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1 – 10 of over 1000
Article
Publication date: 3 May 2013

Liang Yan‐ping, Yu Hong‐hao and Bian Xu

The purpose of this paper is to introduce an analytic method to calculate the slot leakage reactance of stator bar strands in alternative current machines whose stator…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to introduce an analytic method to calculate the slot leakage reactance of stator bar strands in alternative current machines whose stator windings have multiple bars per layer and using deficient transposition.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the analysis of deficient transposition, the calculation model of mutual slot leakage reactance between any two strands in one bar is established. The subsection integral method is presented to calculate the slot leakage reactance and analytic function is listed. A pump motor used in nuclear power is taken as an example, and the slot self leakage reactance of any strand in its top layer winding and the slot mutual leakage reactance between one strand and other strands in the same bar are calculated depending on the method described above. The slot leakage reactance of all strands in the top layer winding is calculated when different transposition angles are applied in stator bars.

Findings

The results show that subsection integral method is effective in calculating the slot leakage reactance of stator bar strands of deficient transposition. The slot leakage reactance distribution of all strands is obtained. The transposition angle has a great impact on the slot leakage reactance distribution of stator bar strands.

Originality/value

This paper presents an available method to calculate the slot leakage reactance of any strands in alternative current machine whose stator windings have multiple bars per layer and using deficient transposition, and discusses the impact of transposition angle on the slot leakage reactance. The conclusion can lay the foundation of the effective calculation of circulating current losses in stator bars with deficient transposition.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 32 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 3 May 2022

Michela Matarazzo and Adamantios Diamantopoulos

The purpose of the study is to highlight the relevance of reactance theory for modeling consumer responses to COVID restrictions. The study also aims to critically…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the study is to highlight the relevance of reactance theory for modeling consumer responses to COVID restrictions. The study also aims to critically evaluate the appropriateness of the most established reactance model (the intertwined model) for studying reactance specifically in relation to freedom threats arising from measures aimed at combatting the spread of the pandemic.

Design/methodology/approach

Following a conceptual analysis of the intertwined model of reactance, structural equation modeling is applied to Rain's (2013) meta-analytic data to compare the model to alternative model specifications.

Findings

The analysis reveals both conceptual and statistical shortcomings of the intertwined model of reactance in its current/traditional form. It also draws attention to other model specifications that provide just as good statistical fit and offer promising alternative ways of modeling reactance in a COVID context.

Originality/value

The study is the first attempt to explicitly discuss conceptual and statistical problems associated with the most widely accepted model of reactance, illustrate these issues with specific reference to consumer reactions to COVID restrictions, identify alternative promising model specifications and suggest a respecification of the intertwined model.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 April 2022

Yasir Jamal, Tahir Islam and Zubair Ali Shahid

This study explores the underlying mechanism of psychological reactance that leads to online shopping hate in social commerce. Based on self-congruity and psychological…

Abstract

Purpose

This study explores the underlying mechanism of psychological reactance that leads to online shopping hate in social commerce. Based on self-congruity and psychological reactance theory, this study examines the antecedents (symbolic, functional and emotional incongruence) and consequences (online shopping hate) of psychological reactance among online users toward online shopping. Moreover, this study takes trustworthiness as a moderator in the relationship between attitude ambivalence and psychological reactance.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from online users.

Findings

The results show that symbolic-incongruence and functional-incongruence are responsible for attitude ambivalence, resulting in high psychological reactance. In addition, the study’s findings reveal that psychological reactance is positively linked with online shopping hate. This study extends and contributes to the self-congruence theory and empirically examines the influence of emotional incongruence. The moderating results reveal that trustworthiness moderated the relationship between attitude ambivalence and psychological reactance. The study findings are helpful for marketing managers to develop social commerce strategies.

Research limitations/implications

Because of the chosen research approach, the research results may lack generalizability. Therefore, researchers are encouraged to test the proposed propositions further.

Practical implications

The study findings are helpful for marketing managers to develop social commerce strategies.

Originality/value

This study explains the underlying mechanism of brand hate through psychological reactance.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 January 2022

Kobby Mensah, Nnamdi O. Madichie, Gilbert Kofi Mensah and Gideon Awini

The purpose of this study is to establish, drawing upon the indirect effects of customer reactance from an emerging economy perspective, the marketing implications of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to establish, drawing upon the indirect effects of customer reactance from an emerging economy perspective, the marketing implications of policy induced Mergers and Acquisitions (M&A) in Financial Services.

Design/methodology/approach

The study employed a quantitative research approach, relying on data from 517 customers of M&A banks in Ghana. Purposive sampling technique was used in selecting respondents for the study. Hypotheses were tested using a structural equation modelling.

Findings

A positive and significant relationship between immersive marketing communication and consumer intention is revealed in the study. The presence of consumer reactance highly influenced the relationship. As a public policy tool, forced mergers and acquisitions was found to increase customer reactance. However, when customers are frequently engaged with relevant and consistent marketing communications through appropriate channels, such reactance would only be partial.

Research limitations/implications

Although some of the information were collected, they were not the main focus of our analysis. We acknowledge, from the sample demographics perspective, the study did not consider certain other confounding factors that could influence customers' decisions to remain or switch such as customers' level of banking, type of account, income level, banking experiences in relation to service fees, online banking etc., as these could also potentially influence customers' reactance. Perhaps these may have to be considered in future studies.

Social implications

When timely and relevant marketing communications are targeted at the customers who are directly impacted by the M&A process, they would experience reactance, but only partially. This has a range of marketing implications for policy-induced M&A and its impact on consumer intention, reactance and attitudes towards the new entity.

Originality/value

The marketing of financial services literature has been silent on the implications of M&A from a policy induced perspective. This study, therefore, contributes to theory by highlighting that the “destruction” of brand value of the affected firms is relatively high in a policy induced M&A and thus increases the level of customer reactance. This is because a regulator enforced M&A, as public policy, usually generates high public interest and public discourse, leading to a heightened customer reactance. However, when immersive marketing communications are targeted at the customers directly impacted by the M&A, they would experience reactance, but only partially.

Details

International Journal of Bank Marketing, vol. 40 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-2323

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 November 2021

Xiaoling Zhang

This study aimed to verify the impact of consumers' self-congruity on brand loyalty behavior when stock-out happens; the role of the psychological reactance theory as a…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aimed to verify the impact of consumers' self-congruity on brand loyalty behavior when stock-out happens; the role of the psychological reactance theory as a mediator was assessed.

Design/methodology/approach

Data collection was carried out in the form of a questionnaire survey. Data from 417 respondents were analyzed, and structural equation modeling was applied to test the hypotheses.

Findings

The findings revealed the positive significant impact of consumers' self-congruity on their brand loyalty behavior, and the mediating effect of psychological reactance between self-congruity and consumers' brand loyalty behavior.

Practical implications

This study offers retailers/brand owners a deeper understanding of the remedy strategy needed to reduce the sales loss in their firms when stock-out happens.

Originality/value

This study provides a theoretical and empirical test on the influence of consumers' self-congruity on their brand loyalty behavior, bringing consumers' psychological reactance into the research as a mediating factor, thereby enriching the existing research on consumers' out-of-stock reactions.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 September 2020

Fanny Fong Yee Chan and Ben Lowe

This study aims to extend the literature on marketing communications by exploring the effect of placing products in humorous scenes. It aims to ascertain the prevalence of…

1012

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to extend the literature on marketing communications by exploring the effect of placing products in humorous scenes. It aims to ascertain the prevalence of placement scenes associated with humor in television programs and the effect of humor on brand persuasiveness.

Design/methodology/approach

The study used a two-phase research process. A content analysis of prime-time television programing was conducted to map the relative prevalence of brands placed in humorous contexts and for the selection of research stimuli. This was followed by a large-scale experimental study of 1,100 television viewers in Hong Kong with real stimuli that had been digitally manipulated.

Findings

The study found that a humorous context did enhance recall of placed brands but its effect on brand attitudes was mediated by audience involvement in the viewing and moderated by psychological trait reactance. Interestingly, and in contrast to conventional advertising, placing brands in a humorous context led to lower involvement in the viewing, which, in turn, resulted in lower brand attitudes. Individuals with low trait reactance were more positive toward brands placed in a non-humorous context than individuals with high trait reactance while individuals with high trait reactance were more positive toward brands placed in a humorous context, though the difference was less prominent.

Research limitations/implications

The findings help to illustrate when and how a humorous context contributes to the recall of and attitudes toward placed brands.

Practical implications

The results also facilitate marketers and program producers to choose the best placement context and design more effective placement strategies.

Originality/value

This research is the first to empirically examine the effect of a humorous context on the unaided recall of and attitudes toward brands placed in television programs.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 55 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 May 2021

Xiaohan Hu and Kevin Wise

The playable ad is a new type of digital advertising that combines interactivity with gamification. Guided by psychological reactance theory, this study aims to explore…

Abstract

Purpose

The playable ad is a new type of digital advertising that combines interactivity with gamification. Guided by psychological reactance theory, this study aims to explore the psychological processes and effects of playable ads on consumers’ perceived control and product attitudes.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper conducted two experiments to examine the relationship between playable ads, perceived control and product attitude. This paper also applied psychological reactance theory and investigated whether perceived control triggered by the interactive features of playable ads influenced psychological reactance toward them.

Findings

Findings from two experiments show that playable ads, compared to video ads, increased consumers’ perceived control, which, in turn, led to more positive attitudes toward the advertised products (Studies 1 and 2). This study also supports psychological reactance theory by revealing that increased perceived control diminished perceived freedom threat and subsequently alleviated consumers’ psychological reactance toward advertising messages (Study 2).

Originality/value

This study sheds light on the effectiveness of a new type of ad-game integration – playable ads. Different from prior research in gamification of advertising, this paper examined the effectiveness of playable ads in an information processing context in which the ads were not the primary task to focus on. This study also extends psychological reactance theory in the context of interactive marketing by exploring the effect of perceived control afforded by digital message features in mitigating reactance.

Details

Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7122

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 August 2007

Mark Wendlandt and Ulf Schrader

Although relationship marketing has developed into the prevailing marketing paradigm, it frequently encounters resistance from the demand side. Both management…

9425

Abstract

Purpose

Although relationship marketing has developed into the prevailing marketing paradigm, it frequently encounters resistance from the demand side. Both management practitioners and academics indicate that at least some consumers show reactance against loyalty programs, i.e. against tactical instruments of relationship marketing. Nevertheless, relationship marketing has widely neglected reactance theory. This paper attempts to close this gap.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the fundamental principles of loyalty programs and reactance theory the paper presents a set of hypotheses on the determinants and effects of situational consumer reactance against loyalty programs. It tests these hypotheses on the basis of 388 face‐to‐face interviews with bookstore customers. These interviews include a between‐subject manipulation on the reactance effect of economic, social‐psychological, and contractual bonding potentials. To test the proposed hypotheses, the paper applies structural equation modeling with PLS.

Findings

As expected, contractual bonds provoked reactance effects, while social‐psychological bonds neither increased reactance, nor the perceived utility of the program. Economic bonds raised perceived utility up to a certain threshold level, from which the reactance effect dominated thereafter.

Practical implications

As a consequence, a cautious and limited application of customer loyalty programs is advisable. The developed consumer reactance scale can help managers to evaluate the effects of planned or implemented customer retention measures.

Originality/value

This is the first attempt to investigate situational reactance in a loyalty program setting.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 24 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 May 2013

Dmitriy A. Nesterkin

The purpose of this paper is to focus on the resistance to change in the organizational contexts where a soon‐to‐be‐implemented change initiative infringes upon freedoms…

6287

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to focus on the resistance to change in the organizational contexts where a soon‐to‐be‐implemented change initiative infringes upon freedoms of the employees. Specifically, the role of affect was explored within the framework of psychological reactance theory, delineating salience of affect as a driver of the intention to restore one's threatened freedoms. Additionally, the roles that emotional intelligence and interpersonal justice play in lowering the activation of reactance were examined.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a conceptual paper that connects self‐determination, reactance, organizational change, emotional intelligence and justice literatures to explain how psychological reactance may be energized and de‐energized in the context of on‐going organizational change.

Findings

The study suggests that organizational change is likely to undermine employees' freedoms, which will arouse negative affective states. The latter are likely to energize reactance – a motivational state directed to restore the threatened freedoms. Negative affect and reactance may be mitigated by implementing and sustaining socially supportive and interpersonally just organizational environment, led by an emotionally intelligent management staff.

Originality/value

This work is the first that investigates how and under what circumstances organizational change is likely to activate employees' psychological reactance. Furthermore, the study presents two new methods that may be used by managers to mitigate change‐driven reactance and the negative affect that energizes it.

Details

Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. 26 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0953-4814

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 May 2015

Hsuan-Hsuan Ku and Ko-Hsin Hsu

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how customers respond to a service provider’s invitation to share responsibility for the experience of an “impersonal” service…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how customers respond to a service provider’s invitation to share responsibility for the experience of an “impersonal” service that is not customized but available to all customers on an equal footing; specifically to assess the extent to which the tendency to psychological reactance moderates their responses.

Design/methodology/approach

Four studies investigate the effects of such invitations on perceptions of shared responsibility, the mechanism underlying that process, the effect of trait reactance on susceptibility to an invitation, and the extent to which a predisposition to reactance moderates the effect of an invitation on willingness to share blame for service failure.

Findings

Service customers are more likely to feel a sense of shared responsibility and less likely to experience reactance in response to a “reciprocal” invitation to participate in “co-creation” of the experience than to a more “unilateral” invitation. That heightened perception of shared responsibility was restricted to low-reactance individuals, who were also more willing to share the blame for service failure in response to a unilateral invitation and even more so when it was reciprocal. The willingness of high-reactance individuals was unaffected by the type of invitation.

Originality/value

Whereas the relevant literature has focussed mainly on person-to-person service transactions, the studies reported here show how customers may be converted into active partners in an “impersonal” service encounter.

Details

Journal of Service Theory and Practice, vol. 25 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2055-6225

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 1000