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Article
Publication date: 11 March 2021

Philip Apraku Tawiah, Albert Abaka-Yawson, Emmanuel Sintim Effah, Kingsley Arhin-Wiredu and Kwabena Oppong

This study aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection among medical laboratory science students (MLSSs) in the University of…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection among medical laboratory science students (MLSSs) in the University of Health and Allied Sciences (UHAS), Ghana.

Design/methodology/approach

A cross-sectional study design was employed to recruit a total of 178 students into the study. A self-administered questionnaire was used to gather relevant information on risk factors, and a hepatitis B diagnostic test kit was used to test for HBV infection. Descriptive, chi-square test, bivariate and multiple logistic regression statistical analysis were computed. Significance was observed at p < 0.05.

Findings

The prevalence of HBV infection among MLSSs was 6.7%. Torn gloves and splash of blood and body fluids contributed to 43.0% and 28.0% of all the risk factors of HBV infection, respectively. Also, 43.3% of students had received at least one dose of the hepatitis B vaccination. Sharp object-related injury and torn gloves increased the odds of HBV infection, while vaccination decreased the odds of HBV infection.

Research limitations/implications

Sharp-related injuries, torn gloves and vaccination were strong predictors of the HBV infection. And since the infection among students was high, it is imperative to institute measures to avert the concentration of the disease among health-care workers (HCWs) and MLSSs.

Originality/value

This study reveals the prevalence of HBV among MLSSs, who are recognized as being among the high-risk student populations aside from student nurses.

Details

Journal of Health Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0857-4421

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2008

Emanuele Pontali and Franco Ferrari

Correctional facilities host a disproportionately high prevalence of HBV, HCV and HIV infection. We evaluated the prevalence of HBV and/or HCV co‐infection among…

Abstract

Correctional facilities host a disproportionately high prevalence of HBV, HCV and HIV infection. We evaluated the prevalence of HBV and/or HCV co‐infection among HIV‐infected inmates entering our correctional facility. Over a 30‐month period, 173 consecutive HIV‐infected inmates entered our institution and were evaluated. HCV co‐infection was observed in more than 90% of the tested HIV‐infected inmates, past HBV infection in 77.4% and active HBV co‐infection in 6.7%; triple coinfection (HIV, HCV and HBs‐Ag positivity) was seen in 6.1% of them. Given the observed high prevalence of co‐infection, testing for HBV and HCV in all HIV‐infected inmates at entry in any correctional system is recommended to identify those in need of specific care and/or preventing interventions.

Details

International Journal of Prisoner Health, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-9200

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Article
Publication date: 15 December 2017

Roxanne Khan, Shamam Saleem and Michelle Lowe

The purpose of this paper is to explore attitudes towards, and victimisation experiences of, “honour”-based violence (HBV) in a reportedly vulnerable population in the UK.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore attitudes towards, and victimisation experiences of, “honour”-based violence (HBV) in a reportedly vulnerable population in the UK.

Design/methodology/approach

A convenience sample of 216 participants were recruited from a local community in England; the majority were young (mean age=21.93), Indian or Pakistani (85 per cent), Muslim (96 per cent), females (67 per cent).

Findings

Although gender differences were found for attitudes towards one aspect of HBV (namely, forced marriage), these were not significant. While HBV victimisation affected only a small proportion of this sample, when it was reported, the effects were serious and included anxiety, attempted suicides and running away from home. This highlights the need to identify and safeguard vulnerable groups without stigmatising whole communities.

Originality/value

These findings contribute to the scarce literature available on HBV in British communities, and highlight a need for culturally aware emergency and health service provision.

Details

Safer Communities, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-8043

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Article
Publication date: 19 September 2016

Sadiq Bhanbhro, Anna Cronin de Chavez and Adelaide Lusambili

“Honour”-based violence (HBV), a form of gender-based violence (GBV), has received increasing interest from media, human rights organisations, academics and the public. A…

Abstract

Purpose

“Honour”-based violence (HBV), a form of gender-based violence (GBV), has received increasing interest from media, human rights organisations, academics and the public. A significant increase in the occurrence and reporting of HBV in many parts of the world and its detrimental impact on the health and well-being of women, girls, communities and wider society; marks it as a major public health concern. However, awareness and recognition of HBV in the field of public health is low in many countries and there is little known about its nature, roots and distribution. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The literature was searched using the Scopus database and a series of search terms related to HBV, GBV and health and well-being.

Findings

Definition of HBV and its forms is varied across cultures. There is a lack of consensus on how HBV can be identified over other forms of violence and no explicit theoretical perspectives have been sufficiently developed to deepen the understanding of HBV. Although the findings from the review suggest that HBV forms and patterns may be regionally distinct, causes emanate from gender-based and socio-economic inequalities.

Research limitations/implications

This review has limitations in that it included only English and Spanish language papers and those accessed through Scopus; it therefore may have excluded papers from other languages, countries and databases. Another major weakness in this review was a lack of papers specifically dedicated to HBV. Despite these weaknesses the paper is an attempt to raise awareness and recognition of HBV in public health research, policy and practice domain.

Originality/value

The findings from the review highlight the complexity of tackling HBV in a globalised world. They also provide insights on how a public health model can be used to analyse both the causes and prevention of HBV. Further, a non-culturalised, unprejudiced and inclusive definition is required to flag-up and record HBV cases.

Details

International Journal of Human Rights in Healthcare, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4902

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Article
Publication date: 4 March 2019

Angelo Augusto, Orvalho Augusto, Atija Taquibo, Carina Nhachigule, Narcisa Siyawadya and Eduardo Samo Gudo

The purpose of this paper is to determine the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) among 448 HIV-infected prisoners from 32 prisons in Mozambique.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) among 448 HIV-infected prisoners from 32 prisons in Mozambique.

Design/methodology/approach

All HIV seropositive prisoners were screened for HBV.

Findings

Of the 448 HIV seropositive prisoners, 51 (11.4 percent, 95%CI: 9.3–13.9 percent) were HBsAg-positive and was significantly higher in prisoners aged<25 years.

Originality/value

Data from this study show for the first time that the frequency of HBV among HIV-infected prisoners is high, suggesting that immediate interventions are needed during incarceration.

Details

International Journal of Prisoner Health, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-9200

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Article
Publication date: 19 April 2018

Michelle Lowe, Roxanne Khan, Vanlal Thanzami, Mahsa Barzy and Rozina Karmaliani

Although intimate partner violence (IPV) and “honor”-based violence (HBV) are major concerns throughout the world, little research has investigated the acceptance of these…

Abstract

Purpose

Although intimate partner violence (IPV) and “honor”-based violence (HBV) are major concerns throughout the world, little research has investigated the acceptance of these forms of abuse outside of the West. The purpose of this paper is to therefore respond to this gap in the literature by exploring attitudes toward HBV in a fictional depiction of IPV across four Asian samples: India, Iran, Malaysia and Pakistan.

Design/methodology/approach

Participants (n=579) read a hypothetical scenario in which a husband, despite his own marital infidelity, verbally abuses and physically assaults his wife after discovering that she has been unfaithful. Participants then completed a questionnaire that assessed perceptions of damage to the husband’s honor, approval of intimate partner HBV against the wife, and perceptions of both the victim-wife and the perpetrator-husband.

Findings

The findings revealed that more males than females, across all four nations, were endorsing of honor-adhering attitudes in response to the perceived threat to the husband’s reputation resulting from the wife’s infidelity. Additionally, of the four samples, Pakistani participants were the most approving and Malaysians least endorsing of honor-adhering attitudes.

Originality/value

The results are discussed in relation to studies of honor-adherence in Asian populations. This study provides an original glimpse into the perceptions of intimate partner HBV in these not-often sampled nationalities.

Details

Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-6599

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Book part
Publication date: 2 July 2020

Aisha K. Gill and Samantha Walker

Although this chapter situates all violence against women as a human rights issue, it emphasises ‘culturalised’ forms of this violence, such as honour-based…

Abstract

Although this chapter situates all violence against women as a human rights issue, it emphasises ‘culturalised’ forms of this violence, such as honour-based violence/abuse, forced marriage and female genital mutilation. The authors draw upon their respective research to highlight how these forms of gendered violence have been subjected to a process of culturalisation. The chapter shows that while this process has raised awareness of previously under-researched forms of abuse and highlighted some of the contextual differences between women’s experiences of violence more broadly, its overemphasis on culture and cultural pathology has resulted in policy and legislative responses that do not always benefit victims. Ultimately, this chapter aims to problematise ‘culturalised’ understandings of violence in diverse communities and to show how current policy, legislative and support responses fail to adequately address the intersectional needs of black and minority ethnic victims/survivors.1

Details

The Emerald Handbook of Feminism, Criminology and Social Change
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-956-4

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Article
Publication date: 13 June 2016

Emanuele Pontali, Nicoletta Bobbio, Marilena Zaccardi and Renato Urciuoli

– The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the prevalence of HBV and/or HCV co-infection among HIV-infected inmates entering the correctional facility.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the prevalence of HBV and/or HCV co-infection among HIV-infected inmates entering the correctional facility.

Design/methodology/approach

Prospective collection of data of HIV-infected inmates entered the institution over a ten-year period.

Findings

During study period 365 consecutive different inmates were evaluated. HCV co-infection was observed in more than 80 per cent of the tested HIV-infected inmates, past HBV infection in 71.6 per cent and active HBV co-infection was detected in 7.1 per cent; triple coinfection (HIV, HCV and HBs-Ag positivity) was present in 6 per cent of the total.

Originality/value

This study confirms high prevalence of co-infections among HIV-infected inmates. Testing for HBV and HCV in all HIV-infected inmates at entry in any correctional system is recommended to identify those in need of specific care and/or preventing interventions.

Details

International Journal of Prisoner Health, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-9200

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2019

Sukran Kose, Pelin Adar, Ayhan Gozaydin, Lutfiye Kuzucu and Gulgun Akkoclu

Prisons, which are hazardous places for various contagious diseases, carry additional risks for HBV and HCV because of the communal lifestyle (common use of tools like…

Abstract

Purpose

Prisons, which are hazardous places for various contagious diseases, carry additional risks for HBV and HCV because of the communal lifestyle (common use of tools like razor blades, tattoo applications, intravenous drug use and homosexual intercourse). The purpose of this paper is to determine the prevalence of HBV and HCV, and also provide information for prisoners in this respect.

Design/methodology/approach

This study included 180 prisoners from the Buca F-Type Closed Prison, and 180 prisoners from the Foça Open Prison in Turkey. After the training seminars, serum levels of HBsAg, anti HBs, anti HBc total and anti HCV in the prisoners were assessed using the MICROELISA method.

Findings

All the prisoners were male. The mean age was 40(21–73) years. According to the results of 360 prisoners from both prisons, 17 (4.7 percent) prisoners were HBsAg positive and were diagnosed as HBV. Isolated anti HBs was positive in 33 (9.1 percent) prisoners who had been previously vaccinated. In 25 (6.9 percent) prisoners isolated Anti HBc total was positive, and in 61 (16.9 percent) prisoners both Anti HBs and Anti HBc total was positive in those who were considered to be recovered from the HBV. Anti HCV was positive in 2 (0.5 percent) prisoners; the process was repeated twice, and found to be repeatedly positive. Coinfection of HBV and HCV was not detected.

Research limitations/implications

In this study, the prevalence of HBV and HCV was determined to be similar to those in the normal population. However, it is not expedient to generalize this result and apply it to all prisons. For the sake of public health, prisons should be scanned for infectious diseases, and vaccinations must be applied as necessary, in order to provide protection.

Originality/value

It is a study to determine the prevalence of HBV and HCV in the prisoner population, which constitute one of the risk groups because of the communal lifestyle (common use of some tools such as the razor blade, tattoo applications, intravenous drug use and homosexual intercourse), and to compare the results with other groups in Turkey and globally.

Details

International Journal of Prisoner Health, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-9200

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Article
Publication date: 12 March 2014

Stephanie Ellen Perrett, Mark Erricker and Marion Lyons

The purpose of this paper is to provide education on blood-borne viruses (BBVs) to prison staff to help reduce stigma within the prisons, improve the care prisoners…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide education on blood-borne viruses (BBVs) to prison staff to help reduce stigma within the prisons, improve the care prisoners receive and reduce the risk of occupational transmission.

Design/methodology/approach

An e-module was used to improve staff understanding of hepatitis B (HBV), hepatitis C (HCV) and HIV at a prison in Wales, UK. An assessment was used to gather data on prison staff understanding of BBVs prior to undertaking the e-module.

Findings

In total, 530/697 (76 per cent) prison staff completed the BBV e-module. Average pre- and post-course assessment scores were 8.6/11 and 10.85/11, respectively. Most staff understood the modes of hepatitis transmission, however, gaps in understanding were highlighted. In total, 22 per cent of staff believed HBV and HCV were airborne, 9 per cent believed transmission occurred through sharing cutlery. In total, 31 per cent of staff believed prisoners with hepatitis should declare their status to the prison.

Practical implications

The e-module significantly improved staff understanding of BBVs and should be incorporated into future prison training packages. Future education should include how BBVs are not transmitted with an emphasis on casual contact. Medical confidentiality in prisons should also be addressed. Improving understanding will help reduce the stigma of BBVs within prison and improve the multidisciplinary care the prisoner receives.

Originality/value

To the authors knowledge this is the first published evaluation of a BBV learning package for custodial staff. Evaluation of this educational package demonstrates a unique and valuable insight into the general understanding of BBVs by prison staff in Wales, UK.

Details

International Journal of Prisoner Health, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-9200

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