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Book part
Publication date: 23 July 2016

Nicola Giocoli

At the turn of the 20th-century railroad regulation was hotly debated in the United States. Railways were accused of abusing of their monopolistic position, in particular by…

Abstract

At the turn of the 20th-century railroad regulation was hotly debated in the United States. Railways were accused of abusing of their monopolistic position, in particular by discriminating rates. Public opinion’s pressure for tighter regulation led to the 1906 enactment of the Hepburn Act, which strengthened the powers of the Interstate Commerce Commission. American economists actively participated in the debate. While most of them sided with the pro-regulation camp, the best economic analysis came from those who used the logic of modern law and economics to demonstrate how most railroads’ practices, including rate discrimination, were simply rational, pro-efficiency behavior. However, as relatively unknown Chicago University economist Hugo R. Meyer would discover, proposing that logic in public events could at that time cost you your academic career.

Details

Research in the History of Economic Thought and Methodology
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-960-2

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Book part
Publication date: 26 August 2019

Virginia M. Tucker

Purpose – This chapter puts forth an approach for deeper understanding of the ways that information professionals learn, based on concepts and strategies that enable them to…

Abstract

Purpose – This chapter puts forth an approach for deeper understanding of the ways that information professionals learn, based on concepts and strategies that enable them to fulfill the varied roles they take on. It considers multiple facets in their experiences of using information to learn, the essence of informed learning (Bruce, 2008). The purpose of furthering this understanding is to develop approaches for designing enhanced curriculum to support transformative learning experiences.

Design & Methodology – To explore the learning experiences, roles, and strategies of information professionals, this chapter enlists two frameworks pertinent to transformative learning: first, the informed learning construct of Bruce (2008) and, second, the threshold concepts theoretical framework of Meyer and Land (2003). Both frameworks have been used to guide the design of curriculum, and this chapter discusses using them together to design higher education courses for information professionals. Learning activities from two courses in an online MLIS degree program – information retrieval system design and information architecture – are used as case illustrations for implementing a blended approach.

Findings & Discussion – The outcomes from implementing curriculum that has been designed based on informed learning principles and threshold concepts that were derived from learner experiences are discussed. A third construct, information experience (Bruce et al., 2014), which evolved in part out of informed learning, is brought into the discussion, providing an additional dimension for understanding the learner’s relationship with his/her information world.

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Informed Learning Applications: Insights from Research and Practice
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-062-2

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Book part
Publication date: 15 February 2021

Lucy Hatt

This chapter offers a conceptual perspective of what students need to understand to understand entrepreneurship, and educators’ views on how best to educate students in it, in

Abstract

This chapter offers a conceptual perspective of what students need to understand to understand entrepreneurship, and educators’ views on how best to educate students in it, in response to calls for a greater understanding of the learning environment. The research uses the lens of the threshold concept framework to inform a conceptual approach to entrepreneurship education. The threshold concept framework posits that in any academic discipline there are concepts that have a particularly transformative effect on student learning representing a transformed way of understanding something, without which the learner cannot progress.

Research was undertaken in three stages to identify what is distinctive about thinking like an entrepreneur, how to educate students to think like entrepreneurs and how students understand thinking like entrepreneurs. The first and second stages of the study are the focus of this chapter. Candidate threshold concepts in entrepreneurship and educators’ perspectives of effective ways to educate students in entrepreneurship are presented.

Data from 11 individual and group semi-structured interviews conducted with 18 entrepreneurship educators in 10 higher education institutions across the UK was integrated with findings from a Delphi survey with 10 expert entrepreneurs.

By offering the perspectives of entrepreneurship educators and entrepreneurs, this chapter makes a valuable contribution to a conceptually grounded and innovative approach to entrepreneurship education.

Details

Universities and Entrepreneurship: Meeting the Educational and Social Challenges
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-074-8

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Article
Publication date: 13 June 2016

Jan H.F. Meyer

The purpose of this paper is to present a brief exposure to the development of the threshold concepts framework (TCF), the intention being to illuminate for interested readers a…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a brief exposure to the development of the threshold concepts framework (TCF), the intention being to illuminate for interested readers a broader landscape of research activity than that perhaps conveyed by the individual contributions to this special edition.

Design/methodology/approach

There is first an account of how the notion of a “threshold concept” was presented by Meyer and Land in their seminal 2003 paper, and a clarification of some terminology used by them at that time to describe the (confusing for some) “characteristics” of such a concept. A discursive account, with examples, follows on how analyses for, and of, threshold concepts might proceed, and how findings might provoke a reappraisal of associated learning and teaching practices. Towards this end a contemporary pedagogical perspective is introduced based on the construct of integrated threshold concept knowledge (ITCK) as proposed by Meyer and Timmermans (2016). Reference to a detailed case study illustrates the practical dynamics of generating ITCK; specifically in the context of a third-year engineering course embedding the threshold of “critical flow”. Activities and processes, transferable to other discipline contexts, are described that yield particular elements of ITCK (different constituent “types of knowledge”) in relation, in this case, to “critical flow”. A final consideration is the “representation” of “critical flow” for pedagogical purposes in the form of a metacognitive activity for learning and formative assessment purposes that is, again, adaptable to other discipline contexts.

Findings

There are no specific findings in this paper as its purpose is to provide a condensed review of the development of the TCF.

Originality/value

This value of this paper is that it provides a contemporary expert exposure to the development of the TCF by the originator of the notion of a threshold concept.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 58 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 2009

X.Q. Zhang

widely‐used hypoelastic model for four well‐known objective stress rates under a four‐phase stress cycle associated with axial tension and/or torsion of thin‐walled cylindrical…

Abstract

widely‐used hypoelastic model for four well‐known objective stress rates under a four‐phase stress cycle associated with axial tension and/or torsion of thin‐walled cylindrical tubes. Here, two kinds of models based upon the Cauchy stress and the Kirchhoff stress will be treated. The reduced systems of differential equations of these rate constitutive equations are derived and studied for Jaumann, Green‐ Naghdi, logarithmic and Truesdell stress rates, separately. Analytical solutions in some cases and numerical solutions in all cases are obtained using these reduced systems. Comparisons between the residual deformations are made for different cases. It may be seen that only the logarithmic stress rate results in no residual deformation. In particular, results indicate that Green‐Naghdi rate would generate unexpected residual deformation effect that is essentially different from that resulting from Jaumann rate. On the other hand, it is realized that this study accomplishes an alternative, direct proof for the nonintegrability problem of Truesdell’s hypoelastic rate equation with classical stress rates. This problem has been first treated successfully by Simo and Pister in 1984 using Bernstein’s integrability conditions. However, such treatment needs to cope with a coupled system of nonlinear partial differential equations in Cauchy stress. Here, a different idea is used. It is noted that every integrable hypoelastic equation is just an equivalent rate form of an elastic equation and hence should produce no residual deformations under every possible stress cycle. Accordingly, a hypoelastic model with a stress rate has to be non‐integrable, whenever a stress cycle can be found under which this model generates residual deformation. According to this idea of reductio ad absurdum, a well‐designed stress cycle is introduced and the corresponding residual deformations are calculated. Unlike the treatment of Bernstein’s integrability conditions, it may be a simple and straightforward matter to calculate the final deformations for a given stress cycle. This has been done in this study for several well‐known stress rates.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

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Book part
Publication date: 22 October 2016

Virginia M. Tucker, Christine Bruce and Sylvia L. Edwards

This chapter explores the potential of grounded theory research methods for eliciting threshold concepts. It begins with an overview of threshold concept theory, then reviews…

Abstract

This chapter explores the potential of grounded theory research methods for eliciting threshold concepts. It begins with an overview of threshold concept theory, then reviews current methodological approaches, as well as challenges encountered, when researching threshold concepts. The discussion argues for the suitability of grounded theory for this purpose, using a specific case for illustration. Specific elements of the research design that strengthened the use of grounded theory in the exploration of threshold concepts are described. The case example used is of graduate students and practicing professionals’ learning experiences when acquiring expertise in the online environment. The case is used to demonstrate the grounded theory method’s efficacy for eliciting evidence of transformative learning experiences, leading to implications for improving curriculum design.

Details

Theory and Method in Higher Education Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-895-0

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 21 May 2019

John N. Moye

Abstract

Details

Learning Differentiated Curriculum Design in Higher Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-117-4

Book part
Publication date: 5 May 2017

Pablo Fraser and William C. Smith

This chapter presents a theoretical and historical account of the OECD policy diffusion mechanisms, specifically addressing their influence on teacher policy. In order to present…

Abstract

This chapter presents a theoretical and historical account of the OECD policy diffusion mechanisms, specifically addressing their influence on teacher policy. In order to present our argument, the chapter is divided in three sections. First, we present a historical description of how the Directorate of Education and Skills of the OECD has become a central figure in global policy discussions. Then, we address the particular mechanisms through which the OECD is able to expand their influence. We argue that the scientific validation of their recommendations through country reviews and the invitation to participate in large-scale studies and surveys, such as the Programme for International Students Assessment (PISA) and the Teaching and Learning Survey (TALIS), have become pivotal for communicating policy messages concerning teacher quality and development. Next, we argue that while OECD recommendations are engrained in notions of human capital, their work on teachers has incorporated elements of professional capital. Additionally, we stress how the influence of social science and large-scale survey studies has contributed to the development of a concept of teacher professionalization promoted by the OECD.

Details

The Impact of the OECD on Education Worldwide
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-539-3

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Book part
Publication date: 4 February 2015

Grace I. Blum, Michael Gutierrez and Charles Peck

This chapter provides a conceptual framework for inclusive education for learners with low-incidence disabilities grounded in the argument that increased access and participation

Abstract

This chapter provides a conceptual framework for inclusive education for learners with low-incidence disabilities grounded in the argument that increased access and participation in socially valued roles, activities, and settings are both the most fundamental goals of the inclusive education process and also the primary means in which these goals are achieved. By challenging traditional views of learning development as merely the acquisition of skills, the proposed framework largely considers the social contexts in which the development of new skills takes place. Through the presentation of three case illustrations, the authors describe ways in which the framework may be relevant to designing and evaluating programs of inclusive education that are responsive to the needs of diverse communities, including those in a variety of international contexts.

Details

Including Learners with Low-Incidence Disabilities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-250-0

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Article
Publication date: 12 September 2016

Tenzin Wangmo, Sirin Hauri, Andrea H. Meyer and Bernice S. Elger

The purpose of this paper is to identify primary health concerns prompting older and younger prisoners in Switzerland to consult a nurse or a general practitioner (GP) within the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify primary health concerns prompting older and younger prisoners in Switzerland to consult a nurse or a general practitioner (GP) within the prison healthcare setting, and explores if these reasons for visits differ by age group (49 years and younger vs 50 years and older). The authors used 50 years and older as the benchmark for older prisoners in light of literature indicating accelerated aging among prisoners.

Design/methodology/approach

Retrospective information from medical records of 406 prisoners were collected for a period of six months. This study analyzed the reasons for which prisoners visited the nurses and GPs available to them through the prison healthcare service. These reasons were coded using the International Classification of Primary Care-version 2. Data were analyzed descriptively and four generalized linear models were built to examine whether there was an age group difference in reasons for visiting nurses and GPs.

Findings

The health reasons for visiting nurses and GPs by 380 male prisoners from 13 Swiss prisons are presented. In the six month period, a total of 3,309 reasons for visiting nurses and 1,648 reasons for visiting GPs were recorded. Prisoner participants’ most common reasons for both visits were for general and unspecified complaints and musculoskeletal problems. Older prisoners sought significantly more consultations for cardiovascular and endocrine problems than younger prisoners.

Research limitations/implications

Nurses play an important role in addressing healthcare demands of prisoners and coordinating care in Swiss prisons. In light of age-related healthcare demands, continuing education and training of both nurses and GPs to adequately and efficiently address the needs of this prisoner group is critical. Allowing prisoners to carry out some care activities for minor self-manageable complaints will reduce the demand for healthcare.

Originality/value

This study presents unique data on healthcare concerns for which prisoners visit prison nurses and GPs. It highlights the varied needs of older prisoners as well as how these needs are addressed based on the availability of the primary healthcare provider within the prison.

Details

International Journal of Prisoner Health, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-9200

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