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Book part
Publication date: 1 January 2014

Neil J. MacKinnon and Dawn T. Robinson

To provide a comprehensive review of theoretical and research advances in affect control theory from 1988 to 2013 for academic and student researchers in social psychology.

Abstract

Purpose

To provide a comprehensive review of theoretical and research advances in affect control theory from 1988 to 2013 for academic and student researchers in social psychology.

Design/Methodology/Approach

Against the background of a concise history of affect control theory from its beginnings in the 1960s to its maturation in the late 1980s, a comprehensive review of research and publications in the last 25 years is reported in five sections: Theoretical Advances (e.g., self and institutions, nonverbal behavior, neuroscience, artificial intelligence); Technological Advances (e.g., electronic data collection, computer simulations, cultural surveys, equation refinement, small groups analysis); Cross-Cultural Research (archived data and published analyses); Empirical Tests of the Theory; and Substantive Applications (e.g., emotions, social and cultural change, occupations/work, politics, gender/ideology/subcultures, deviance, criminology, stereotyping, physiological behavior).

Findings

Reveals an impressive number of publications in this area, including over 120 articles and chapters and four major books, and a great deal of cross-cultural research, including European, Asian, and Middle-Asian cultures.

Research Limitation/Implications (if applicable)

Because of limitations of space, the review does not cover the large number of theses, dissertations, and research reports.

Originality/Value

No other review of affect control theory with this scope and detail exists.

Details

Advances in Group Processes
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-078-0

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Article
Publication date: 7 December 2020

V.G. Sridharan

This research paper seeks to advance the techniques of “within-paradigm” triangulation and theoretical generalization adopted in qualitative field studies for new theory

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418

Abstract

Purpose

This research paper seeks to advance the techniques of “within-paradigm” triangulation and theoretical generalization adopted in qualitative field studies for new theory development in management control.

Design/methodology/approach

Using the evidence gleaned from three positivist case studies along with some published interpretivist studies, this paper identifies three triangulation approaches and links them with three forms of theoretical generalization in qualitative field studies.

Findings

While the “literal” approach to triangulation has its place in the extant literature, this study finds that two other approaches, labeled “convergent” and “normative” triangulation, which are relevant in many circumstances to link multiple pieces of evidence in order to build credible explanations. In theory development, while the extant forms of theoretical generalization (constructive and contextual) are useful for identifying new solutions for both practical and theoretical concerns, this paper finds that a third form, namely “transposed” logic, is relevant in identifying new control problems that can benefit by adopting the observed unusual solutions.

Originality/value

Within triangulation, while the extant literature endorses the role of literal triangulation in obtaining consistent evidence, including how verifying inconsistent responses helps improve the validity of the obtained evidence, this paper advances two new triangulation approaches that can enrich the extant literature. Within theoretical generalization, while the extant literature deems constructive and contextual forms as “rhetoric”, this paper (1) expands their status to “logic” by clarifying their theoretical purpose and (2) introduces one new form, namely “transposed” logic that helps identify a generalizable range of management control problems that can adopt the observed unusual solution.

Details

Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, vol. 34 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3574

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2003

Kwo‐Shing Hong, Yen‐Ping Chi, Louis R. Chao and Jih‐Hsing Tang

With the popularity of electronic commerce, many organizations are facing unprecedented security challenges. Security techniques and management tools have caught a lot of…

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14452

Abstract

With the popularity of electronic commerce, many organizations are facing unprecedented security challenges. Security techniques and management tools have caught a lot of attention from both academia and practitioners. However, there is lacking a theoretical framework for information security management. This paper attempts to integrate security policy theory, risk management theory, control and auditing theory, management system theory and contingency theory in order to build a comprehensive theory of information security management (ISM). This paper suggests that an integrated system theory is useful for understanding information security management, explaining information security management strategies, and predicting management outcomes. This theory may lay a solid theoretical foundation for further empirical research and application.

Details

Information Management & Computer Security, vol. 11 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0968-5227

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Book part
Publication date: 13 July 2016

Christopher D. Moore and Christabel L. Rogalin

Identifies where status and identity processes converge in social interaction and when one process may become more consequential than the other.

Abstract

Purpose

Identifies where status and identity processes converge in social interaction and when one process may become more consequential than the other.

Methodology/approach

Drawing upon existing experimental data, we illustrate how affect control theory and status characteristics theory make seemingly contradictory predictions in certain limited interactions and propose a theoretical framework to potentially reconcile these differences.

Findings

Three pivot points are identified at which status and identity processes meet and then one of the processes more strongly predicts interaction outcomes.

Research limitations/implications

The chapter represents a starting point for future research examining situations where status and identity processes converge.

Originality/value

We suggest ways to empirically test related claims made by both theories in an array of circumstances.

Details

Advances in Group Processes
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-041-1

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Book part
Publication date: 14 November 2003

Noah E. Friedkin and Eugene C. Johnsen

This paper works at the intersections of affect control theory, expectation states theory, and social influence network theory. First, we introduce social influence…

Abstract

This paper works at the intersections of affect control theory, expectation states theory, and social influence network theory. First, we introduce social influence network theory into affect control theory. We show how an influence network may emerge from the pattern of interpersonal sentiments in a group and how the fundamental sentiments that are at the core of affect control theory (dealing with the evaluation, potency, and activity of self and others) may be modified by interpersonal influences. Second, we bring affect control theory and social influence network theory to bear on expectation states theory. In a task-oriented group, where persons’ performance expectations may be a major basis of their interpersonal influence, we argue that persons’ fundamental sentiments may mediate effects of status characteristics on group members’ performance expectations. Based on the linkage of fundamental sentiments and interpersonal influence, we develop an account of the formation of influence networks in groups that is applicable to both status homogeneous and status heterogeneous groups of any size, whether or not they are completely connected, and that is not restricted in scope to task-oriented groups.

Details

Power and Status
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-030-2

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2001

Matthew J. Hickman, Alex R. Piquero, Brian A. Lawton and Jack R. Greene

The work of scholars who study police deviance has yet to result in the development of a substantive theory with which to frame their collective efforts. Recently, Tittle…

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2934

Abstract

The work of scholars who study police deviance has yet to result in the development of a substantive theory with which to frame their collective efforts. Recently, Tittle advanced a general theory of deviance that may help to fill this gap. The central premise of Tittle’s control balance theory is that the amount of control to which one is subject relative to the amount of control one can exercise (the control ratio) affects both the probability of deviance as well as the specific form of deviance. Examines the utility of control balance as a new theoretical orientation in police deviance research. Presents a framework for conceptualizing control balance within the special context of police deviance and, using data collected specifically for the purpose of operationalizing the control ratio, provides an empirical test. The data are drawn from a survey administered to 499 Philadelphia police officers. Scenario methodology was used to investigate the effects of officer control ratios on the probability of reporting a fellow officer who covers up an incident in which another officer was discovered driving while intoxicated (off duty), and second physically abuses a suspect in custody. Consistent with predictions derived from Tittle’s theory, results indicated that officers with control deficits are more likely to report fellow officers who engage in the behaviors portrayed in the scenarios. Future research directions are discussed.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 24 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2004

Hejin Xiong and Mian‐Yun Chen

Classical control theory and modern control theory satisfy the Galilean principle of relativity. If the velocity v of controlled systems is high that is to say, v…

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259

Abstract

Classical control theory and modern control theory satisfy the Galilean principle of relativity. If the velocity v of controlled systems is high that is to say, v approaches the velocity of light in vacuo, then the existing control theories must be transformed into relativistic form, i.e. based on relativistic physics, we must reform relativistic control theory, making it satisfy Einstein’s principle of relativity. Based on this, some properties of relativistic control theory are discussed in this paper.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 33 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

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Book part
Publication date: 1 January 2014

Jan E. Stets and Peter J. Burke

The purpose of this chapter is to review the historical development of identity theory from 1988 to the present, and then outline some thoughts about future directions for…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this chapter is to review the historical development of identity theory from 1988 to the present, and then outline some thoughts about future directions for the theory.

Methodology/Approach

The chapter discusses major advances in identity theory over the past 25 years such as the incorporation of the perceptual control system into the theory, the introduction of “resources” in which symbolic and sign meanings are important, new views of the social structure, the relevance of the situation in influencing the identity process, the idea of different bases of identities, broadening our understanding of multiple identities, studying identity change, and bringing in emotions into the theory.

Findings

Throughout the review, empirical work is identified and briefly discussed that supports the major advances of the theory.

Research limitations

The chapter suggests a number of ways that identity theory may be developed in the future such as examining negative or stigmatized identities. Additionally, there is a discussion as to ways in which the theory may be tied to other theoretical traditions such as affect control theory, exchange theory, and social identity theory.

Social Implications

Identity theory has had a number of applications to various areas in society, including understanding crime, education, race/ethnicity, gender, the family, and the environment.

Originality/Value of Chapter

This is the most recent overview of identity theory over the past 25 years. It becomes clear to the reader that the theory offers a way of understanding the person as a cognitive, emotional, and behavioral agent who influences the structure of society but who is also influenced by the social structure.

Details

Advances in Group Processes
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-078-0

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Article
Publication date: 15 March 2011

Anna Jadlovská and Kamil Hrubina

The aim of the paper is to present the theory and algorithms based on the methods of systems optimal control for a numerical solution of a defined mathematical model of a…

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646

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of the paper is to present the theory and algorithms based on the methods of systems optimal control for a numerical solution of a defined mathematical model of a system as well as that of a mathematical model of game theory.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper brings a formulation of the mathematical model of a problem of systems optimal control with distributed parameters in Hilbert space. The mathematical model of the optimal control problem includes equations that also occur in the defined mathematical model of the theory of a two player zero‐sum game. Optimization problems of game theory have been defined for the purpose of finding a saddle point of a functional satisfying task constraints ε>0.

Findings

In order to find a saddle point of a functional and that one of a functional with a limitation, a designed algorithm of an iterative gradient method is presented. Furthermore, the paper contains a concept of algorithms designing that can be applied to a numerical solution of the defined problem of game theory. These algorithms can be realized on the basis of the methods of systems optimal control. After an adjoint state of the system is defined, a saddle point of a functional will be characterized by equations and inequalities.

Originality/value

The contribution of the paper lies in the formulation of the theorems which express the necessary and sufficient conditions of optimality for saddle points of a functional. Furthermore, it has been proved that algorithms of methods of systems optimal control with distributed parameters can be used for the solution of a mathematical model of game theory. The paper contains original results achieved by the authors within scientific projects.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 40 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

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Article
Publication date: 23 May 2008

Billy Tat Wai Yu and To Wai Ming

This paper aims to describe an application of key concepts in agency theory to organizational development. Specifically, it seeks to highlight that formal control systems…

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3887

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to describe an application of key concepts in agency theory to organizational development. Specifically, it seeks to highlight that formal control systems, the ways to regulate employees' performance, are associated with an important factor for organizational development – the capacity for improvement.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper presents a literature review on organizational development and agency theory, and an empirical examination of the relationships between bureaucratic control systems, task programmability and the organization's capacity for improvement. The hypotheses of interrelationships among different control systems, task programmability and the capacity for improvement were tested with a sample of 237 employees in the service industry.

Findings

Results indicate that input control is a significant factor in determining an organization's capacity for improvement, and task programmability moderates the relation between a bureaucratic control and the organization's capacity for improvement.

Research limitations/implications

The results are based on a cross‐sectional self‐report study. It is advisable to include managers' assessment of subordinates' capacity of improvement in further research.

Originality/value

The effect of formal controls on organizational performance was controversial. This paper reveals the moderating role of task programmability in a control‐performance relationship. In doing so, this paper sheds light on how a manager can enhance his/her subordinates' performance on organizational improvement through different control tactics.

Details

Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. 21 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0953-4814

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