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Book part
Publication date: 18 July 2006

Mikael Samuelsson

How general can a “general” theory of entrepreneurship be? Abstraction is a necessity but is it possible to include venture opportunity variation in a general theory of…

Abstract

How general can a “general” theory of entrepreneurship be? Abstraction is a necessity but is it possible to include venture opportunity variation in a general theory of entrepreneurship building on two contrasting perspectives such as equilibrium economics and disequilibrium economics. Two important boundaries need to be explicated. First, defining entrepreneurship as the creation of new economic activity includes both the creation of new means – ends (cf. Schumpeter, 1934) – as well as optimizing within known means – ends frameworks (cf. Kirzner, 1997). Second, such a theory includes an opportunity – actor nexus because it is the first tangible or intangible evidence of existing venture opportunities. Formal models of entrepreneurship often start with a person and at some point in time an exchange of persons with firms take place which is confusing because both levels of analysis and outcome are mixed with each other. Apparently, there is no such thing as entrepreneurship without actors, but if we want to create knowledge about the creation of economic activity, we need to frame our boundary around the nascent initiative instead of single actors and/or teams of actors because value can only be assessed in relation to the costs of services withdrawn. Analogous to this is, for example, the theory of firm and the theory of organizations with boundaries well beyond single actors or groups of actors. Another factor behind a venture-based theory of entrepreneurship comes from empirical evidence from the Swedish PSED, which suggests that approximately 16% (n=97) nascent entrepreneurs are exchanged during the start-up process. Formal models of entrepreneurship could therefore start with the nexus of venture opportunities and enterprising actors as suggested by Shane (2003) or with resources as suggested by Davidsson (2000) and progress forward in the entrepreneurial process. Entrepreneurship models built around the economic activity itself needs to be dynamic allowing different outcomes and feedback loops because resource combinations alter our perception of value and diffuses information, which may lead to additional resource combinations (Hayek, 1945).

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Entrepreneurship: Frameworks And Empirical Investigations From Forthcoming Leaders Of European Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-428-7

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Book part
Publication date: 31 October 2005

Thomas Schibbye and Martie-Louise Verreynne

In today's competitive environment firms can seldom rely on their current products and services to secure their future success (Miller, 1983; Zahra, 1993; Lumpkin & Dess

Abstract

In today's competitive environment firms can seldom rely on their current products and services to secure their future success (Miller, 1983; Zahra, 1993; Lumpkin & Dess, 1996). Neither can they ignore their position in the market vis-à-vis their current and potential competitors (Barney, 2002). To win in the competitive global market, firms also have to continuously improve their internal processes in order to ensure that operations are efficiently performed (Carpinetti & Martins, 2001; Tompkins, 2001). These challenges may seem overwhelming and even threatening, but by generating more opportunities firms can increase the possibility of obtaining successful outcomes. This is based on the assumption that the discovery of new opportunities helps leverage a firm's value creation and ensures that the firm remains vital (Stevenson, 1983).

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The Emergence of Entrepreneurial Economics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-366-2

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Article
Publication date: 23 August 2021

Chun Sing Maxwell Ho and Thomas Wing Yan Man

This study investigates teachers' perceptions of how school conditions influence their motivation for opportunity recognition. It uses discovery theory as a theoretical…

Abstract

Purpose

This study investigates teachers' perceptions of how school conditions influence their motivation for opportunity recognition. It uses discovery theory as a theoretical lens to understand the dynamics of entrepreneurial teachers' knowledge and alertness in responding to school conditions.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a multi-case study approach, in-depth interviews were conducted with participants in three schools highlighting similarities and differences in their conditions of empowering entrepreneurial teachers to discover opportunities.

Findings

The results indicate that four school conditions facilitate entrepreneurial teachers to discover opportunities, namely, a rigorous working environment, a trusting and opened culture, extensive communication networks and rewarding work conditions.

Originality/value

These findings further underscore the use of discovery theory in educational contexts showing that entrepreneurial teachers are in an active mode of searching for opportunities. Specific ways through which teachers can better recognize opportunities for school improvement are included.

Details

Journal of Professional Capital and Community, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-9548

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Article
Publication date: 5 June 2017

Dan Long, Zi-yao Xia and Wang-bin Hu

The purpose of this paper is to bridge the obvious gap presented in research on antecedents of effectuation by building a research model from the perspectives of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to bridge the obvious gap presented in research on antecedents of effectuation by building a research model from the perspectives of effectuation and entrepreneurial opportunity.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper examines the effects of patterns of opportunity discovery and the innovativeness of entrepreneurial opportunity on the decision-making process of effectuation in new venture creation. Eight hypotheses are put forward and examined by hierarchical multiple logistic regression. The data in this paper are based on the first two rounds of survey data from Chinese Panel Study of Entrepreneurial dynamics.

Findings

The empirical results show that patterns of opportunity discovery have significant positive effects (at least partially) on effectuation. Namely, entrepreneurs employing fortuitous discovery tend to use available means and leverage contingency. And with lower innovativeness of opportunity, entrepreneurs are more likely to use affordable loss and leverage contingency.

Research limitations/implications

The study is limited to each dimension of effectuation based on the single-item measure, which cannot completely reflect the effectual construct. More research should to be done to improve measures of effectuation.

Practical implications

The findings are useful for entrepreneurs to make effective decisions whether to choose effectuation in the face of different patterns of opportunity discovery. Besides, it provides the advice on how to cope with the innovativeness of opportunity and seize entrepreneurial opportunities to entrepreneurs.

Originality/value

This paper first systematically studies the effects of entrepreneurial opportunity on effectuation, making up for the obvious gap of research on antecedents of effectuation.

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Book part
Publication date: 14 September 2007

Mark Simon, Susan M. Houghton and G.T. Lumpkin

The entrepreneurs’ ability to identify opportunities can lead to wealth creation and competitive advantage. Often, however, opportunities that are innovative may defy…

Abstract

The entrepreneurs’ ability to identify opportunities can lead to wealth creation and competitive advantage. Often, however, opportunities that are innovative may defy up-front analysis suggesting that the entrepreneurs may have had somewhat inaccurate perceptions and need to refine their ideas after the ventures are started. This paper therefore focuses on mitigating the negative impact of early misperceptions through the use of learning-oriented information processing systems to refine opportunities post starting a venture. Specifically, it suggests that an experienced and heterogeneous top management team and a decentralized, organic structure enhance the system's ability to gain knowledge from acting on early misperceptions and may even form the basis for a distinctive capability that leads to competitive advantage.

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Entrepreneurial Strategic Processes
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1429-4

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Article
Publication date: 5 April 2021

Ayman Wael Al-Khatib, Moayyad A. Al-Fawaeer, Mohammed Iqbal Alajlouni and Firas A. Rifai

The purpose of this paper is to identify the effect of organisational culture by its two dimensions (innovative organisational culture and conservative organisational…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify the effect of organisational culture by its two dimensions (innovative organisational culture and conservative organisational culture) on innovative performance and also investigate the moderating role of the job type on innovative performance in the relationship between innovative organisational culture and conservative organisational culture.

Design/methodology/approach

For this study’s purposes, 321 questionnaires from employees of Jordanian private universities were analysed. Convergent validity and discriminant validity tests were performed. Data reliability was confirmed. A bootstrapping technique was used to analyse the data. The multi-group analysis was performed to investigate the moderating role of job type.

Findings

The results of this study indicate that the innovative organisational culture will improve innovative performance and that a conservative culture reduces innovation opportunities. Moreover, innovative organisational culture promotes innovative performance for all employees regardless of who holds administrative positions.

Research limitations/implications

This cross-sectional study provides a snapshot at a given moment in time, a methodological limitation that affects the generalisation of its results. Moreover, this study adopted subjective measures and the results are limited to one country, Jordan.

Practical implications

This paper contributes to drawing the attention of senior management to the importance of innovation culture in the performance of innovation at Jordanian private universities surveyed, in particular, and other organisations in general.

Social implications

The social impact of this study is to respond to the challenge of building an innovation-based culture and to limit the effects of a conservative culture that limits the response to innovation.

Originality/value

This study has important implications for leaders in general. It also highlights the need for organisations to develop an orientation towards innovative organisational culture instead of the classic approach based on the conservative culture of all its members (both administrative and non-administrative employees) and to invest in training that supports this trend, thus increasing their innovative performance, which contributes to raising their capabilities to excel, compete and achieve high levels of performance.

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International Journal of Innovation Science, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-2223

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Article
Publication date: 26 June 2018

Valentina Della Corte, Giovanna Del Gaudio and Fabiana Sepe

Over the past few years, several scholars have focused on innovation strategies with specific regard to family food firms. In line with this research stream, the purpose…

Abstract

Purpose

Over the past few years, several scholars have focused on innovation strategies with specific regard to family food firms. In line with this research stream, the purpose of this paper is to understand how family food firms with long-standing traditions can implement innovative productions while remaining anchored to the past.

Design/methodology/approach

By adopting a qualitative research methodology, mainly based on a multiple case study, this paper seeks to cover some unexplored areas regarding the opportunity of combining tradition and innovation to achieve success in the highly competitive international arena in which family food firms operate. The authors analyze the cases of “La Torrente,” “Cioccolatitaliani” and “La Fabbrica della Pasta di Gragnano.”

Findings

Successful family food firms leverage their deep-rooted knowledge of both family and local traditions to innovate. At same time, they establish continuous info exchange flows with all of the firm’s stakeholders by adopting an open innovation approach.

Research limitations/implications

From a theoretical perspective, there is a need for an in-depth study of how an effective blend of tradition and innovation is formalized, above all, in family firms. As for the practical implications, all the three case studies represent a best practice, especially for family firms with a long-standing history and strong local connections.

Practical implications

The paper shows how important it is to keep traditional factors in food industry and offers hints and suggestions to decision makers of family firms on how to valorize, in terms of competitiveness, their traditional resources – almost bound to their territory with innovation tools and processes.

Social implications

The paper is interesting because it offers an analysis of a specific group of firms – family firms – that characterize many industries in Italy and in Europe. Although often small, these firms can show dynamism and creativity. The paper offers hints on how to approach innovation in the sector while keeping the value of tradition.

Originality/value

The originality of the proposed conceptual model stems from the need to overcome the previous theoretical models, which deal separately with sources of past knowledge and sources of new and/or external knowledge.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 120 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Abstract

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Reflections and Extensions on Key Papers of the First Twenty-Five Years of Advances
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-435-0

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Article
Publication date: 7 March 2016

Zhiqiang Liu, Liang Ge and Wanying Peng

The purpose of this paper was to examine the relationship between organizational tenure and employee innovative behavior and the influence of culture difference and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper was to examine the relationship between organizational tenure and employee innovative behavior and the influence of culture difference and status-related moderators (i.e. status hierarchy and status stability) on the linkage.

Design/methodology/approach

By using a meta-analysis method that included 76 empirical studies, this study examines the relationship of organizational tenure and innovative behavior. In this study, 79 samples (N = 21659) derived from 76 empirical studies that met the inclusion criteria in the meta-analysis.

Findings

The results show that organizational tenure has a weak positive effect on employee innovative behavior (r = 0.04), and status hierarchy, position tenure, culture difference and measurement ways influence the relationship between the two. In addition, a three-way interaction among status hierarchy, position tenure and organizational tenure is found to jointly affect innovative behavior; specifically, for those who are low in status hierarchy and short in position tenure, their organizational tenures are positively related to innovative behavior, but for those with a longer position tenure in organizations, their organizational tenure may relate to innovative behavior negatively, whatever their status hierarchies are (high or low). This study is helpful in providing theoretical foundation and practical skills to such issues regarding how to trigger innovative behavior efficiently at different career stages.

Research limitations/implications

Limitations include tenure range of participants and no longitudinal samples in our studies. Future research should examine more contextual factors which influenced the relationship between organizational tenure and innovative behavior.

Practical implications

The results of this study show that long organizational tenure is not negatively related to innovative behaviors. For managers, do not ignore the contribution of long-tenured employees to innovation. Through promotion or job rotation to increase employees’ job satisfaction and innovative willing.

Originality/value

To authors’ knowledge, this is the first study to examine status attribute class variables in the relationship between organizational tenure on innovative behavior. The study is helpful in providing theoretical foundation and practical skills to such issues regarding how to trigger innovative behavior at different career stages correctly.

Details

Nankai Business Review International, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8749

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Article
Publication date: 7 October 2019

Qian Ya Pian, Hui Jin and Hui Li

The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between behavior-oriented knowledge sharing and innovative behavior and the moderating effects of collectivism on…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between behavior-oriented knowledge sharing and innovative behavior and the moderating effects of collectivism on the aforementioned relationship. It also assesses the impact of epistemic motivation and pro-social motivation on behavior-oriented knowledge sharing.

Design/methodology/approach

Focusing on Chinese context, the study conducts a questionnaire survey to test the research model. Linear regression analysis is used to examine the main effects of the independent variables, and the multi-level linear regression model is used to evaluate the moderating effects of the controlled variables.

Findings

The findings reveal that epistemic motivation stimulates individual-oriented knowledge sharing and pro-social motivation stimulates organization-oriented knowledge sharing. Organization-oriented knowledge sharing impacts more than individual-oriented knowledge sharing on innovative behavior. Moreover, collectivism is shown to positively moderate the relationship between behavior-oriented knowledge sharing and innovative behavior.

Practical implications

The study provides evidence that motivation should be significantly considered when sharing knowledge. Managers should prioritize the promotion of employees’ epistemic and pro-social motivation. The study also suggests that encouraging collectivism should be an important objective, as it moderates the relationship between knowledge sharing and innovative behavior positively.

Originality/value

The study emphasized how individual-oriented and organization-oriented knowledge sharing impacts innovative behavior differently and how collectivism moderates that relationship. It also illustrates how epistemic and pro-social motivation affects behavior-oriented knowledge sharing. The study contributes to a stream of research that links knowledge sharing and innovative behavior.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 23 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

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