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Article
Publication date: 22 June 2020

Jurgen Poesche

The purpose of this paper is to develop an understanding of requirements for firms’ codes of conduct when addressing homophobia in the context of continued colonialism and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop an understanding of requirements for firms’ codes of conduct when addressing homophobia in the context of continued colonialism and coloniality.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is a literature study.

Findings

First, occidental firms’ codes of conduct are shown to endanger indigenous homosexual individuals by endangering the protection offered by their indigenous ethics and society. Second, it is shown that tackling homophobia in firms’ codes of conduct on the foundation of occidental ethics forces homosexual individuals to conform to occidental homosexual identities in a world of a multitude of indigenous and hybrid homosexualities and identities render firms’ codes of conduct expressions of continued colonialism and coloniality. Third, a sole reliance on occidental conceptualizations of homophobia is shown to potentially camouflage unethical nationalistic and xenophobic intents.

Research limitations/implications

Additional research is needed on the dynamics of coexisting multiple indigenous homosexual identities, and reliable ways to determine the substance of indigenous homosexual identities need to be developed in the context of continued colonialism and coloniality.

Practical implications

Firms need to be cognizant of conflicting identities, hybrid identities and changing identities over time while avoiding to use purported protection against homophobia as a camouflage for nationalistic and xenophobic purposes.

Social implications

The paper ways to address the protection against homophobia in firms' codes of conduct in the context of continued colonialism and coloniality.

Originality/value

This paper closes a gap in the literature by considering firms’ codes of conduct as favouring homophobia as a result of continued colonialism and coloniality.

Details

International Journal of Law and Management, vol. 62 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-243X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 November 2013

Lauren Munro, Robb Travers, Alex St. John, Kate Klein, Heather Hunter, David Brennan and Chavisa Brett

This study sought to gain a better understanding of the general life experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) newcomer youth, situated within the…

2036

Abstract

Purpose

This study sought to gain a better understanding of the general life experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) newcomer youth, situated within the broader context of their lives post-migration. The purpose of this paper is to explore the nature of various forms of oppression experienced by LGBT newcomers and offers recommendations for transforming services to better serve the complex needs of this marginalized population.

Design/methodology/approach

The Teens Resisting Urban Trans/Homophobia (TRUTH) project was comprised of ten focus groups with 70 youth (aged 14-29) living in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA). Another three focus groups were conducted with 13 GTA service providers and teachers working with LGBT youth, in addition to one key informant interview. For this paper, the authors drew from a subset of the data including four newcomer-specific focus groups in which there were 39 youth who identified as refugees or immigrants, as well as key informant interviews with four youth (three of whom also participated in focus groups) and one service provider. Participants were asked about “what homophobia and transphobia meant to them”, “where they experienced it”, “in what forms”, and “how it impacted their daily lives”.

Findings

The experiences of LGBT newcomer youth in this study involved a complex negotiation of multiple systems of oppression. Youth described experiences of homophobia and racism within interpersonal relationships, in the LGBT community, in their respective diasporic communities, in social service encounters and during the immigration/refugee process. Barriers for LGBT refugee youth included difficulties finding work and accessing health care, as well as the additional burden of proving their sexual orientation during refugee claimant hearings.

Research limitations/implications

While the combination of focus groups and key informant interviews is a strength in this study, it also presents challenges for analysis. In focus groups, it is not always clear who is speaking; because of this, the authors were sometimes unable to differentiate between refugee and immigrant youth (or those without status) in our focus groups, making it often unclear which perspective or experience youth were speaking to. Another limitation was the dominance of the “cisgender gay male voice” in our conclusions. Lesbian and bisexual women were present in fewer numbers and the sample only included three trans youth.

Practical implications

The findings reveal systemic discrimination on the basis of race and sexual orientation that illuminate injustices within Canadian society and systems that can enhance the efforts of those working in policy and service environments. Focused anti-homophobia and anti-racism training, and the implementation of policies designed to enhance accessibility, could improve service provision for newcomer LGBT youth. Furthermore, in order to facilitate a more just settlement process, a broader understanding of sexual identity, gender identity, and gender expression is required of the refugee claimant system.

Originality/value

This study examines the experiences of youth in a large and complex, multicultural, and gay-friendly urban centre, thus providing timely and current data about the well-being of newcomer LGBT youth. As such, it is one of the first studies to offer some insights into the life issues and challenges post-migration of Canadian LGBT newcomer youth.

Details

Ethnicity and Inequalities in Health and Social Care, vol. 6 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-0980

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 November 2011

Michele Rene Gregory

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between “locker room” hegemonic masculinities at work and the construction of homophobia, particularly the use of…

4905

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between “locker room” hegemonic masculinities at work and the construction of homophobia, particularly the use of the word “fag” to describe gay men – real or perceived. Although research indicates that men are more homophobic than women, examples are presented which examine some of the reasons why women use the word “fag” at work. Although equal opportunities at work have improved for sexual minorities over the past two decades, studies indicate that some forms of anti‐lesbian, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) behaviour continue, which raises the question whether a hierarchy of inequality exists in some organizations.

Design/methodology/approach

The data used to analyze this under‐researched phenomenon come from the author's observations working for three multinational corporations in the USA.

Findings

The paper shows how men and women engage in locker room culture to construct homophobic narratives.

Research limitations/implications

The issues raised in this article will be useful for empirical studies which examine the relationship between competitive sports and sexuality in the construction of masculine hegemonies in the workplace. Additionally, research should address the workplace experiences of sexual minorities who are also ethnic minorities, and disabled.

Originality/value

The paper contributes to the largely invisible research on the role of sports culture, especially the locker room, and gender and sexuality in non‐sports work environments. It also contributes to the study of masculine embodiments by focussing on sports culture such as the locker room, heteronormative‐masculinities and homophobia.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 30 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 June 2011

Judit Takács and Ivett Szalma

This paper seeks to answer the practical question whether the institutionalisation level of same‐sex relationships can affect the social acceptance of lesbian women and…

2624

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to answer the practical question whether the institutionalisation level of same‐sex relationships can affect the social acceptance of lesbian women and gay men in Europe, and highlight some of the factors that can potentially determine the incidence of homophobia in 26 European countries.

Design/methodology/approach

The study contributes to the literature on acceptance of lesbian women and gay men in Europe by using the European Social Survey dataset, focusing especially on a key variable measuring the agreement level with the statement that gay men and lesbians should be free to live their own life as they wish. For data analyses, explanatory models were constructed by applying multilevel mixed‐effects linear regression.

Findings

The study presented empirically tested arguments that the introduction of same‐sex partnership legislation can lead to a decrease of anti‐gay/lesbian attitudes, as has happened in the European countries examined in this study.

Research limitations/implications

Future research in more societies is needed to examine the long‐term effects of the introduction of same‐sex partnership legislation on homophobia.

Social implications

A key policy implication of highlighting that the provision of equal rights for gay and lesbian citizens in the form of same‐sex marriage and registered partnership can positively influence attitudes, is to urge policy‐makers to introduce these legal frameworks in order to create a more inclusive society.

Originality/value

The content presented in this paper is based on the authors’ own original research.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 30 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 13 April 2022

Keith D. Parry and Rory Magrath

The aim of this chapter is to explore the relationship between contemporary sport, social media, digital technology, and sexuality and to explore the historical context of…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this chapter is to explore the relationship between contemporary sport, social media, digital technology, and sexuality and to explore the historical context of sport and sexuality, before then outlining the decline of homophobia in recent years. Despite this decline, social media is one area where we still see the manifestation of homophobia.

Design/methodology/approach

This chapter synthesizes a range of academic literature to chart how – despite improving attitudes toward homosexuality in sport – abuse and discrimination is still prevalent on social media.

Findings

Eric Anderson's (2009) Inclusive Masculinity Theory has been the most useful theoretical apparatus to underpin the changing nature of sport, gender, and sexuality. While this has been used in a variety of sporting contexts, these are primarily focused on gay male athletes in the West. Accordingly, there is a gap in knowledge around the experiences of lesbian, bisexual, and trans athletes, as well as those outside of the Western context.

Originality/value

Although there has been some literature to document discrimination on social media, very little focuses specifically on the manifestation of homophobia. Accordingly, this chapter provides an important contribution by being one of the first to tie together the literature on improved cultural attitudes toward homosexuality while simultaneously focusing on the prevalence of discrimination on social media.

Details

Sport, Social Media, and Digital Technology
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-684-1

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 30 December 2004

Ben Golder

In this paper I want to look at just one of the many contemporary legal narratives of homophobia – the phenomenon of the “Homosexual Advance Defence” (H.A.D.). While I…

Abstract

In this paper I want to look at just one of the many contemporary legal narratives of homophobia – the phenomenon of the “Homosexual Advance Defence” (H.A.D.). While I agree with the analysis of one American commentator, who indicts the H.A.D. as a “judicial institutionalization of homophobia” (Mison, 1992, p. 136), I maintain that it is important to extend analyses which take as their main target the entrenchment of bigoted judicial views or which employ as their main critical tool a liberal framework of equality and discrimination (for example, see Potter, 2001). Just as Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick urges us not to view homophobia as simple ignorance or bigotry (see Howe, 2000, pp. 85–87), I argue that there is much more at stake with the H.A.D., and consequently much more required of us, than mere questions of ignorance, discrimination and (re-)education. While it is important to identify and condemn at every turn the various legal and social manifestations of homophobia, of which the H.A.D. is clearly one, it is just as important (if not more so) to interrogate the discursive and epistemological foundations, or legitimations, of these very beliefs.

Details

Aesthetics of Law and Culture: Texts, Images, Screens
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-304-4

Book part
Publication date: 30 June 2004

Belle Rose Ragins

Lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) employees constitute one of the largest, but least studied, minority groups in the workforce. This article examines what we know, and what…

Abstract

Lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) employees constitute one of the largest, but least studied, minority groups in the workforce. This article examines what we know, and what we need to know, about the career and workplace experiences of this understudied population. The construct of sexual identity is defined, followed by a review of the research on sexual orientation in the workplace. Then an analysis of the differences between LGB employees and other stigmatized groups is presented. Three unique challenges facing LGB employees are identified, and conceptual models are developed that explain underlying processes. Finally, career theories are critically analyzed, and an identity-based longitudinal theory of LGB careers is presented.

Details

Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-103-3

Book part
Publication date: 22 February 2011

Ashley Currier

This chapter considers how lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) activists in Namibia and South Africa appropriate discourses of decolonization associated with…

Abstract

This chapter considers how lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) activists in Namibia and South Africa appropriate discourses of decolonization associated with African national liberation movements. I examine the legal, cultural, and political possibilities associated with LGBT activists’ framing of law reform as a decolonization project. LGBT activists identified laws governing gender and sexual nonconformity as in particular need of reform. Using data from daily ethnographic observation of LGBT movement organizations, in-depth qualitative interviews with LGBT activists, and newspaper articles about political homophobia, I elucidate how Namibian and South African LGBT activists conceptualize movement challenges to antigay laws as decolonization.

Details

Special Issue Social Movements/Legal Possibilities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-826-8

Book part
Publication date: 13 April 2022

Jamie Cleland and Connor MacDonald

This chapter outlines the extent to which the traditional characteristics of masculinity in sport – initially played out in sports stadia and the traditional media in the…

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter outlines the extent to which the traditional characteristics of masculinity in sport – initially played out in sports stadia and the traditional media in the late nineteenth and throughout most of the twentieth century – are now also a feature of social media and digital technology platforms in the twenty-first century. At the outset, this chapter discusses the historical association between masculinity and sporting competition and how this has played an important role in presenting a normative heterosexual identity among players, fans, and the traditional media. The chapter then discusses the introduction of social media and digital technology platforms and the impact this history is having in these rapidly consumed spaces, with a particular focus on language, such as hate speech.

Design/methodology/approach

This chapter examines and discusses a myriad of literature from inside and outside of academia that explores masculinity, sport, and the internet. These discussions are backgrounded within a historical context and connected to contemporary examples.

Findings

Social media and digital technology platforms have provided opportunities for athletes, the media, and fans, to engage in more of an active debate on masculinity in sport than existed in the twentieth century. However, the chapter also addresses the traditional characteristics of masculinity that remain in the culture of sport and in online environments, especially surrounding hate speech.

Originality/value

This chapter, while engaging in an emerging topic of discussion, offers important recommendations for future research and the ways in which this can be methodologically carried out on the internet on a variety of topic areas surrounding masculinity in sport from a sociological perspective.

Details

Sport, Social Media, and Digital Technology
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-684-1

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 August 2017

Philip Birch, Rebecca Ozanne and Jane Ireland

The role of the media in supporting an understanding of the social world is well documented. The representation of homosexuals in the media can therefore impact on…

Abstract

Purpose

The role of the media in supporting an understanding of the social world is well documented. The representation of homosexuals in the media can therefore impact on homophobia within society. The purpose of this paper is to examine how homosexuals are portrayed in the media generally, before examining and comparing newspaper reports of homosexual aggression with heterosexual aggression.

Design/methodology/approach

Utilising a new and innovative research methodology, an integrated grounded behavioural linguistic inquiry (IGBLI) approach, four daily newspapers in circulation within the USA, Canada, the UK and Australia are examined.

Findings

While there are similarities in the way print media report on these aggressive incidents, the differences which emerge from the findings are of interest which require further, more in-depth study.

Practical implications

To extend the methodology of IGBLI to other forms of media content in order to further validate the approach. To reduce the differences between LGBTI news reports and heterosexual news reports. To hold the media to account for the ways in which they express their content. To encourage users of the media, in particular print media, to be critical of what they read.

Originality/value

Typically, analysis of media utilises the research method of content analysis. This paper adopts a new and innovative research method, an IGBLI approach, which incorporates a behavioural assessment in the form of a SORC.

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