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Article
Publication date: 28 February 2020

John Roufagalas and Alexei G. Orlov

The purpose of the paper is twofold: to construct and analyze a novel endogenous growth model, in which unbounded growth is possible without the need to assume increasing…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the paper is twofold: to construct and analyze a novel endogenous growth model, in which unbounded growth is possible without the need to assume increasing returns to scale, and to use the model to estimate the long-run (or dynamic) costs of recessions.

Design/methodology/approach

In the proposed model, endogenous technology and human capital accumulation serve as the “twin engines of growth.” Simulations are used to derive growth rates consistent with long-term experience of developed countries, to understand better the differences between balanced growth and unbounded growth and to provide an estimate of the dynamic costs of capacity utilization shocks that produce business cycle-like behavior.

Findings

Conservative calculations show that the costs of the capacity shocks can be large – about 1.5 percent of the present value of output over a 100-period horizon. The theoretical model also suggests that differences in the technology production and human capital accumulation functions, possibly due to differing institutions, may help explain diverse growth experiences.

Originality/value

The paper, for first time, combines two strands of the economic growth theory – endogenous technology and endogenous human capital production – into a single model. It uses the implications of the model to argue, through simulations, that the benefits of counter-cyclical policies are potentially large in the long run.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 47 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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Article
Publication date: 18 April 2008

Goncalo Monteiro and Stephen J. Turnovsky

Recent research supports the role of productive government spending as an important determinant of economic growth. Previous analyses have focused on the separate effects…

Abstract

Purpose

Recent research supports the role of productive government spending as an important determinant of economic growth. Previous analyses have focused on the separate effects of public investment in infrastructure and on investment in education. This paper aims to introduce both types of public investment simultaneously, enabling the authors to address the trade‐offs that resource constraints may impose on their choice.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors employ a two‐sector endogenous growth model, with physical and human capital. Physical capital is produced in the final output sector, using human capital, physical capital, and government spending on infrastructure. Human capital is produced in the education sector using human capital, physical capital, and government spending on public education. The introduction of productive government spending in both sectors yields an important structural difference from the traditional two‐sector growth models in that the relative price of human to physical capital dynamics does not evolve independently of the quantity dynamics.

Findings

The model yields both a long‐run growth‐maximizing and welfare‐maximizing expenditure rate and allocation of expenditure on productive capital. The welfare‐maximizing rate of expenditure is less than the growth‐maximizing rate, with the opposite being the case with regard to their allocation. Moreover, the growth‐maximizing value of the expenditure rate is independent of the composition of government spending, and vice versa. Because of the complexity of the model, the analysis of its dynamics requires the use of numerical simulations the specific shocks analyzed being productivity increases. During the transition, the growth rates of the two forms of capital approach their common equilibrium from opposite directions, this depending upon both the sector in which the shock occurs and the relative sectoral capital intensities.

Research limitations/implications

These findings confirm that the form in which the government carries out its productive expenditures is important. The authors have retained the simpler, but widely employed, assumption that government expenditure influences private productivity as a flow. But given the importance of public investment suggests that extending this analysis to focus on public capital would be useful.

Originality/value

Two‐sector models of economic growth have proven to be a powerful tool for analyzing a wide range of issues in economic growth. The originality of this paper is to consider the relative impact of government spending on infrastructure and government spending on human capital and the trade‐offs that they entail, both in the long run and over time.

Details

Indian Growth and Development Review, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8254

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Article
Publication date: 15 August 2016

Manoj Chandra Bayon, Esteban Lafuente and Yancy Vaillant

The purpose of this paper is to examine the direct and interaction effect of individuals’ human capital input and human capital output in the form of entrepreneurial…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the direct and interaction effect of individuals’ human capital input and human capital output in the form of entrepreneurial self-confidence on the decision to exploit innovative opportunities.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a strategic entrepreneurship perspective, the authors suggest that when individuals with high human capital decide to exploit opportunities they do so by thinking and acting strategically. Strategic action(s) involves pursuing competitive advantages that enable a new venture to get a foothold in the market. The authors argue that such competitive advantages arise from the exploitation of innovative opportunities and individuals with high human capital are more likely to exploit innovative opportunities when they develop entrepreneurial self-confidence. The empirical analysis is based on a random sample of individuals from the adult population who are in the process of creating a new venture.

Findings

The results suggest that although human capital inputs and human capital output in the form of entrepreneurial self-confidence are significant factors in influencing the decision to exploit innovative opportunities, human capital inputs interact in different ways with human capital output in influencing this decision.

Research limitations/implications

The main limitation of the authors’ study is the use of single item measures as indicators of innovative opportunity and human capital output (entrepreneurial self-confidence).

Practical implications

From a macro-perspective, the main implication of the study is that it is possible to assess the quality of entrepreneurship in an economy through individuals’ human capital and the proportion of innovative opportunities in the economy. Moreover, because not all types of human capital inputs influences the exploitation of innovative opportunities, policy makers can be selective in their policy interventions in spawning quality entrepreneurship in their economy.

Originality/value

Based on population-level data the authors’ study provides empirical evidence of the nature of entrepreneurial decisions being at the earliest phases of the entrepreneurial process. The study shows the importance of founders’ human capital inputs and outputs in influencing the quality of entrepreneurship in an economy. Moreover, the study extends the understanding the individual-opportunity nexus in promoting innovative entrepreneurship in an economy.

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Article
Publication date: 3 May 2016

Harris Neeliah and Boopen Seetanah

Real gross domestic product (GDP) growth for Mauritius has averaged more than 5 per cent since 1970 and GDP per capita has increased more than tenfold between 1970 and…

Abstract

Purpose

Real gross domestic product (GDP) growth for Mauritius has averaged more than 5 per cent since 1970 and GDP per capita has increased more than tenfold between 1970 and 2012, from less than $500 to more than $9,000. It has often been reported that human capital, along with other growth enablers, has played an important role in this development. The purpose of this paper is to study this nexus.

Design/methodology/approach

A human capital augmented Cobb-Douglas production function is used, where output is also a function of capital and labour. One of the innovations of the present paper is the use of a composite index to proxy human capital. The authors investigate the impact of human capital on economic growth in a dynamic vector error correction modelling (VECM) framework.

Findings

The general results here show that stock, labour and human capital are all significant growth determinants, with human capital having a long-run output elasticity of 0.36. The VECM results generally validated the long-run output elasticity, although a relatively lower elasticity of 0.1 is obtained. Both sets of results tend to point to the fact that human capital has significantly contributed to economic growth in Mauritius.

Research limitations/implications

The current paper paves the way for future work, which can build on the composite HCI developed here and aggregate it with relevant variables representing tertiary education and training, to better analyze and further understand the role of human capital on economic growth in Mauritius.

Originality/value

Here, the authors posit that human capital is an aggregate of health, education and nutrition, and the authors use a composite index along with other contributing factors to study its impact on economic growth, within a VECM framework.

Details

European Journal of Training and Development, vol. 40 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-9012

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Article
Publication date: 21 June 2018

Ajantha Velayutham and Asheq Razaur Rahman

The purpose of this paper is to empirically investigate whether an individual’s knowledge, skills and capabilities (human capital) are reflected in their compensation.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to empirically investigate whether an individual’s knowledge, skills and capabilities (human capital) are reflected in their compensation.

Design/methodology/approach

Data are drawn from university academics in the Province of Ontario, Canada, earning more than CAD$100,000 per annum. Data on academics human capital are drawn from Research Gate. The authors construct a regression analysis to examine the relationship between human capital and salary.

Findings

The analyses performed indicates a positive association between academic human capital and academic salaries.

Research limitations/implications

This study is limited in that it measures an academic’s human capital solely through their research outputs as opposed to also considering their teaching outputs. Continuing research needs to be conducted in different country contexts and using negative proxies of human capital.

Practical implications

This study will create awareness about the value of human capital and its contribution towards improving organisational structural capital.

Social implications

The study contributes to the literature on human capital in accounting and business by focussing on the economic relevance of individual level human capital.

Originality/value

The study contributes to the literature on human capital in accounting and business by focussing on the economic relevance of individual level human capital. It will help create awareness of the importance of valuing human capital at the individual level.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. 19 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1469-1930

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Article
Publication date: 12 January 2010

Giuseppina Autiero and Concetto Paolo Vinci

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the causal link between government regulation of religion and the choice of investing in human and physical capital.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the causal link between government regulation of religion and the choice of investing in human and physical capital.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses an analytical model with a government setting the output quota to transfer to religious activities. This depends on the extent to which it is an ideological government that uses religion either for legitimacy aims or for the ideological control of population. Workers and entrepreneurs observe the quota and simultaneously choose the investment in human and physical capital, which may trigger, à la Acemoglu, social increasing returns.

Findings

Directing resources to religious activities may be detrimental to output performance. This may occur if an ideological government sets the optimal quota above the quotas preferred by private agents. This negatively affects the investment in physical and human capital and output performance.

Originality/value

Despite the importance of government regulation of religion in the literature, its effect on output performance has not been thoroughly analyzed yet. In this respect, the paper aims to further investigate the causal links between religion regulation related to government type and the investments in human and physical capital and the output level.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 37 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2001

Serge Coulombe and Jean‐François Tremblay

Proposes an empirical analysis of regional convergence in Canada based on the growth model of Barro et al. In an open economy with perfect capital mobility, if domestic…

Abstract

Proposes an empirical analysis of regional convergence in Canada based on the growth model of Barro et al. In an open economy with perfect capital mobility, if domestic residents cannot borrow abroad with human capital as collateral, the dynamics of human capital accumulation is the driving force of per capita income growth. Empirical results indicate that, as predicted by the theoretical model, various indicators of the stock of human capital did converge at the same speed as per capita income during the 1951‐1996 period. A substantial part of the relative growth of per capita income indicators across Canadian provinces since the early 1950s could be explained by the convergence process of human capital indicators based on the percentage of the population, both sexes and males, who have at least a university degree. The estimates of the human capital share in national income based on those indicators are in the neighbourhood of 0.5, a number consistent with other measures of the implicit income share of human capital. The convergence speed of per capita income at the regional level might have been two to three times faster, if all persons had invested in education at the same rate as the young.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 28 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 11 August 2005

Brett M. Frischmann

Universities face incredibly difficult, complex decisions concerning the degree to which they participate in the process of commercializing research. The U.S. government…

Abstract

Universities face incredibly difficult, complex decisions concerning the degree to which they participate in the process of commercializing research. The U.S. government has made an explicit policy decision to allow funded entities to obtain patents and thereby has encouraged participation in the commercialization of federally funded research. The Bayh-Dole Act enables universities to participate in the commercialization process, but it does not obligate or constrain them to pursue any particular strategy with respect to federally funded research. Universities remain in the driver's seat and must decide carefully the extent to which they wish to participate in the commercialization process.The conventional view of the role of patents in the university research context is that patent-enabled exclusivity improves the supply-side functioning of markets for university research results as well as those markets further downstream for derivative commercial end-products. Both the reward and commercialization theories of patent law take patent-enabled exclusivity as the relevant means for fixing a supply-side problem – essentially, the undersupply of private investment in the production of patentable subject matter or in the development and commercialization of patentable subject matter that would occur in the absence of patent-enabled exclusivity.While the supply-side view of the role of patents in the university research context is important, a view from the demand side is needed to fully appreciate the role of patents in the university research context and to fully inform university decisions about the extent to which they wish to participate in the commercialization process. Introducing patents into the university research system, along with a host of other initiatives aimed at tightening the relationship between universities and industry, is also (if not primarily) about increasing connectivity between university science and technology research systems and the demands of industry for both university research outputs (research results and human capital) and upstream infrastructural capital necessary to produce such outputs.In this chapter, I explore how university science and technology research systems perform economically as infrastructural capital and explain how these systems generate social value. I explain how the availability of patents, coupled with decreased government funding, may lead to a slow and subtle shift in the allocation of infrastructure resources.

Details

University Entrepreneurship and Technology Transfer
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-359-4

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Article
Publication date: 13 December 2019

Baoping Ren and Wei Jie

Constant or decreasing returns and increasing returns to scale are two kinds of mechanism in economic growth. The goal of supply-side structural reform is to promote the…

Abstract

Purpose

Constant or decreasing returns and increasing returns to scale are two kinds of mechanism in economic growth. The goal of supply-side structural reform is to promote the establishment of the mechanism with increasing returns to scale. The paper aims to discuss this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper argues that the overall economic structure of the developing economy has been divided into the sector of constant or decreasing returns to scale and the sector of increasing returns to scale due to the dual economic structure. Among them, the supply-side structural reform is mainly to reduce the sector of decreasing returns to scale and increase the sector of increasing returns to scale. Based on the hypothesis of such two-sector economic structure in the supply side of developing economies and on the industrial data, this paper empirically tests the returns to scale of China’s supply structure. The result suggests that so far the sector of constant or decreasing returns to scale dominates the supply structure of China’s economic growth, which results in the state of decreasing returns to scale in China’s overall economy.

Findings

Therefore, to realize the long-term sustained growth and transformation of the development pattern of China’s economy, the authors must carry out the supply-side structural reform, vigorously develop the modern industrial sectors characterized by modern knowledge and technology, and promote the development of an innovation-driven economy.

Originality/value

Besides, the authors must accelerate the transformation from traditional industrial sectors to modern industrial sectors, actively promote China’s industrial structure toward rationalization and high gradation, as well as build a modern industrial system so as to facilitate the formation of the mechanism of increasing returns to scale and accelerate the transformation of the driving force of China’s economic growth.

Details

China Political Economy, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2516-1652

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Article
Publication date: 11 May 2015

Catarina Moura e Sa Cardoso and Geetha Ravishankar

The purpose of this paper is to assess the effect of human capital development on regional productivity growth and convergence in the Spanish provinces over the period…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to assess the effect of human capital development on regional productivity growth and convergence in the Spanish provinces over the period 1991-2006.

Design/methodology/approach

The stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) methodology is used to estimate production inefficiencies. This approach enables the assessment of the degree to which a given region’s observed output deviates from the maximal possible. Therefore, the resulting region specific productive efficiencies are modelled as outcomes of the level of human capital. A β-convergence equation for the regional efficiency levels is also estimated to detect any signs of regional catching-up.

Findings

The results show that increasing levels of human capital development are associated with lower regional inefficiency. All levels of education contributed to reduce the inefficiency levels, however, secondary schooling played a stronger role than primary and even higher education. There is also evidence of regional convergence towards the best practice frontier through a process that is beneficially aided by human capital development.

Originality/value

The paper combines the use of the SFA to study the effect of human capital on regional productivity with the estimation of a β-convergence equation for the obtained regional efficiency levels.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 42 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

Keywords

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