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Article
Publication date: 28 May 2021

Robert Smith and Gerard McElwee

Food supply chain theory and practice generally assumes that the business practices and processes involved are ethical, legal and value-adding when this is not always so…

Abstract

Purpose

Food supply chain theory and practice generally assumes that the business practices and processes involved are ethical, legal and value-adding when this is not always so, as demonstrated by the ongoing 2013 horse-meat scandal. Although it is ostensibly a UK-based affair, it encompasses the meat processing industry across Europe. This study, thus, aims to examine supply chain criminality and to highlight “scandal scripts” which amplify underlying issues.

Design/methodology/approach

A systematic review of extant literature on the scandal adds to that body of work, updating the existing narrative to include a detailed analysis of convicted “industry insiders”, highlighting supply chain issues involved in the frauds. Micro-stories of businessmen involved are presented to enable an empirical exploration of their illegal involvement in the meat trade. Using storied data from accounts of the scandal as contemporary examples, emerging themes and issues are outlined through a mixed methods qualitative approach consisting of ethical covert research, using documentary research strategy underpinned by narrative inquiry.

Findings

Media coverage perpetuated various myths notably that the fraud was carried out by “shadowy”, Eastern European “mafia figures” exploiting the extended food supply chains. The analysis is aided by the use of media hypothesis. Far from being a mafia-inspired fraud, the criminal activity was organised in nature and committed by insider businessmen. The findings demonstrate that supply chains are complex and require an understanding of storied business practices, including the ethical and illegal.

Research limitations/implications

From an academic perspective, there are implications such as the dearth of academic research and policy-related studies into food fraud possibly because of the difficulty in obtaining data because of access to such enterprises and entrepreneurs necessitating reliance upon documentary sources and investigative journalism.

Practical implications

There are distinct policy implications, particularly the need to legislate against international criminal conspiracies and everyday ordinary organised food frauds perpetuated. Lax penalties do little to prevent such crimes which need to be taken more seriously by the authorities, and treated as major crime. In formulating food laws, rules and regulations, greater cognisance should be taken to consider how supply chains in the food industry could be better protected from predatory criminal actions.

Originality/value

This novel qualitative study will enable academics and practitioners to better understand illegal enterprise, food fraud and risk management from both operational and supply chain perspectives and will be useful to investigators by furthering our understanding of entrepreneurial practice and morality in the food industry.

Details

Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, vol. 26 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-8546

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 7 August 2017

Suhail Ghouse, Gerard McElwee, Julia Meaton and Omar Durrah

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the barriers confronted by rural women entrepreneurs in Oman. The study focusses on women living in rural and mountain areas who…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the barriers confronted by rural women entrepreneurs in Oman. The study focusses on women living in rural and mountain areas who aspire to move beyond their traditional family roles. It identifies several problems including accessing funding for new ventures and innovative activities, a lack of skills-based training and limited family support.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on 57 responses to a semi-structured questionnaire, and face to face qualitative interviews with ten women entrepreneurs. Quantitative responses are evaluated and ranked in terms of their mean score, standard deviation and the intensity of each factor shaping rural women entrepreneurship. Five qualitative cases are presented.

Findings

Although Oman is arguably one of the more progressive Arab countries regarding gender equality and women empowerment, the findings exhibit socio-cultural concerns which hamper women entrepreneurial venture creations and their subsequent success. The findings of the research are discussed using the three dimensions of entrepreneurship identified by Wenneker and Thurik (1999). The three dimensions are: conditions leading to entrepreneurship, characteristics of entrepreneurship and outcomes of entrepreneurship.

Practical implications

Suggests that Omani policymakers should consider how women entrepreneurs can be better supported so that they can diversify household income by starting new ventures while simultaneously contributing to the socio-economic development of the region. A number of suggestions on how this can be achieved are presented.

Originality/value

Research on rural women entrepreneurship in the context of an Arab country is scarce and the study can provide an overview of the obstacles and the support required for the development of the rural women entrepreneurship in this region.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 23 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2021

Suhail M. Ghouse, Omar Durrah and Gerard McElwee

This paper examines the challenges associated with rural women entrepreneurs in Oman. The study is based on women living in rural and highland areas who aim to move beyond…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper examines the challenges associated with rural women entrepreneurs in Oman. The study is based on women living in rural and highland areas who aim to move beyond their traditional roles in the family seeking avenues for growth and development. It identifies several problems encountered by rural women entrepreneurs and the impact on their future business opportunities.

Design/methodology/approach

A mixed research approach involving quantitative and qualitative elements was adopted for the study. The research is based on 183 survey responses and personal interviews with 8 rural women entrepreneurs. Partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) was adopted to analyse the quantitative responses and depict a model featuring the intensity of the problems affecting business opportunities. Seven short cases based upon the interviews with rural women entrepreneurs are also detailed.

Findings

Several problems experienced by rural women entrepreneurs were identified hampering their business ventures, linked to personality, family, educational, socio-cultural, facilities, legal, financial and economic, organizational and geographical, out of which household, organizational and geographical linked problems were most significant. Entrepreneurial opportunities for rural women entrepreneurs are discussed.

Practical implications

The research suggests that the policymakers should holistically consider how the rural women engaged in informal business for various means can be better supported and sustained by overcoming associated problems, can achieve business opportunities and contribute to regional socio-economic development.

Originality/value

There is a limited literature available on rural women entrepreneurship in an Arab context. The study provides an overview of the challenges and problems experienced by these women and the support areas required to overcome them for their sustainability in this region.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 27 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 8 January 2019

Suhail M. Ghouse, Gerard McElwee and Omar Durrah

The purpose of this paper is to investigate various problems experienced by cottage-based women entrepreneurs to launch and develop their ventures in Oman and to focus on…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate various problems experienced by cottage-based women entrepreneurs to launch and develop their ventures in Oman and to focus on women going beyond their traditional family roles for various reasons to establish themselves in Omani society.

Design/methodology/approach

The study applies a mixed research approach using a quantitative survey of 142 cottage-based Omani women entrepreneurs and qualitative face-to-face interviews with ten women entrepreneurs, presented as six short case studies. The intensity of the business-related problems is determined through the exploratory factor analysis, and confirmatory factor analysis is used to confirm the model by determining the goodness of fit between hypothesized model and sample data.

Findings

Access to government for current business needs, access to specialized suppliers for staying ahead of the competition and high cost of raw materials were the problems mentioned as being important, while marketing-oriented problems were of least concern.

Research limitations/implications

This study was undertaken in one region of Oman only and thus poses problems when extrapolating the findings to other areas.

Practical implications

The study suggests how policymakers can support women entrepreneurs to diversify and start new ventures while simultaneously contributing to the socio-economic development of Oman.

Originality/value

Research on cottage entrepreneurship in the context of an Arab country is scarce and the study provides an overview of the obstacles and support required for the development of women entrepreneurship in Oman.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 25 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 17 July 2017

Gerard McElwee and Adrian Wood

The purpose of this paper is to explore enterprise diversification amongst wetland farmers in Zambia as a way of reducing poverty and improving sustainability. This paper…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore enterprise diversification amongst wetland farmers in Zambia as a way of reducing poverty and improving sustainability. This paper identifies ways in which such entrepreneurial activities can be supported and applied more widely.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative study of Zambian farmers, based on a series of workshops and interviews held in Zambia with farmers and farm business advisers.

Findings

Despite adopting new technologies most farmers are restricted to the local market where their increased production holds down prices. However, a very small number of farmers are able to progress to production and marketing for markets in major urban centres hundreds of kilometres away, and considerably more are able to use the capital accumulated from wetland farming to diversify their household enterprises to reduce poverty and improve the sustainability and resilience of their livelihoods.

Originality/value

No work has previously been undertaken in diversification strategies of small-scale farmers in Zambia.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 25 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 3 June 2019

Joyce Liddle and Gerard McElwee

The interest in entrepreneurship in the public sector is recognized as an emergent phenomenon in the field of entrepreneurship. Existing theoretical work is limited in…

Abstract

Purpose

The interest in entrepreneurship in the public sector is recognized as an emergent phenomenon in the field of entrepreneurship. Existing theoretical work is limited in helping understand how entrepreneurship in public agencies occurs. The paper aims to discuss this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a conceptual paper which develops the literature.

Findings

Building on the work of Klein et al. (2010) this paper contributes to theoretical development by providing an overview of public sector entrepreneurship (PSE). Although, there are similar features shared by private and PSE, it is proposed that there are significant differences between them, particularly in that public sector enterprise can be seen as entrepreneurship without entrepreneurs.

Research limitations/implications

As a conceptual paper on PSE the literature is predominantly UK based.

Practical implications

This paper brings entrepreneurship from the periphery to the core of the theoretical debates, as it is an under-researched area. Moreover, theoretical development has implications for policy and practice as existing research is disparate.

Originality/value

The paper considers how entrepreneurship and enterprise in the public sector is formulated. The significance of the paper is to highlight the importance of public entrepreneurs in working alongside a multitude of stakeholders to deal with numerous global and internal environment forces ethically amongst on-going budgetary and fiscal constraints. The contribution is the highlighting of the difficulties and concerns when uniting the discourse of market-based entrepreneurship and the discourse of public sector service provision.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 25 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

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Article
Publication date: 13 March 2017

Nabeel Muhammad, Gerard McElwee and Leo-Paul Dana

Focussing on entrepreneurs’ experiences inhibiting them from launching a business – at the micro level – the purpose of this paper is to identify issues that limit rural…

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1728

Abstract

Purpose

Focussing on entrepreneurs’ experiences inhibiting them from launching a business – at the micro level – the purpose of this paper is to identify issues that limit rural entrepreneurship in Pakistan and also, to identify the cultural, social, economic and religious traditions and settings that discourage entrepreneurship thus hindering economic development

Design/methodology/approach

An ethnographic approach was used to obtain a picture of current problems and perspectives of rural inhabitants. Members of 84 families were interviewed.

Findings

Religious, socioeconomic and structural forces play a significant role in suppressing social and cultural capital in rural areas of Pakistan, explaining the low level of entrepreneurship in these areas. Social and cultural capital requires a certain socioeconomic context for entrepreneurship to thrive.

Originality/value

This study examines the determinants of very low levels of entrepreneurship in rural settings in the agro-based regions of interior Sindh, Pakistan; this contributes to the gap of understanding the context of rural entrepreneurs in agro-based economies. This study makes recommendations for policy makers to promote entrepreneurship in such areas.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 23 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2000

Gerard McElwee and Ian Scott

Provides some practical ways forward for those responsible for preparing subject teams in meeting the needs of the teaching quality assessment (TQA) exercise for the…

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772

Abstract

Provides some practical ways forward for those responsible for preparing subject teams in meeting the needs of the teaching quality assessment (TQA) exercise for the subject of business and management. Details the process of how this is occurring in a large multi‐site business and management faculty in a northern university. Defines a process whereby a higher educational institution, with multi‐site provision of business and management, can: strategically plan for the TQA exercise in the academic year 2000/2001; provide support from the strategic apex; attempt to give departments autonomy and responsibility for the TQA process; and address issues of both standards and enhancement. Provides also a practical framework for the management of the process and guidelines on how to manage that process. Suggests that the longitudinal model (institutional and subject review and continuation audit) should provide greater opportunities for the integration of maintenance and enhancement activities at subject level.

Details

Quality Assurance in Education, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0968-4883

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 21 November 2016

Sarah Drakopoulou Dodd, Paul Jones, Gerard McElwee and Mohamed Haddoud

The purpose of this paper is to report findings from the first stage of a study that focusses on research in the domain of entrepreneurship as a process of knowledge…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to report findings from the first stage of a study that focusses on research in the domain of entrepreneurship as a process of knowledge creation and exchange. It seeks to discover what entrepreneurship scholars really believe that they contribute. Focusses on the entrepreneurship academic community and examine two issues: the value scholars perceive, in terms of both how an individuals’ work can be seen to be a contribution to knowledge, and what “contribution to knowledge” means to the individual researcher.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors employ a qualitative approach within which 20 entrepreneurship professors were asked to complete a semi structured research instrument to express their opinions on the value of the authors’ research and the extent to which the authors’ work contribute to knowledge and practice. The sample was drawn from full entrepreneurship professors from the UK, USA, Europe, New Zealand, and Australia.

Findings

Suggest that entrepreneurship scholars publish for a plurality of reasons including personal fulfilment, interest, and necessity. It was also noted that the motivations for academic scholarship have changed with increased internal and external pressures and a drive to publish in certain journals.

Research limitations/implications

This is a novel study not undertaken previously in the entrepreneurship discipline. The results will inform research practices within the entrepreneurship discipline and represent the basis for an ongoing large scale global quantitative study of the entrepreneurship discipline.

Originality/value

The outcomes of this research inform higher education stakeholders in the construction of valid research strategies thus providing a suitable impact upon academia and society. It provides an initial insight into drivers for academic research within the entrepreneurship discipline, and the opportunities, challenges and paradoxes which various approaches to research contribution entail.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 23 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 22 May 2015

Michelle Davey, Gerard McElwee and Robert Smith

Building on previous work from Frith, McElwee, Smith, Somerville and Fairlie this chapter further explores entrepreneurship as practiced by an entrepreneur (who is also a…

Abstract

Purpose

Building on previous work from Frith, McElwee, Smith, Somerville and Fairlie this chapter further explores entrepreneurship as practiced by an entrepreneur (who is also a drug dealer) in a rural, UK, northern, small-town context and how he does ‘strategy’.

Methodology/approach

This research was conducted in a broadly grounded approach using a conversational research methodology (Feldman, 1999). A series of conversations were conducted with a career drug dealer, guided by a very basic agenda-setting question of ‘how do you earn money?’ Emergent themes were explored through further conversation before being compared with literature and triangulated with third party conversations.

Research limitations/implications

Implications for research design, ethics and the conduct of such research are identified and discussed. As a research project this work is protean and as a case study the generalisations that can be made from this piece are necessarily limited. Access to and ethical approval for research directly with illegal entrepreneurs is fraught with difficulty in the risk-averse environment of academia. This limits the data available directly from illegal entrepreneurs. The credibility of data collected from third parties is limited by their peripheral interest in and awareness of entrepreneurship discourse, entrepreneurial life themes and the entrepreneurial dimension to crime, as well as by the structural bias implicit in the fact that many of these third parties deal only with what might be termed the unsuccessful entrepreneurs (i.e., those that got caught!) Findings represent a tentative indication of potential themes for further research.

Details

Exploring Criminal and Illegal Enterprise: New Perspectives on Research, Policy & Practice
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-551-8

Keywords

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