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Article
Publication date: 14 March 2016

Russell Ashmore and Neil Carver

– The purpose of this paper is to review policy or guidance on the implementation of Section 5(4) written by NHS mental health trusts in England and health boards in Wales.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to review policy or guidance on the implementation of Section 5(4) written by NHS mental health trusts in England and health boards in Wales.

Design/methodology/approach

A Freedom of Information request was submitted to all trusts in England (n=57) and health boards in Wales (n=7) asking them to provide a copy of any policy or guidance on the implementation of Section 5(4). Documents were analysed using content analysis. Specific attention was given to any deviations from the national Mental Health Act Codes of Practice.

Findings

In total, 41 (67.2 per cent) organisations had a policy on the implementation of Section 5(4). There was a high level of consistency between local guidance and the Mental Health Act Codes of Practice. There were however; different interpretations of the guidance and errors that could lead to misuse of the section. Some policies contained useful guidance that could be adopted by future versions of the national Codes of Practice.

Research limitations/implications

The research has demonstrated the value of examining the relationship between national and local guidance. Further research should be undertaken on the frequency and reasons for any reuse of the section.

Practical implications

Greater attention should be given to considering the necessity of local policy, given the existence of national Codes of Practice.

Originality/value

This is the only research examining the policy framework for the implementation of Section 5(4).

Details

Mental Health Review Journal, vol. 21 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-9322

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Article
Publication date: 3 August 2021

Ajay Kumar Singal and Faisal Mohammad Ahsan

Emerging economy firms seek strategic assets through cross-border acquisitions (CBAs) to upgrade their capabilities. The paper explores the relation between emerging…

Abstract

Purpose

Emerging economy firms seek strategic assets through cross-border acquisitions (CBAs) to upgrade their capabilities. The paper explores the relation between emerging economy firms' investments in CBAs and subsequent investments in domestic R&D. It investigates the underlying mechanism that links a firm's decision to pursue CBAs and the outcomes from the CBAs. The main idea behind the study is that firms have higher possibility of creating value from cross-border acquisitions when they simultaneously invest in domestic R&D though both investments are constrained by financial and managerial resources.

Design/methodology/approach

The hypotheses are tested on a panel data set of 296 Indian firms over a period of 13 years (2003–2015). The authors use a two-stage Heckman procedure for testing their hypotheses. In the first stage, a probit model predicts the probability of a firm being a cross-border acquirer. The second stage model is estimated by a pooled-data GLS (generalized least squares) regression technique.

Findings

The authors find a nonlinear (inverted U-shaped) relationship between firm's investments in CBAs and domestic R&D. This suggests a complementary relation between investments in CBAs and a firm's domestic R&D at lower levels of investments in CBAs. At higher levels of investments in CBAs, CBA investments begin to substitute for firm's domestic R&D investments. For firms with higher international product-market experience and those operating in the hi-tech industry, the relationship between investments in CBAs and domestic R&D is complementary even at higher levels of CBA investments.

Originality/value

The study highlights the role of an emerging market firm's investment in domestic R&D as a link between the decision to invest in CBAs and related outcomes thereof. Emerging market firms face resource constraints while pursuing simultaneous investments in CBAs and R&D, but investment in R&D is essential for realizing the acquisition objectives. The authors also establish the significance of industry context and experiential learning in deciding the allocation of resources between CBAs and internal R&D.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

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Book part
Publication date: 8 June 2021

Abhijit Bhattacharya

In the postglobalized world, information and communication technology (ICT) has been considered a key driver of human development. The world is reshaping from…

Abstract

In the postglobalized world, information and communication technology (ICT) has been considered a key driver of human development. The world is reshaping from resource-based economy to knowledge-based economy after rapid growth of ICT. ICT can be considered as an umbrella that incorporates any communication device such as radio, television, cell phones, computer and network hardware, satellite systems etc., and also various services and appliance with them such as video conferencing and distance learning (Akarowhe, 2017). ICT is a technological system that is able to meet the gap of formal communication system and ultimately affects the level of standard of living. Human development can be defined as a process of enlarging people's freedoms and opportunities and improving their well-being. Whereas, human development index (HDI) is a statistical tool used to measure a country's human development based on the health of people, their level of education attainment, and level of income. The present chapter tries to find out the impact of ICT on human development for selected high HDI and medium HDI countries during the period 2001–2018. Applying panel data technique result shows that ICT has a positive and significant impact on human development.

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Book part
Publication date: 8 June 2021

Debjani Mitra

Economy consists of several economic activities like production, consumption, distribution etc. Nowadays, a new concept of knowledge economy has been introduced. A…

Abstract

Economy consists of several economic activities like production, consumption, distribution etc. Nowadays, a new concept of knowledge economy has been introduced. A knowledge economy is an economy in which the production of goods and services is based primarily upon knowledge-intensive activities. At this phase, development has two aspects – quantitative and qualitative aspects. In qualitative aspects, concept of human development index (HDI) is included. HDI has been constructed on the basis of education index (EI), health index, and standard of living index. This education implies research and development. New growth theories emphasize the potential for human capital and increase knowledge to provide new sources of economic growth and high levels of productivity. Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as facts, information, descriptions, or skills, which is acquired through experience or education by perceiving, discovering, or learning.

In this paper, the HDI and EI of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) countries, in particular India, are taken into consideration. To study the knowledge economy as well as human capital, Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs) is used. On the other hand, for analyzing the development of any sector of the economy, the role of FDI is important. Whether the role of FDI is still there in transition to knowledge economy or not, relationship between FDI confidence index and EI is taken into consideration. Data are used from the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), World Investment Report, AT Kearney etc.

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Book part
Publication date: 15 December 2015

Trevor Young-Hyman and Mariangélica Martínez Chávez

Most analyses of the relationship between the internal distribution of formal organizational power, generally manifested in ownership and governance rights, and innovation…

Abstract

Most analyses of the relationship between the internal distribution of formal organizational power, generally manifested in ownership and governance rights, and innovation efforts apply a principal-agent framework. The key implication of this framework is that firms with distributed formal power are more likely to engage in labor-intensive innovation because external capital providers are unwilling to entrust their investments to a worker controlled firm. In this paper, we critique the principal-agent framework and propose an alternative institutionalist approach, where the type of innovation pursued by firms with distributed formal power is contingent on the norms advanced by the innovation and the alignment of external stakeholders with those norms. After presenting this alternative framework, we illustrate its application with positive and negative cases of capital and labor-intensive innovation at the MONDRAGON cooperatives, a network of worker cooperatives in the Basque region of Spain. We conclude with a set of propositions to guide future research.

Details

Advances in the Economic Analysis of Participatory & Labor-Managed Firms
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-379-2

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Book part
Publication date: 26 November 2019

Napoleon Kurantin and Bertha Z. Osei-Hwedie

In recent years, the global economy has undergone major transformations involving the liberalization of markets for traditional goods, services, and capital flows. This…

Abstract

In recent years, the global economy has undergone major transformations involving the liberalization of markets for traditional goods, services, and capital flows. This has led to the emergence of a world financial market underpinned by digital platforms, innovative and the rapid growth of integrated digital platforms, integration, investment, economic growth, development, and the potential for poverty reduction, especially, in the Global South and, in particular in sub-Saharan Africa. The goal of this chapter is to investigate the increasing accessibility and relationship between digital (e-economy) financial integration and poverty alleviation since the era of structural adjustment programs in sub-Sahara Africa with Ghana as a case study. The emphasis is on the New Digital Economy (NDE) relative to new sources of data from mobile and ubiquitous Internet connectivity. The processes of digitalization and financial sector integration and inclusion become increasingly contestable, decomposable, and reconfigurable, and the capacity to innovate will be a key success factor in policies geared toward poverty alleviation. The multiple linear regression model and its estimation using ordinary least squares (OLS) is doubtless the most widely used tool in econometrics. It helps to estimate the relation between a dependent variable and a set of explanatory variables. An OLS model for macro data set relative to a regression model is applied to provide the empirical estimations of the increasing accessibility and the relationship between digital financial integration, investment, economic growth, development, and poverty alleviation.

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Article
Publication date: 11 May 2021

F. Javier Miranda, Jesús Pérez-Mayo, José Manuel García-Gallego, Víctor Valero-Amaro and Sergio Rubio

This work tries to shed light on what factors can influence, positively or negatively, the decision to license a patent from a university, in order to offer some…

Abstract

Purpose

This work tries to shed light on what factors can influence, positively or negatively, the decision to license a patent from a university, in order to offer some recommendations that can contribute to increasing the number of patents licensed from universities.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on a sample of researchers at Spanish universities who have already registered patents, this work shows that the individual factors of the researcher outweigh the institutional factors in determining the decision to patent an invention. Likewise, the probability of patenting an invention is higher when the researcher's level of participation in the process is greater.

Findings

The results of our study allow us to affirm that, in the Spanish university setting, individual factors play a more important role in one's decision to license a patent than institutional factors. In this sense, the collaboration of companies or experts from outside of academia in the research from which the patent was granted is the most relevant factor.

Originality/value

This work, the first study of this type to be carried out in Europe, concludes with a recommendation for reinforcing the structure and functionality of technology transfer offices as a basic policy for the promotion and facilitation of commercial exploitation of innovation in the universities.

Propósito

Este trabajo intenta arrojar luz sobre qué factores pueden influir, positiva o negativamente, en la decisión de licenciar una patente de una universidad, con el fin de ofrecer algunas recomendaciones que puedan contribuir a aumentar el número de patentes universitarias.

Diseño de la investigación

Basado en una muestra de investigadores en universidades españolas que ya han registrado patentes, este trabajo muestra que los factores individuales superan a los factores institucionales a la hora de determinar la decisión de patentar una invención. Asimismo, la probabilidad de patentar una invención es mayor cuando el nivel de participación del investigador en el proceso es mayor.

Recomendaciones

Los resultados de nuestro estudio nos permiten afirmar que, en el ámbito universitario español, los factores individuales juegan un papel más importante en la decisión de solicitar una patente que los factores institucionales. En este sentido, la colaboración de empresas o expertos de fuera de la academia en la investigación a partir de la cual se otorgó la patente es el factor más relevante.

Originalidad

Este trabajo es el primer estudio de este tipo que se realiza en Europa y concluye con una recomendación para reforzar la estructura y la funcionalidad de las oficinas de transferencia de tecnología (OTRI) como política básica para la promoción de la explotación comercial de la innovación en las universidades.

Content available
Article
Publication date: 9 March 2021

Oluyemi Theophilus Adeosun and Ayodele Ibrahim Shittu

The birth and survival rate of youth-owned businesses has been a major concern for policymakers, industry and academics alike. Learning and innovation play important roles…

Abstract

Purpose

The birth and survival rate of youth-owned businesses has been a major concern for policymakers, industry and academics alike. Learning and innovation play important roles and more critical is the mediating factors and how it impacts the enterprise competitiveness of youth-owned businesses and hence worth studying. Therefore, this study aims to examine the impact of mediating factors such as government support, informal network society and external knowledge infrastructure on learning and innovation in youth-owned small businesses in Lagos, Nigeria, from a cross-sectional perspective.

Design/methodology/approach

Leveraging the sectoral system of innovation theory, we use a primary research method and data obtained from a structured questionnaire administered among a sample of 1,000 registered youth-owned small businesses in Lagos, while 30 in-depth interviews were also conducted. The exploratory factor analysis was used for data examination.

Findings

The findings show that even though government support, informal network society and external knowledge all have a positive relationship with learning and innovation in youth-owned small businesses, government support has the most impactful impact. The informal network society via a trade association, professional network and social media are also critical in knowledge transfer in youth-owned businesses.

Originality/value

The significance of learning and innovation is more important as many small businesses do not have the privilege of standard human resource management (HRM) systems. This paper looks at the mediating factors affecting the introduction of innovative practices in youth-owned and managed small businesses and how productivity is enabled in a developing county context.

Details

Rajagiri Management Journal, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0972-9968

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Article
Publication date: 4 February 2021

Kristie Briggs

This paper examines the relationship between the originality of a pharmaceutical innovation and its patent quality. Greater patent quality has been shown in the extant…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper examines the relationship between the originality of a pharmaceutical innovation and its patent quality. Greater patent quality has been shown in the extant literature to enhance market value, which better enables firms to recoup research and development (R&D) expenditures incurred during the innovation process. Understanding how originality improves patent quality can assist policymakers, when determining the optimal length of pharmaceutical patent protection and/or market exclusivity.

Design/methodology/approach

The relationship between originality and patent quality is empirically investigated using a tobit, as well as a zero-inflated negative binomial, estimation approach to account for prevalence of patents receiving zero forward citations. Moderating effects of joint innovation, innovation by a university researcher and innovation by an established innovator on originality are also considered.

Findings

There is a robust and positive relationship between patent originality and quality in the pharmaceutical sector. This relationship is positively moderated by joint patent ownership with a university. As such, innovators that target originality in new drug development (especially those collaborating with universities) should, according to extant literature, see greater increases in their market value.

Originality/value

Policymakers can use information on the originality of a new drug to discern the optimal length of market exclusivity needed to enable the innovator to recoup expenditures related to R&D. Better predictions of the timing for which firms can recoup R&D expenditures will equip policymakers with knowledge about the appropriate timing to introduce competition into the market, which is critical to reducing the price of pharmaceuticals to consumers.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship and Public Policy, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2045-2101

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Article
Publication date: 10 November 2020

Ana María Vallina-Hernandez, Hanns de la Fuente-Mella and Rodrigo Fuentes-Solís

The purpose of this paper is to compare and contrast the international trade characteristics of commerce between Latin American countries and some of the top economies in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to compare and contrast the international trade characteristics of commerce between Latin American countries and some of the top economies in the world, in order to identify new business opportunities for LATAM firms in dynamical external markets.

Design/methodology/approach

A triple indexed gravity model, correcting with robust standardized errors clustered, and a panel data analysis was used to obtain the relationship between Latin American countries and advanced and other emerging economies.

Findings

The main finding of this paper is that innovation overcomes gravity effects and parameters typical of a knowledge society are the significant ones to explain trade among different regions. The model that includes an innovation proxy accommodates with the new international theories of trade. Besides, communication capacity is essential to reach consumers abroad with newer and more complex products. Moreover, the constant is significant when innovation is included, which may imply intersectoral trade that behaves relatively stable in bilateral trade.

Practical implications

The findings suggest that the economies that have some relevance in trade, have increasing numbers regarding patents. Thus, the empirical findings relate to the theoretical models which state that comparative advantages may be dynamic due to technological innovation.

Originality/value

This paper shows that innovation is a central parameter to engage in intratrade and develop a knowledge-based economy. Latin America sometimes appears to be a puzzle as to how to improve its economic performance and overcome its social and economic problems. Intratrade seems to be the route to increase Latin American business participation in world trade.

Objetivo

El propósito de este documento es comparar y contrastar las características comerciales internacionales del comercio entre los países latinoamericanos y algunas de las principales economías del mundo, con el fin de identificar nuevas oportunidades de negocios para las empresas de LATAM en mercados externos dinámicos.

Diseño/metodología/enfoque

Se utilizó un modelo de gravedad triple indexado el que se corrigió con errores robustos estandarizados clusterizados, y un análisis de datos de panel para obtener la relación entre los países latinoamericanos y las economías avanzadas y otras economías emergentes.

Resultados

Uno de los principales hallazgos es que la incorporación de la innovación en el modelo anula el efecto de las variables típicas asociadas a la gravedad. Por lo que se podría suponer que, los parámetros propios de una sociedad del conocimiento son más importantes para explicar el comercio entre las diferentes regiones. El modelo incluye un variable de innovación que se adapta a las nuevas teorías internacionales del comercio. Otro hallazgo es que la capacidad de comunicación es esencial para llegar a los consumidores en el extranjero con productos más nuevos y complejos. Por último, la constante es significativa cuando se incluye la innovación, lo que podría implicar un comercio intersectorial que se comporta relativamente estable en el comercio bilateral.

Limitaciones de la investigación/implicaciones

Los resultados sugieren que las economías que tienen cierta relevancia en el comercio poseen un número creciente de patentes. Por lo tanto, los hallazgos empíricos se relacionan con los modelos teóricos que establecen que las ventajas comparativas pueden ser dinámicas debido a la innovación tecnológica.

Originalidad/valor

Este documento muestra que la innovación es un elemento central para participar en el comercio interno y desarrollar una economía basada en el conocimiento. América Latina a veces parece ser un enigma sobre cómo mejorar su desempeño económico y superar sus problemas sociales y económicos. El comercio intraindustrial parece ser la ruta para aumentar la participación empresarial de América Latina en el comercio mundial.

Details

Academia Revista Latinoamericana de Administración, vol. 33 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1012-8255

Keywords

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