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Article
Publication date: 7 January 2019

Monica T. Whitty

This paper aims to develop a theoretical framework to predict susceptibility to cyber-fraud victimhood.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to develop a theoretical framework to predict susceptibility to cyber-fraud victimhood.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey was constructed to examine whether personality, socio-demographic characteristics and online routine activities predicted one-off and repeat victimhood of cyber-fraud. Overall, 11,780 participants completed a survey (one-off victims, N = 728; repeat victims = 329).

Findings

The final saturated model revealed that psychological and socio-demographic characteristics and online routine activities should be considered when predicting victimhood. Consistent with the hypotheses, victims of cyber-frauds were more likely to be older, score high on impulsivity measures of urgency and sensation seeking, score high on addictive measures and engage in more frequent routine activities that place them at great risk of becoming scammed. There was little distinction between one-off and repeat victims of cyber-frauds.

Originality/value

This work uniquely combines psychological, socio-demographic and online behaviours to develop a comprehensive theoretical framework to predict susceptibility to cyber-frauds. Importantly, the work here challenges the current utility of government websites to protect users from becoming scammed and provides insights into methods that might be used to protect users from becoming scammed.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

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Article
Publication date: 4 March 2021

Balkrushna Potdar, Tony Garry, Juergen Gnoth and John Guthrie

This study aims to provide empirically generated insights into the drivers of guardianship behaviour among frontline service employees (FLEs) within retail settings.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to provide empirically generated insights into the drivers of guardianship behaviour among frontline service employees (FLEs) within retail settings.

Design/methodology/approach

The research framework comprises a quantitative survey of 507 frontline service employees at national supermarkets within New Zealand.

Findings

The findings of the survey suggest that service employee perceptions of internal corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities, their level of psychological ownership towards the supermarket and personal moral beliefs, shape their guardianship behaviours and, consequentially, the prevention of in-store deviant behaviours by customers such as shoplifting.

Originality/value

The contribution of this paper is twofold. First, it offers both a conceptual foundation and an empirical-based evaluation of the antecedents and role of guardianship behaviour among frontline service employees. Second, the conceptual model derived from this research may aid practitioners in developing strategies that engender guardianship behaviours in their employees within service contexts.

Details

Journal of Service Theory and Practice, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2055-6225

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Article
Publication date: 30 September 2019

Balkrushna Potdar, Tony Garry, John Guthrie and Juergen Gnoth

The purpose of this paper is to explore how interactional justice within a retail context may influence employee organizational commitment and how this may evoke…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore how interactional justice within a retail context may influence employee organizational commitment and how this may evoke guardianship behaviors that manifest in shoplifting prevention.

Design/methodology/approach

This research uses a phenomenological approach conducting semi-structured in-depth interviews with 26 shop-floor employees of two major national supermarket chains in New Zealand.

Findings

The findings suggest that interactional justice in the workplace is important in shaping organizational commitment amongst employees. Additionally, heightened organizational commitment may have a significant effect on employee propensity to engage in shoplifting prevention/guardianship behavior. A conceptual model is developed based on these findings.

Practical implications

Retail managers may promote and exercise interactional justice practices with employees to improve their organizational commitment and consequential shoplifting prevention/guardianship behaviors.

Originality/value

The contribution of this paper is threefold. First, and from a theoretical perspective, it offers both a conceptual foundation and empirical-based evaluation of interactional justice and its effect on organizational commitment and, specifically, on guardianship/shoplifting prevention behaviors. Second, and from a pragmatic perspective, the conceptual model derived from this research may assist retailers in developing interactional justice strategies that encourage organizational commitment of employees that consequently leads to employees’ guardianship/shoplifting prevention behaviors. Finally, it explores significance and role of employee perceptions of interactional justice, employee workplace attachment and organizational commitment within the context of retail crime prevention.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 48 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

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Article
Publication date: 2 January 2020

Norah Ylang

This paper aims to examine demographic differences between individuals who do not take measures to protect themselves from identity theft victimization and those who do. A…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine demographic differences between individuals who do not take measures to protect themselves from identity theft victimization and those who do. A majority of the research on identity theft has focused on predictors of victimization, reporting behaviors of the victims and their health and mental outcomes. However, little remains known about the individuals who choose to take any identity-theft measures despite concerns over this fast-growing breed of crime.

Design/methodology/approach

Guided by Felson and Cohen’s routine activities theoretical framework (1979), this study uses the 2014 Identity Theft Supplement of the National Crime Victimization Survey to identify the demographic characteristics that influence the use of self-protection measures among individuals in the general population.

Findings

This study finds that these individuals are much more likely to be white, older, female and highly educated. The decision to undertake protection against identity theft is also influenced by the following factors: prior experience of misuse, possession of a bank account in the prior 12 months, current possession of at least one credit card and awareness that one is entitled to a free copy of one’s credit report.

Originality/value

This study addresses the gap in scholarship on identity theft prevention by applying the concept of guardianship in Cohen and Felson’s routine activity theory (1979) to the usage of self-protection measures in a general population. Future findings will identify the areas which agencies and researchers can focus on to inform policies that foster individuals’ own initiatives to take self-protection measures against potential identity theft.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. 27 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

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Article
Publication date: 5 October 2015

Bradford W. Reyns

The purpose of this study is to test a comprehensive routine activity framework on three types of online victimization. Prior research has utilized routine activity theory…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to test a comprehensive routine activity framework on three types of online victimization. Prior research has utilized routine activity theory to explain varied online forms of victimization, but most have focused on its person-based forms. The present study, therefore, expands upon this research to examine the effects of online exposure, online target suitability and online guardianship upon phishing, hacking and malware infection victimization.

Design/methodology/approach

Secondary data from the 23rd Cycle of the Canadian GSS were used to address the study’s research questions using binary logistic regression analyses.

Findings

Particular online behaviors were consistently and positively related to all three types of online victimization, including booking/making reservations, social networking and having one’s information posted online. Other online routines exhibited unique effects on online victimization risk.

Originality/value

In support of the theory, the results suggest that online exposure and target suitability increase risks for phishing, hacking and malware victimization. Online guardianship was also positively related to victimization, a finding that runs counter to theoretical expectations.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. 22 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

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Article
Publication date: 10 September 2018

Balkrushna Potdar, John Guthrie, Juergen Gnoth and Tony Garry

Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is increasingly considered a central tenant of marketing strategy and a source of competitive advantage within the retail sector. As…

Abstract

Purpose

Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is increasingly considered a central tenant of marketing strategy and a source of competitive advantage within the retail sector. As such, it may affect a supermarket’s customer, employee, and other stakeholder attitudes and behaviours. This research explores how a supermarket’s involvement in CSR activities may influence employee engagement and how this may manifest itself in positive employee behaviours. Specifically, the purpose of this paper is to empirically examine the role of CSR and its impact on employee engagement and consequently, employee propensity to exhibit intervention behaviours to prevent in-store retail crime.

Design/methodology/approach

This research uses a phenomenological approach through semi-structured in-depth interviews with shop-floor employees of a national supermarket chain.

Findings

Findings suggest that external and internal CSR practices of supermarkets are important in shaping organisational engagement behaviours among employees. Additionally, heightened employee engagement may have a significant impact on employee propensity to engage in shoplifting prevention behaviours. A conceptual model is developed based on these findings.

Practical implications

Retail managers should fully communicate CSR practices to employees to increase employee engagement and consequential shoplifting intervention prevention behaviours.

Originality/value

The contribution of this paper is twofold. First and from a theoretical perspective, it offers both a conceptual foundation and empirical-based evaluation of CSR and its impact on employee engagement and specifically, shoplifting prevention behaviours. Second and from a pragmatic perspective, the conceptual model derived from this research may aid retailers in developing and communicating CSR strategies that engage employees and consequently lead to shoplifting prevention behaviours.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 46 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

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Article
Publication date: 23 March 2020

David Lacey, Sigi Goode, Jerry Pawada and Dennis Gibson

The purpose of this paper is to undertake an exploratory study on mapping the investment fraud methods and tactics used by scammers against the emerging literature on scam…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to undertake an exploratory study on mapping the investment fraud methods and tactics used by scammers against the emerging literature on scam compliance.

Design/methodology/approach

Qualitative interviews were conducted with victims of investment fraud supported by the engagement of specialist counsellors and allied health professionals who specialise in scam victim support (including investment fraud).

Findings

Investment fraud offending in the cases sampled exhibited a number of dominant offending traits and methodological themes. These included a strong reliance or dependency on legitimate service provisioning on the part of the fraudster and the use of key trust measures to lure the victim. The empirical data revealed the presence of a number of scam compliance influences captured in the literature, including trust, social influence and urgency, as well as others not previously documented that pave the way for further research attention.

Research limitations/implications

The research only examined a sample of investment fraud victim experiences that engaged a national victim support service immediately following detection over a 24 month period.

Practical implications

The research found that offending relied upon the participation of trust-building signals and measures. Legitimate economy participants appear to play a dominant role in enabling investment scam activities, further creating efficiencies for criminals. The offending tended to follow a number of distinct but connected phases. Impacts were influenced by specific offending attributes, such as whether remote access was given to offenders of a victim’s device, as well as the nature of the identity credentials access.

Originality/value

The research has practically applied an emerging view of scam compliance influences and vulnerabilities within an investment fraud context. The study is novel in its thematic analysis of the distinct phases and tactics used by scammers.

Details

Journal of Criminological Research, Policy and Practice, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-3841

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Article
Publication date: 14 September 2015

Kate L. Daunt (née Reynolds) and Dominique A. Greer

This study aims to use opportunity as a theoretical lens to investigate how the spatio-temporal and social dimensions of the consumption environment create perceived…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to use opportunity as a theoretical lens to investigate how the spatio-temporal and social dimensions of the consumption environment create perceived opportunities for consumers to misbehave.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing on routine activity theory and social impact theory, the authors use two experiments to demonstrate that spatio-temporal and social dimensions can explain consumer theft in retail settings.

Findings

Study 1 reveals mixed empirical support for the basic dimensions of routine activity theory, which posits that the opportunity to thieve is optimised when a motivated offender, suitable target and the absence of a capable formal guardian transpire in time and space. Extending the notion of guardianship, Study 2 tests social impact theory and shows that informal guardianship impacts the likelihood of theft under optimal routine activity conditions.

Originality/value

The study findings highlight important implications for academicians and retail managers: rather than focusing on the uncontrollable characteristics of thieving offenders, more controllable spatio-temporal and social factors of the retail environment can be actively monitored and manipulated to reduce perceived opportunities for consumer misbehaviour.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 49 no. 9/10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 27 May 2014

Richard Baskerville, Eun Hee Park and Jongwoo Kim

The purpose of this paper is to develop and evaluate an integrated computer abuse model that incorporates both organizational abuse settings and the psychological…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop and evaluate an integrated computer abuse model that incorporates both organizational abuse settings and the psychological processes of the abuser.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper developed an emote opportunity (EO) model through a comprehensive literature review and conducted a case study to evaluate the explanatory and prescriptive usefulness of the model.

Findings

The EO model helps explain the interaction between organization-centric factors and individual-centric factors. It also helps explain how potential computer abusers elicit an emotion process component that ultimately contributes to computer abuse behaviors. The model connects both organizational external regulation processes and individual internal regulation processes to emote process components of potential abusers.

Research limitations/implications

The study considers only organizational computing resources as the target of computer abuse. The model is evaluated by historical data from a computer abuse case. Future research with contemporary empirical data would further evaluate these findings. Organizations should be aware of the opportunities they create for abuse and the emotional state-of-mind of potential abusers within organizations.

Practical implications

Organizations should take a holistic approach that incorporates personal emotions and organizational abuse opportunity settings to prevent computer abuse.

Originality/value

A multilevel, integrated EO model incorporating organizational environment and individual emotion processes provides an elaborated and holistic understanding of computer abuse. The model helps organizations consider the emotional state-of-mind of abusers as well as their organizational situation.

Details

Information Technology & People, vol. 27 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-3845

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 28 November 2019

Nicholas Thompson

Special guardianship order (SGO) assessments require social workers to make plans and recommendations for ongoing post-SGO contact between the child and the parents…

Abstract

Purpose

Special guardianship order (SGO) assessments require social workers to make plans and recommendations for ongoing post-SGO contact between the child and the parents. However, there is very little policy to inform and guide practitioners on how these duties should be undertaken, and no studies that describe current practice. The purpose of this paper is to investigate how the recommending of contact in special guardianship cases is currently working, by holding focus groups with social workers and special guardians. This paper reports on the results of a study to examine what contact plans social workers are recommending, the thinking behind their decisions and the views of the special guardians who have to make those plans work.

Design/methodology/approach

The research involved a mixed methods approach comprising of an online questionnaire, two focus groups for social workers and two focus groups for special guardians. This paper describes the second part of the study and reports on the qualitative results from the four focus groups. The methodology was based on a pragmatist theoretical position, and used an interpretivist approach and elements of the analytical procedure of grounded theory in order to generate inductive research. The focus group method was chosen as the best way to gather rich information on the opinions and ideas of practitioners who are recommending contact and the carers who are managing it.

Findings

Participants provided a wide range of views on the issues, with practitioners describing the challenges of planning contact, and special guardians explaining the problems they faced with the parents. Involving special guardians in the study gave a chance to include the different perspectives of the people who have to make the contact recommendations work, and contrast their views on contact planning with those of the professionals. The study makes recommendations for practice, which recognise the difficulty of preparing an initial contact plan that will remain relevant for years ahead.

Research limitations/implications

The number of focus groups the author held was limited by the author’s own personal resources and the time the author had available, and one group only had three social workers on the day. The author’s involvement affected the responses, and the author’s questions dictated the issues that were commented on, but the answers were the opinions that the participants wanted to express. The nature of the approach means that no two sets of focus group results would ever be the same. And as the direction of the discussions was largely dictated by the participants, the coverage of all aspects of contact was probably inconsistent.

Practical implications

This research sheds light on a crucial area of social work permanency planning, that has suffered from a lack of previous research, in order to better inform future practice. The paper reports on what contact plans social workers are recommending, the thinking behind their decisions and the views of the special guardians who have to make those plans work. It concludes with recommendations for improving future special guardianship policy and practice.

Social implications

The research clearly raises a number of specific difficulties faced by special guardians and problems with current policy and practice. These include the special guardians’ lack of understanding about contact, the difficulty for social workers of long-term planning, the challenge posed by uncooperative parents who behave badly, the view of carers for the need for a greater emphasis on the quality and reliability of contact, and the challenge to careful contact planning posed by the adversarial court process.

Originality/value

Special guardianship has had a major impact on permanency planning since its introduction 12 years ago. However, apart from one DfE study in 2014, very little research has been produced to inform policy and practice. There have been no studies specifically on contact in special guardianship cases, despite contact being one of the two major factors in determining the success of SGO placements. This study has provided the first in-depth evaluation of social worker contact planning in special guardianship, and the first investigation of special guardians’ views on contact.

Details

Journal of Children's Services, vol. 14 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-6660

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