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Article
Publication date: 11 June 2018

Jaclyn M. White Hughto, Kirsty A. Clark, Frederick L. Altice, Sari L. Reisner, Trace S. Kershaw and John E. Pachankis

Incarcerated transgender women often require healthcare to meet their physical-, mental-, and gender transition-related health needs; however, their healthcare experiences…

Abstract

Purpose

Incarcerated transgender women often require healthcare to meet their physical-, mental-, and gender transition-related health needs; however, their healthcare experiences in prisons and jails and interactions with correctional healthcare providers are understudied. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

In 2015, 20 transgender women who had been incarcerated in the USA within the past five years participated in semi-structured interviews about their healthcare experiences while incarcerated.

Findings

Participants described an institutional culture in which their feminine identity was not recognized and the ways in which institutional policies acted as a form of structural stigma that created and reinforced the gender binary and restricted access to healthcare. While some participants attributed healthcare barriers to providers’ transgender bias, others attributed barriers to providers’ limited knowledge or inexperience caring for transgender patients. Whether due to institutional (e.g. sex-segregated prisons, biased culture) or interpersonal factors (e.g. biased or inexperienced providers), insufficient access to physical-, mental-, and gender transition-related healthcare negatively impacted participants’ health while incarcerated.

Research limitations/implications

Findings highlight the need for interventions that target multi-level barriers to care in order to improve incarcerated transgender women’s access to quality, gender-affirmative healthcare.

Originality/value

This study provides first-hand accounts of how multi-level forces serve to reinforce the gender binary and negatively impact the health of incarcerated transgender women. Findings also describe incarcerated transgender women’s acts of resistance against institutional and interpersonal efforts to maintain the gender binary and present participant-derived recommendations to improve access to gender affirmative healthcare for incarcerated transgender women.

Details

International Journal of Prisoner Health, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-9200

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 March 2017

Mary Rogan

Correctional healthcare should promote the protection of human rights. The purpose of this paper is to bring a discussion of human rights into debates on how such policy…

Abstract

Purpose

Correctional healthcare should promote the protection of human rights. The purpose of this paper is to bring a discussion of human rights into debates on how such policy should be best organized.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper achieves its aim by providing an analysis of European prison law and policy in the area of prison health, through assessing decisions of the European Court of Human Rights, as well as policies created by the European Committee for the Prevention of Torture.

Findings

The paper describes the position of the European Court of Human Rights on the topics of access to healthcare, ill health and release from prison, mental illness in prison, and the duty to provide rehabilitative programming for those seeking to reduce their level of “risk.” It also argues that human rights law can be a source of practical reform, and that legal frameworks have much to offer healthcare leaders seeking to uphold the dignity of those in their care.

Originality/value

This paper will provide a rare example of the engagement of human rights law with correctional health policy. It provides practical recommendations arising out of an analysis of European human rights law in the area of prisons.

Details

International Journal of Prisoner Health, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-9200

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 19 November 2021

Sarah A. Rogers

In this chapter, I address how criminal justice policies, and discrimination and prejudice within the US criminal justice system, negatively affect trans men. By focusing…

Abstract

In this chapter, I address how criminal justice policies, and discrimination and prejudice within the US criminal justice system, negatively affect trans men. By focusing on trans men’s unique incarceration experiences using 15 in-depth interviews, I recommend four key policy changes for correctional facilities: (1) allow trans men to choose the gender of the correctional facility in which they are housed; (2) allow trans men to wear undergarments that align with their gender identity; (3) provide trans men access to trans-appropriate healthcare; and (4) implement harsher penalties for non-compliance of Prison Rape Elimination Act Standards. These four policies would improve the life chances of trans men during their incarceration and post-incarceration.

Details

Advances in Trans Studies: Moving Toward Gender Expansion and Trans Hope
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80262-030-6

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 March 2017

Jae Sevelius and Valerie Jenness

The purpose of this paper is to briefly address three interrelated areas of concerns – victimization, housing placement and healthcare provision – related to the health…

1566

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to briefly address three interrelated areas of concerns – victimization, housing placement and healthcare provision – related to the health and welfare of transgender women in jails, prisons and other types of detention facilities.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing on a growing body of research on health risks for transgender women who are detained in facilities in California and elsewhere, the authors provide recommendations for policy and practice that constitutes gender-affirming healthcare for transgender women behind bars.

Findings

Policymakers, correctional leaders, and prison-based clinicians have a number of opportunities to address the welfare of transgender women in jails, prisons and other types of detention facilities.

Originality/value

This policy brief offers concrete steps government officials can take to better meet their professional and constitutional obligations, provide higher quality care for transgender women involved in the criminal justice system, and effectuate positive changes in transgender women’s health and welfare both inside and outside of carceral environments.

Details

International Journal of Prisoner Health, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-9200

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 31 May 2019

Jennifer Gratrix, Petra Smyczek, Lindsay Bertholet, M.C. Lee, Diane Pyne, Dan Woods, Keith Courtney and Rabia Ahmed

Incarceration provides an opportunity for screening and treatment of sexually transmitted and blood-borne infections (STBBIs) in high-risk groups. The purpose of this…

Abstract

Purpose

Incarceration provides an opportunity for screening and treatment of sexually transmitted and blood-borne infections (STBBIs) in high-risk groups. The purpose of this paper is to determine positivity rates of STBBI screening within correctional facilities using opt-in strategies and estimate the proportion of admissions tested.

Design/methodology/approach

A cross-sectional, retrospective review of testing data from January 2012 to August 2015 from three provincial correctional facilities located in Alberta, Canada was completed. Analysis variables included STBBI, gender, facility, collection year and age. STBBI-stratified analysis was performed to identify correlates for positivity using univariate and logistic regressions.

Findings

Overall prevalence of chlamydia was 11.2 percent and gonorrhea was 3.5 percent; correlates for both were younger age and facility type. The syphilis prevalence rate was 3.2 percent; correlates included being female, older age, adult facilities, with later years being protective. In total, 14 (0.3 percent) newly diagnosed HIV cases were found, prevalence increased with age. HBV prevalence was 1.7 percent with no significant correlations. Nearly one-tenth (n=422) of those screened for HCV antibody were positive; all variables were significantly correlated. Overall estimates of the proportion of admissions tested by STBBI were low and ranged from 4.8 to 16.1 percent.

Originality/value

This study found high rates of STBBI in correctional facilities and showed that only a small proportion of the population was tested using an opt-in strategy. Shifting to an “opt-out” strategy may be warranted.

Details

International Journal of Prisoner Health, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-9200

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 September 2014

Sarah Larney, Curt G. Beckwith, Nickolas D. Zaller, Brian T. Montague and Josiah Rich

The purpose of this paper is to consider the potential benefits and challenges of applying a strategy of “seek, test, treat and retain” (STTR) to hepatitis C virus (HCV…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to consider the potential benefits and challenges of applying a strategy of “seek, test, treat and retain” (STTR) to hepatitis C virus (HCV) in the US criminal justice system.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors draw on the published literature to illustrate how each component of STTR could be applied to HCV in the US criminal justice system, and describe challenges to the implementation of this strategy.

Findings

The burden of morbidity and mortality associated with chronic HCV infection in the USA is increasing and without significantly increased treatment uptake, will likely continue to do so for several decades. The authors argue that the US criminal justice system is an ideal focus for HCV case finding and treatment due to a high prevalence of infection and large volume of individuals in contact with this system. STTR would identify large numbers of HCV infections, leading to opportunities for secondary prevention and primary care. Important challenges to the implementation of STTR include treatment costs and training of prison medical providers.

Originality/value

This paper highlights opportunities to address HCV in the US criminal justice system.

Details

International Journal of Prisoner Health, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-9200

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 February 2019

Lindsay A. Pearce, Lauren Mathany, Diane Rothon, Margot Kuo and Jane A. Buxton

To understand how the Take Home Naloxone (THN) program is implemented in two pilot correctional facilities in British Columbia (BC), Canada, in order to identify areas for…

Abstract

Purpose

To understand how the Take Home Naloxone (THN) program is implemented in two pilot correctional facilities in British Columbia (BC), Canada, in order to identify areas for program improvement and inform the expansion of the program to other Canadian correctional facilities The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

Two focus groups and one interview were conducted with healthcare staff at two pilot correctional facilities. Sessions were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and divergent and convergent experiences within and between the facilities were explored in an iterative process. Key themes and lessons learned were identified and later validated by focus group participants.

Findings

Key themes that emerged included: challenges and importance of the train-the-trainer program for healthcare staff conducting participant training sessions; potential for improved prison population engagement and awareness of the program; tailoring program resources to the unique needs of an incarcerated population; challenges connecting participants to community harm reduction resources following release; and clarifying and enhancing the role of correctional officers to support the program.

Research limitations/implications

The correctional setting presents unique challenges and opportunities for the THN program that must be considered for program effectiveness.

Originality/value

This evaluation was conducted to inform program expansion amidst a historic opioid overdose epidemic in BC, and adds to the limited yet growing body of literature on the implementation and evaluation of this program in correctional settings globally.

Details

International Journal of Prisoner Health, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-9200

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 December 2015

Pegah Memarpour, Rose Ricciardelli and Pauline Maasarjian

Canadian literature on federal correctional institutions and prison living indicate a shortage inadequate and available healthcare services to meet the needs of the prison…

Abstract

Purpose

Canadian literature on federal correctional institutions and prison living indicate a shortage inadequate and available healthcare services to meet the needs of the prison population, despite prisoners higher rates of health challenges (e.g. mental health, addictions, HIV/AIDS) in comparison to the general population. With fewer resources, concerns arise about the delivery, quantity, and quality of penal healthcare provision. Thus, the authors examines former prisoners’ experiences of, in comparison to government reports on, wait-times, and request processes for healthcare services, as well as issues of access, quality of interactions with healthcare professionals and the regulations and policies governing healthcare provision. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors compare data gathered from interviews with 56 former-federal prisoners with publicly available Correctional Services Canada reports on healthcare delivery, staff-prisoner interactions, programmes and services, and overall physical and mental health to identify consistencies and inconsistencies between the government’s and former prisoners’ understandings of penal healthcare.

Findings

Discrepancies exist between prisoners reported experiences of healthcare provision and government reports. Prisoners are dissatisfied with healthcare provision in more secure facilities or when they feel their healthcare needs are not met yet become more satisfied in less secure institutions or when their needs are eventually met.

Originality/value

Theories of administrative control frame the analyses, including discrepancies between parolee experiences and Correctional Service Canada reports. Policy recommendations to improve healthcare provision are highlighted.

Details

International Journal of Prisoner Health, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-9200

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 September 2018

Nantaga Sawasdipanich, Supa Puektes, Supaporn Wannasuntad, Ankana Sriyaporn, Chulepon Chawmathagit, Jirapa Sintunava and Gamjad Paungsawad

The purpose of this paper is to develop and evaluate the Standards of Healthcare Facility for Thai Female Inmates (SHF-TFI) through healthcare service improvement.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop and evaluate the Standards of Healthcare Facility for Thai Female Inmates (SHF-TFI) through healthcare service improvement.

Design/methodology/approach

This research and quality improvement project was comprised of three phases. Surveying healthcare facilities and in-depth interviews with female inmates as well as prison nurses were employed in Phase I. Expert reviews and public hearing meetings were used for developing the SHF-TFI in Phase II. Satisfaction questionnaires, focus group interviews of the female inmates, and in-depth interviews with nurses and prison wardens were utilized to evaluate feasibility and effectiveness of SHF-TFI implementation in Phase III.

Findings

The SHF-TFI was elaborated in order to be more specific to the context of the correctional institutes and correspond with healthcare as to the needs of female inmates. It was divided into three main aspects: administrative standards, health service standards and outcome standards. After implementation, nurses reflected on the feasibility and benefits of the SHF-TFI on the organizations, inmates and nurses. The female inmates perceived remarkable improvement in the healthcare services including physical activity promotion and screening programs for non-communicable diseases, the physical environment and sufficiency of medical equipment. Moreover, the pregnant inmates and incarcerated mothers with children shared their views on better antenatal and child developmental care, as well as availability of baby supplies.

Originality/value

The findings support the feasibility and effectiveness of the SHF-TFI for quality care improvement and applicability of the Bangkok Rules in women’s correctional institutes.

Details

International Journal of Prisoner Health, vol. 14 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-9200

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 December 2016

Rabia Ahmed, Cybele Angel, Rebecca Martel, Diane Pyne and Louanne Keenan

Incarcerated women have a disproportionate burden of infectious and chronic disease, in addition to substance use disorder and mental health illness, when compared to the…

Abstract

Purpose

Incarcerated women have a disproportionate burden of infectious and chronic disease, in addition to substance use disorder and mental health illness, when compared to the general population (Binswanger et al., 2009; Fazel et al., 2006; Fuentes, 2013; Kouyoumdjian et al., 2012). Women often enter the correctional system in poor health, making incarceration an opportunity to address health issues. The purpose of this paper is to explore the barriers to accessing health services that female inmates face during incarceration, the consequences to their health, and implications for correctional health services delivery.

Design/methodology/approach

Focus groups were conducted in Canadian correctional center with female inmates. Focus groups explored women’s experiences with accessing health services while incarcerated; the impact of access to health services on health during incarceration and in the community; and recommendations for improving access to health services. Thematic analysis was completed using N-vivo 10.

Findings

The women described multiple barriers to accessing health services that resulted in negative consequences to their health: treatment interruption; health disempowerment; poor mental and physical health; and recidivism into addiction and crime upon release. Women made three important recommendations for correctional health service delivery: provision of comprehensive health entry and exit assessments; improvement of health literacy; and establishment of health support networks. The recommendations were organized into an “Accessing Health Services Resource Manual” for incarcerated women.

Originality/value

There is a paucity of existing literature examining provision of health services for female inmates. These findings have relevancy for correctional and community health care providers and organizations that provide health services for this vulnerable population.

Details

International Journal of Prisoner Health, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-9200

Keywords

1 – 10 of 450