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Article
Publication date: 19 June 2020

Kirpal Kaur Sahota

Transgender sex offenders are a small, complex and atypical group. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the issues in relationship to the assessment of gender

Abstract

Purpose

Transgender sex offenders are a small, complex and atypical group. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the issues in relationship to the assessment of gender dysphoria in transgender sex offenders and approaches to risk management.

Design/methodology/approach

Clinical and research experience as a Gender Specialist and Consultant Forensic Psychiatrist who has managed sex offender populations has informed this publication.

Findings

Little is known about the relationship between gender dysphoria and criminality. More research is required to develop a typology of transgender sex offenders and develop actuarial risk instruments. Protective factors in relation to gender affirmative care are also important to understand.

Research limitations/implications

There is little empirical research to guide gender specialists and criminal justice professionals in the management of gender dysphoria and address risk and recidivism in transgender offender populations. The treatment of gender dysphoria could result in improved well-being and better psychosocial adjustment but cannot be relied to reduce future recidivism.

Practical implications

There is no evidence that treatment of gender dysphoria reduces risk and recidivism in transgender sex offenders and that research is required to identify specific gender related dynamic risk factors.

Social implications

Recommendations are directly relevant to the work of prison and probation staff, community supervisors and gender identity specialists.

Originality/value

As far as the author is aware it is the first paper on the assessment and management of gender diverse sex offenders integrating approaches to gender dysphoria assessment and treatment and risk management. It has implication for gender identity specialists, criminal justice professionals, research and policy.

Details

Journal of Criminological Research, Policy and Practice, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-3841

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Article
Publication date: 18 February 2020

Aira Huttunen, Noora Hirvonen and Lotta Kähkönen

This study aims to increase the understanding of the early-stage identity-related information needs of transgender people.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to increase the understanding of the early-stage identity-related information needs of transgender people.

Design/methodology/approach

This study draws on social constructivism, queer theory and information practice research. In accordance with the queer phenomenological approach which emphasises lived experiences, data was collected by interviewing 25 individuals who identified as transgender. The data was analysed with a focus on how early-stage information needs are formed into conscious information needs.

Findings

The formation of early-stage information needs were conceptualised as a chain including a trigger for information seeking, finding the right words and understanding the experience. Especially the bodily changes starting at puberty were strong causes of discomfort causing friction between the subjects' own gendered body and their gender experience, even leading to gender dysphoria. Finding words to describe the experience played an important role in the process of identity formation. In many cases this was difficult because of the lack of accurate and relevant information.

Social implications

Providing information especially of varying transgender experiences is vital for individuals trying to understand and verbalise their gender identity.

Originality/value

This study provides an understanding of the early-stage information needs described by transgender people and the process of building identities through disorientation. This study suggests that early-stage information needs are a valid concept to help understand how embodied experiences and the friction between the lived experience and the social world can lead to information seeking.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 76 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

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Article
Publication date: 2 December 2014

Louis Bailey, Sonja J. Ellis and Jay McNeil

The purpose of this paper is to present findings from the Trans Mental Health Study (McNeil et al., 2012) – the largest survey of the UK trans population to date and the…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present findings from the Trans Mental Health Study (McNeil et al., 2012) – the largest survey of the UK trans population to date and the first to explore trans mental health and well-being within a UK context. Findings around suicidal ideation and suicide attempt are presented and the impact of gender dysphoria, minority stress and medical delay, in particular, are highlighted.

Design/methodology/approach

This represents a narrative analysis of qualitative sections of a survey that utilised both open and closed questions. The study drew on a non-random sample (n=889), obtained via a range of UK-based support organisations and services.

Findings

The study revealed high rates of suicidal ideation (84 per cent lifetime prevalence) and attempted suicide (48 per cent lifetime prevalence) within this sample. A supportive environment for social transition and timely access to gender reassignment, for those who required it, emerged as key protective factors. Subsequently, gender dysphoria, confusion/denial about gender, fears around transitioning, gender reassignment treatment delays and refusals, and social stigma increased suicide risk within this sample.

Research limitations/implications

Due to the limitations of undertaking research with this population, the research is not demographically representative.

Practical implications

The study found that trans people are most at risk prior to social and/or medical transition and that, in many cases, trans people who require access to hormones and surgery can be left unsupported for dangerously long periods of time. The paper highlights the devastating impact that delaying or denying gender reassignment treatment can have and urges commissioners and practitioners to prioritise timely intervention and support.

Originality/value

The first exploration of suicidal ideation and suicide attempt within the UK trans population revealing key findings pertaining to social and medical transition, crucial for policy makers, commissioners and practitioners working across gender identity services, mental health services and suicide prevention.

Details

Mental Health Review Journal, vol. 19 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-9322

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Article
Publication date: 4 July 2016

Philip Baker and Eman Shweikh

The case of a woman with a history of offending and prolonged imprisonment is given. The purpose of this paper is to explore the complex interplay between diagnoses of…

Abstract

Purpose

The case of a woman with a history of offending and prolonged imprisonment is given. The purpose of this paper is to explore the complex interplay between diagnoses of autistic spectrum disorder (ASD), personality disorder and gender dysphoria. A discussion on useful and less useful treatment approaches follows, given the unusual and complex clinical presentation.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a case report with a summary of the background to this under-researched area.

Findings

The way in which the diagnostic picture clarified over time is explained. The difficulties in accurately diagnosing are put forward and strategies to address this are suggested. Successful treatment of unusual clinical problems may require highly individualised care within generic services.

Originality/value

The authors know of no similar case reports in the published literature. The clinical associations between ASDs, personality disorders and gender dysphoria, in forensic mental health populations, appears to be unexplored in the literature.

Details

Advances in Autism, vol. 2 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-3868

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Article
Publication date: 30 September 2014

Ellena Wood and Neel Halder

The purpose of this paper is to systematically review the literature on gender identity disorder (GID) and associated gender disorders in people with learning disabilities…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to systematically review the literature on gender identity disorder (GID) and associated gender disorders in people with learning disabilities and autism, specifically focusing on aetiology, treatment and management.

Design/methodology/approach

This study reviewed all the published papers about individuals with both a learning disability and/or autistic spectrum disorder and a gender disorder. Papers from 1980 onwards were included as this was the year of the introduction of GID to the ICD-10. Gender disorders were taken to include the following: GID, transsexualism, cross-dressing, transvestitism or a gender-related sexual disorder.

Findings

In total, 16 papers described 43 individuals meeting the inclusion criteria. There was a dearth of guidance on appropriate treatment or management.

Research limitations/implications

Only English language papers were searched. This review points towards more research needed in this area.

Originality/value

In collating relevant papers the review begins the search for evidence regarding aetiology, treatment and management of gender disorders in an area where evidence-based guidelines are needed.

Details

Tizard Learning Disability Review, vol. 19 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-5474

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Article
Publication date: 13 March 2017

Jae Sevelius and Valerie Jenness

The purpose of this paper is to briefly address three interrelated areas of concerns – victimization, housing placement and healthcare provision – related to the health…

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1360

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to briefly address three interrelated areas of concerns – victimization, housing placement and healthcare provision – related to the health and welfare of transgender women in jails, prisons and other types of detention facilities.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing on a growing body of research on health risks for transgender women who are detained in facilities in California and elsewhere, the authors provide recommendations for policy and practice that constitutes gender-affirming healthcare for transgender women behind bars.

Findings

Policymakers, correctional leaders, and prison-based clinicians have a number of opportunities to address the welfare of transgender women in jails, prisons and other types of detention facilities.

Originality/value

This policy brief offers concrete steps government officials can take to better meet their professional and constitutional obligations, provide higher quality care for transgender women involved in the criminal justice system, and effectuate positive changes in transgender women’s health and welfare both inside and outside of carceral environments.

Details

International Journal of Prisoner Health, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-9200

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Book part
Publication date: 3 October 2015

Robin K. Fox

Through the media it is clear that the number of people who are openly identifying as transgender is growing. Some of those people who are identified as transgender are…

Abstract

Through the media it is clear that the number of people who are openly identifying as transgender is growing. Some of those people who are identified as transgender are adults but many times they are younger and sometimes young children (under the age of eight). As young children are sharing with family and school personnel that their gender and the assigned gender at birth are not an exact match, families and school personnel need the tools to support these children. Since most teacher training programs do not currently have preparation in working with children who are transgender or gender fluid, it is up to teachers and administrators to seek out materials and resources until such time as teacher preparation programs include this in the curriculum. In this chapter, the author shares basic terminology, ideas about changing curriculum, language, and environment in early childhood settings to help welcome young children who are transgender or gender fluid into these spaces. In addition, possible questions children and adults may ask are included along with resources and books about people who are transgender that are age appropriate for early childhood settings.

Details

Discussions on Sensitive Issues
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-293-1

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Book part
Publication date: 27 October 2017

Abstract

Details

Gender Panic, Gender Policy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-203-1

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Article
Publication date: 3 September 2021

Yousef Moradi, Marzieh Mahboobi and Ghobad Moradi

Identifying the health-related needs in transgender (TG) people can help to formulate strategies for providing appropriate and accessible health services and promoting…

Abstract

Purpose

Identifying the health-related needs in transgender (TG) people can help to formulate strategies for providing appropriate and accessible health services and promoting health and social justice, as well as human rights in these populations. This systematic review aims to determine health-related needs, problems and barriers, as well as ways to solve them in TG people from the viewpoint of TG individuals and health policymakers.

Design/methodology/approach

All international electronic databases such as PubMed (Medline), Embase, CINAHL, Scopus, Web of Sciences, Cochrane, PsycInfo and Google Scholar (Gray Literature) were searched from December 1990 to December 2019. After the search, the articles were screened based on their title, abstract and full text. The quality of articles was assessed using the Strengthening the reporting of observational studies in epidemiology (STROBE), Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) and Standards for Reporting Qualitative Research (SRQR) checklists. The search strategy, data extraction and quality evaluation of articles were independently performed by two researchers.

Findings

The general health-related needs identified in TG individuals from the viewpoint of themselves included access to legal hormone therapy, psychological and psychiatric counseling, privacy, health and hygiene needs, equality and freedom of expression. General health-related needs in TG individuals from the viewpoint of health policymakers included screening tests to detect sexually transmitted diseases, especially HIV, cancers and other diseases, as well as training service providers (physicians, nurses, health workers, etc.).

Research limitations/implications

One of the limitations of this study was nonreporting of health-related needs in initial articles by different TG groups because these groups have had different needs and different barriers to accessing health-care services. In this study, health-related needs and barriers to satisfy them were categorized from the viewpoint of TG populations and health policymakers around the world, which may influence future decisions to provide services to TG populations. The results of this systematic review can help to develop different strategies by considering all TGs from individual, family and social aspects to better provide services for this group. However, given the dynamics and changes in the existing communities and the limited studies on gender minorities in developing countries, further research is required to comprehensively address the subject.

Originality/value

The findings can be used as an incentive to improve existing conditions and to address problems and shortcomings. The results of this systematic review formulate strategies for providing appropriate and accessible health services and better lives for TGs, planning for more effective participation of these individuals in local communities, improving their physical problems and mental health through counseling, as well as promoting health and social justice, and human rights for these populations.

Details

International Journal of Human Rights in Healthcare, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4902

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Article
Publication date: 10 January 2020

Sebastian Krutkowski, Sarah Taylor-Harman and Kat Gupta

The purpose of this study is to highlight that in today’s polarised information environment, freedom of speech should not be conflated with a freedom to spread…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to highlight that in today’s polarised information environment, freedom of speech should not be conflated with a freedom to spread demonstrable lies unchallenged. The authors argue for a review of information literacy instruction to focus on social justice and help participants understand the implications of the views they may hold on vulnerable minority groups.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, the authors review and reflect upon the delivery of staff development training on the facts and myths surrounding transgender issues. The authors also encourage other library and information professionals to expand their information literacy instruction into polarised issues that are marked by considerable amounts of misinformation.

Findings

Training participants reported that being more aware of transphobic media coverage will help them reduce bias and better support trans students and staff. It also enabled further opportunities for colleagues across teams and a variety of roles to incorporate the principles of equality, diversity and inclusion into their practice. The success of the sessions also contributed to wider institutional change.

Originality/value

Trans people are a vulnerable minority facing severe, persistent harassment and discrimination both in everyday life and potentially in educational settings. Offering staff effective tools to educate themselves about media transphobia is a step towards creating an environment where trans students and staff can flourish. The authors explore how the media coverage of trans issues allows misinformation to stick and spread. Through applying the concepts of critical thinking and information literacy to trans issues, the authors explain how unconscious bias towards the trans community can be challenged.

Details

Reference Services Review, vol. 48 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0090-7324

Keywords

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