Service Providers taking dual perspectives in account, i.e. enterprise perspective and subscribers’ perspective.

Design/methodology/approach

An evolving performance management framework, i.e. flexible strategy game-card has been taken as the basis to develop the strategic performance management model, where strategic factors have been identified through thematic content analysis and the hierarchical structure of factors has been developed using TISM.

Findings

Two total interpretive structural models have been developed, one for enterprise-related strategic factors, and another for subscriber-related strategic factors. These hierarchical structures portray the leading and lagging factors of performance, and showcase that financial performance indicators are the lagging indicators.

Research limitations/implications

This study has implications for both practitioners and academics. For practitioners, it provides an indicative list of strategic factors relevant for Indian telecom companies, which drive better financial results as well as a list of strategic factors that subscribers consider while assessing the performance of telecom operators. For academics, the methodology used provides a mechanism to conduct an exploratory study by identifying the variables of interest and highlighting their interactions through hierarchical structures.

Originality/value

The proposed strategic performance management models developed through qualitative modelling technique is a new effort altogether in the context of Indian telecom operators’. Capturing subscribers’ perspective of firm's performance is neglected in existing performance management literature, and this study makes a contribution in this regard.

Details

International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, vol. 63 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0401

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Article
Publication date: 16 July 2019

Rohit Agrawal and Vinodh S.

The purpose of this study is to develop a structural model based on total interpretive structural modelling (TISM) approach for analysis of factors influencing sustainable…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to develop a structural model based on total interpretive structural modelling (TISM) approach for analysis of factors influencing sustainable additive manufacturing (AM).

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 20 factors influencing sustainable AM are identified on the basis of literature review. Appropriate inputs from experts are obtained and TISM model is developed. Also, cross-impact Matrix multiplication applied to classification (MICMAC) analysis is carried out to categorize the factors.

Findings

Based on TISM model, “Flexibility in manufacturing”, “Time to develop new product” and “Local availability of technology” are found to be the dominant factors. MICMAC analysis indicates that 10 factors belong to driving and 10 factors belong to dependent category.

Research limitations/implications

In the present study, 20 factors have been considered. In future, additional factors can be considered to deal with technological advancements.

Practical implications

The conduct of the study will enable AM experts to systematically analyze the factors influencing sustainable AM.

Originality/value

The development of structural model for analysis of factors influencing sustainable AM manufacturing is the original contribution of authors.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 25 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Article
Publication date: 20 August 2021

Aqueeb Sohail Shaik and Sanjay Dhir

The purpose of this study is to explain the interrelationships between the elements of strategic thinking, technological change and strategic risks. The main objective of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to explain the interrelationships between the elements of strategic thinking, technological change and strategic risks. The main objective of this research is to identify the hierarchy for the elements of thinking, technological change and strategic risk and also to identify the driving powers of these elements.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology used in this study is modified total interpretive structural modelling and MICMAC analysis which gives the interrelationships and also the driving powers of the elements by analysing the relationships between the elements from the existing literature. This method helps us in answering/understanding the “what”, “how” and “why” of the research. Modified total Interpretive structural modeling is considered in this study, which helps in doing both the paired comparisons and transitivity checks simultaneously. A digraph is constructed at the end of the analysis, which shows the links between the elements, and a driver dependence matrix is constructed, which shows the driving powers.

Findings

This study gives an understanding of the role of the elements, the relationships between them and the hierarchy of addressing these elements, and also the driving and dependence power. Findings of this research give us an understanding of how strategic thinking/technological change/strategic drives the performance of the firm.

Research limitations/implications

This study is conducted with the help of existing literature; this can be further extended by considering the expert opinion.

Practical implications

The model explains the direct and transitive links of the elements and the strength of the relation between them, which helps the researchers and the practitioners to understand the driving power and importance of these constructs. It also helps us to understand the role of these elements and, if implemented in an organisation, which elements need to be prioritised for enhancing the performance of the firm.

Originality/value

Research done in the past has individually analysed the elements effecting strategic thinking; this study identifies the relationships between the elements of all three constructs and helps in understanding the levels of hierarchy.

Details

Journal of Indian Business Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-4195

Keywords

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