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Article
Publication date: 28 October 2021

Cindy Lee, Hyejin Bang, Doyeon Won and Lei Chen

This study investigated the influence of residents' perceived benefits and costs of hosting an international sporting event (i.e. 2019 Military World Games) on their attitudes and…

Abstract

Purpose

This study investigated the influence of residents' perceived benefits and costs of hosting an international sporting event (i.e. 2019 Military World Games) on their attitudes and support toward the event.

Design/methodology/approach

Using social exchange theory, this study developed a model taking into consideration both benefits and costs in respondents' evaluations of hosting an event, which further influenced their attitude and support. A structural equation model was used to test the developed model with 461 responses from the 2019 Military World Games.

Findings

The results showed that the model has an acceptable fit to the data and supported all three hypotheses: Hypothesis 1 (Individuals' perceived benefits of hosting an event will positively influence their attitude toward the event), Hypothesis 2 (Individuals' perceived costs of hosting an event will negatively influence their attitude toward the event) and Hypothesis 3 (Individuals' attitude toward an event will influence their support for the event).

Originality/value

The developed model intended to provide a more comprehensive picture of individuals' evaluation of hosting an international sporting event by including both benefits and costs of hosting the event. As the support of residents becomes more important in successfully hosting an event, this model helps to understand what factors influence residents' support.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 2021

Doyeon Won, Weisheng Chiu, Hyejin Bang and Gonzalo A. Bravo

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of perceived organizational support (POS) on the relationships between volunteer job satisfaction, attitude toward…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of perceived organizational support (POS) on the relationships between volunteer job satisfaction, attitude toward volunteering and continuance intention. Also, this study investigated the moderating role of volunteer age in the relationships between study variables.

Design/methodology/approach

Participants were recruited from volunteers in the Rio 2016 Olympic Games and/or the Rio 2016 Paralympic Games (N = 4,824). Data were primarily analyzed using the partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) and multigroup analysis (PLS-MGA).

Findings

Results of the PLS-SEM indicated that, firstly, POS had a positive and significant effect on continuance intention, attitude and job satisfaction. Moreover, the influence of job satisfaction on attitude was statistically significant. Paths from attitude and job satisfaction to continuance intention were statistically and positively significant. As a next step, PLS-MGA was conducted using basic bootstrapping to test the age difference in the research model. Significant differences were found in the paths from POS to attitude and from satisfaction to continuance intention. More specifically, the influence of POS on attitude was significantly stronger for the younger group. On the other hand, the impact of satisfaction on continuance intention was significantly stronger for the older group.

Originality/value

The large sample size of this study offered more persuasive empirical evidence on the role of POS in volunteers' perception and behavior. The findings suggest the importance of the event organizer's support for volunteer outcomes and clear communication with volunteers on their needs and wants.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 September 2021

Tae Hyun Baek, Seeun Kim, Sukki Yoon, Yung Kyun Choi, Dongwon Choi and Hyejin Bang

The authors aim to examine how emojis interact with assertiveness in social media posts to encourage social media engagement and cooperation in environmental campaigns.

1578

Abstract

Purpose

The authors aim to examine how emojis interact with assertiveness in social media posts to encourage social media engagement and cooperation in environmental campaigns.

Design/methodology/approach

Two experiments were used to test three hypotheses.

Findings

Study 1 shows that when assertive Twitter messages include the smiley-face emoji, study participants indicate stronger social media engagement and behavioral intentions to recycle used jeans. In Study 2, participants indicate stronger social media engagement and behavioral intentions to sign a petition for reducing plastic pollution when (non) assertive Facebook messages (do not) include emojis.

Originality/value

The current research advances our understanding about how emojis interact with assertive and nonassertive message tonality in environmental social media campaigns. This research also provides new insights showing that positive emotion is the psychological mechanism underlying matching effects of emoji and message assertiveness.

Details

Internet Research, vol. 32 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 December 2023

Galen Trail, Hyejin Bang and Windy Dees

The purpose of this study was to compare four different consumer pathway models based on identity theory, attitude/loyalty theory, lifestyle theory and hierarchy of effects…

263

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to compare four different consumer pathway models based on identity theory, attitude/loyalty theory, lifestyle theory and hierarchy of effects theory, each with associated instruments measuring connection to the team.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors did a two-study analysis, first collecting data from people aware of an NFL team (N = 218) and then an MLS team (N = 209) to determine which connection item performed better.

Findings

The authors found that the Consumer Pathway for Sport Fandom based on the hierarchy of effects theory and its associated interest measurement item performed better than the other three frameworks and items. The Interest item shared the most variance with games attended, games intending to attend, games watched via media and games intending to watch via media.

Originality/value

The Consumer Pathway for Sport Fandom represents the entire consumer spectrum from non-aware consumers all the way up to die-hard sports fans. This pathway will allow sport marketers to track their consumers from initial awareness of the product or service all the way through the brand relationship to ultimate loyalty.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 25 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 February 2021

Hyejin Bang, Dongwon Choi, Sukki Yoon, Tae Hyun Baek and Yeonshin Kim

Prosocial advertisers widely use assertive messages to encourage prosocial attitudes and behaviors, but ironically, assertive messages may cause reactance. By applying cultural…

1036

Abstract

Purpose

Prosocial advertisers widely use assertive messages to encourage prosocial attitudes and behaviors, but ironically, assertive messages may cause reactance. By applying cultural theories and the reciprocity principle, this study aims to observe whether consumers’ responses to assertive messages hold across culturally different audiences (Americans vs South Koreans) and different consumption situations (price discount vs no discount).

Design/methodology/approach

American and Korean participants take part in three experimental studies examining the interactions of nationality, price discounts and assertive messaging for influencing consumer responses, first to a prosocial ad encouraging recycling (Study 1), the second for a campaign requesting donations for disadvantaged children (Study 2) and the third to prosocial messages encouraging water conservation (Study 3).

Findings

The three experiments strongly support the moderating role of price discounts and cultural backgrounds in the persuasiveness of assertive prosocial messages. American consumers generally dislike assertive messages, but feel reciprocal obligations if marketers include price discounts, whereas South Korean consumers accept both assertive and nonassertive messages without resistance, and discounts have no effects on persuasion.

Research limitations/implications

The findings make two key contributions to the literature and to prosocial advertising practices. First, although many corporations have adopted philanthropic strategies, few researchers have examined how specific consumption contexts determine the effectiveness of prosocial persuasion. The findings show how price discounts and message framing potentially alter the effectiveness of prosocial messages across Eastern and Western cultures. Second, assertive language evokes reactance, but the findings suggest that reactive responses to prosocial advertising are culture-specific.

Practical implications

International nonprofit organizations and brands using philanthropic strategies might use the guidelines of this study for tailoring strategic, practical prosocial messages that will appeal to consumers from diverse cultural backgrounds. In particular, pro-environmental and charity campaigns targeting North American or Western European populations may consider bundling discounts into promotions to evoke reciprocity.

Originality/value

Findings provide novel implications for social marketers regarding on how to couple message assertiveness and price discounts to maximize the success of prosocial messages in different cultures.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 55 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 April 2015

Hyejin Bang

The purpose of this paper is to examine the moderating role of Age in the relationships between leader-member exchange dimensions (Affect, Loyalty, Contribution, and Professional…

3852

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the moderating role of Age in the relationships between leader-member exchange dimensions (Affect, Loyalty, Contribution, and Professional Respect) and Job Satisfaction and between Job Satisfaction and Intention to Stay among volunteers in nonprofit sport organizations.

Design/methodology/approach

A series of moderated hierarchical multiple regression analyses was conducted using the survey responses of 214 volunteers in 22 nonprofit sport organizations.

Findings

The results indicated that Age moderated the relationship between Professional Respect and Job Satisfaction such that it was stronger for younger volunteers, and Job Satisfaction had a greater positive influence on Intention to Stay for older rather than younger volunteers.

Originality/value

These findings provide valuable insights into how age may be an important factor influencing volunteers’ job satisfaction and intention to continue to volunteer. Implications for practitioners and future research are also discussed.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 36 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 April 2014

Hyejin Bang, Michael A. Odio and Thomas Reio

The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to examine the influences of theory of planned behavior (TPB) constructs (i.e. attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral…

3971

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to examine the influences of theory of planned behavior (TPB) constructs (i.e. attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control (PBC)) on individuals’ volunteer intention for future sporting events, and second, to investigate the moderating effects of brand reputation and moral obligation in the relationships between TPB constructs and volunteer intention.

Design/methodology/approach

The sample consisted of 107 volunteers at the 2009 NCAA Men's Basketball Tournament. Moderated hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used to test the hypothesized relationships of the model.

Findings

Subjective norm and PBC were significantly associated with volunteer intention. Brand reputation was found to be a moderator in the relationships between attitude and volunteer intention and between subjective norm and volunteer intention, and moral obligation moderated the relationship between PBC and volunteer intention.

Practical implications

Sporting events/volunteer managers must understand individuals’ decision-making process with respect to volunteering at sporting events and important insights into new strategies to increase volunteer recruitment, retention, and reliability.

Social implications

Because sporting event managers face considerable obstacles in recruiting and retaining a volunteer workforce, an enhanced understanding of volunteering may highlight new ways to remove obstacles to being a volunteer to the benefit of individuals and society.

Originality/value

This paper emphasizes the importance of brand reputation and moral obligation as moderators of the effects of the TPB constructs on volunteer intention in the context of sporting events.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 33 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 2013

Hyejin Bang, Stephen Ross and Thomas G. Reio

The purpose of this paper is to examine the mediating role of job satisfaction in the relationship between volunteers’ motivation and affective commitment in non‐profit sport…

14636

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the mediating role of job satisfaction in the relationship between volunteers’ motivation and affective commitment in non‐profit sport organizations.

Design/methodology/approach

A mail survey was conducted with a sample of 214 individuals who volunteered at 22 non‐profit sport organizations in a Midwestern state of the USA.

Findings

Results from structural equation modeling analysis supported the partial mediation role of job satisfaction. The values factor of volunteers’ motivation had a significant direct impact on affective commitment, and job satisfaction partially mediated the relationship between values and affective commitment.

Research limitations/implications

Although volunteer motivation influences the level of organizational commitment, volunteers who are motivated by their values would be more satisfied with their volunteer experience and consequently be more committed to the non‐profit sport organization.

Originality/value

Little research has specifically addressed volunteer commitment and its links to volunteer motivation and job satisfaction in the context of non‐profit sport organizations. Therefore, the study contributes to the understanding of volunteers’ motivation and how it influences commitment toward non‐profit sport organizations.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 32 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 July 2013

Luke L. Mao and James J. Zhang

Sponsorship has undeniably become one of the fastest growing global marketing practices. Business corporations seek sponsorship opportunities to actualize their overall…

2525

Abstract

Purpose

Sponsorship has undeniably become one of the fastest growing global marketing practices. Business corporations seek sponsorship opportunities to actualize their overall organizational objectives, marketing goals, and promotional strategies, particularly to enhance brand equity. This study aimed to examine the influence of consumers’ involvement, emotions, and attitude toward Beijing Olympic Games on the branding effects of the event.

Design/methodology/approach

Participants (N=556) were university students in China who had watched at least some coverage of Beijing Olympic Games. Two duplicate versions of a questionnaire were formulated and respondents were randomly selected to evaluate perceived branding effects of Beijing Olympic Games to be sponsored by two brands – Li‐Ning and Nongfu Spring.

Findings

An analysis of the structural model, relating brand loyalty, perceived quality, and brand association/awareness to respondent's involvement, emotional responses, and attitude toward the event, revealed that the proposed model fit the data well (CFI=0.96, TLI=0.98, RMSEA=0.048, WRMR=0.93). The findings revealed that branding effects were positively associated with consumer's attitude toward the sponsored event, which was partially determined by consumer's involvement and emotions.

Originality/value

This study examined the relationships among respondent's affective and cognitive involvement, negative and positive emotional responses, and attitude toward the Beijing Olympic Games on the perceived branding effects of event sponsorship.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 3 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

Keywords

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