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Article
Publication date: 15 March 2019

Michael D. Anestis, Samantha E. Daruwala and Neil Carey

Firearms account for the majority of suicide deaths in the US military and general population. The percentage of suicides resulting from firearms is higher in the…

Abstract

Purpose

Firearms account for the majority of suicide deaths in the US military and general population. The percentage of suicides resulting from firearms is higher in the military, however, and as such, the ratio of non-lethal to lethal suicide attempts is lower in the military than in the general population. In 2013, Congress passed the National Defense Authorization Act, which facilitated a Department of Defense (DoD) shift toward allowing commanding officers and clinicians to inquire about personal firearms with service members perceived as being at risk and also began giving free cable locks to firearm-owning military personnel. The purpose of this paper is to provide a preliminary understanding of the effectiveness of this change, the authors examined trends in firearm suicide attempts within the US military and general population from 2010 to 2015.

Design/methodology/approach

Data on non-lethal and lethal suicide attempts overall and within specific methods were extracted from the Department of Defense Suicide Event Report and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System (2011–2015).

Findings

Contrary to expectations, firearms were not utilized in a smaller proportion of suicide attempts within the military post-law change. Consistent with expectations, however, the ratio of non-lethal to lethal suicide attempts increased, particularly after the change in law, with the ratio in the military converging somewhat with that of the general population.

Originality/value

Overall, results were mixed, with only limited and tangential evidence that the change in law has proven effective. More precise data collection will be required in order to fully evaluate such laws.

Details

Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-6599

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2007

Johannes Lohner and Norbert Konrad

This article reviews the international literature of the last two decades on self‐injurious behaviour in prisons and jails and introduces the risk factors associated with…

Abstract

This article reviews the international literature of the last two decades on self‐injurious behaviour in prisons and jails and introduces the risk factors associated with this behaviour. Studies from a variety of countries investigated different samples (e.g. in jails or prisons; female or male inmates). We only chose those studies using a control group of inmates without self‐injurious behaviour. The findings on potential risk factors for self‐injurious behaviour are largely contradictory because of the differences in sample selection and dependent variables (deliberate self‐harm without suicidal intent vs. suicide attempts). We also discuss some methodological problems in predicting self‐injurious behaviour.

Details

International Journal of Prisoner Health, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-9200

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Article
Publication date: 12 March 2014

XinQi Dong, Ruijia Chen, E-Shien Chang and Melissa A. Simon

– The purpose of this paper is to examine the prevalence of suicide attempts and explore the suicide methods among community-dwelling Chinese older adults.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the prevalence of suicide attempts and explore the suicide methods among community-dwelling Chinese older adults.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were drawn from the Population Study of Chinese Elderly in Chicago (PINE) study, a population-based epidemiological study of Chinese older adults aged 60 years and above in the greater Chicago area. Guided by the community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach, the study enrolled 3,159 community-dwelling Chinese older adults from 2011 to 2013.

Findings

The lifetime prevalence of suicide attempts is 791 per 100,000 and the past 12-month prevalence of suicide attempts is 285 per 100,000. Medication overdose is the most common suicide method both in the group of lifetime suicide attempts and 12-month suicide attempts. Lower income is positively correlated with lifetime suicide attempts and 12-month suicide attempts. Living with fewer household members is positively correlated with lifetime suicide attempts but not with 12-month suicide attempts.

Research limitations/implications

The findings emphasize the needs for improved understanding of suicidal behavior among minority older adults and to develop culturally and linguistically sensitive prevention and intervention strategies.

Practical implications

Community stakeholders should improve the accessibility and availability of culturally sensitive mental health services and extend timely and effective suicide interventions in the Chinese community.

Originality/value

This study represents the first and largest population-based epidemiological study to investigate the suicide attempts and methods among US Chinese older adults. In addition, the implementation of the CBPR approach allows us to minimize the cultural barriers associated with suicide investigation. The study emphasizes the need for improved understanding on suicidal behavior among minority older adults to inform culturally and linguistically sensitive prevention and intervention strategies.

Details

Ethnicity and Inequalities in Health and Social Care, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-0980

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 2002

Louisa Snow

This paper reports findings from a study of the social, situational and environmental factors that contribute to suicide and self‐injury in prison, focusing here on…

Abstract

This paper reports findings from a study of the social, situational and environmental factors that contribute to suicide and self‐injury in prison, focusing here on prisoners' motivations for their actions. In‐depth interviews were conducted with 143 prisoners in ten prisons in England and Wales who had engaged in an act of self‐injury or an attempt at suicide. The majority of participants described a number of precipitating or motivational factors related to concrete events, feelings/emotions (or both), operating within five different dimensions: offence‐related, interpersonal, symptom relief, instrumental and situational. In very few cases were there single reported causes. Motivational factors more prevalent among participants who attempted suicide included relationship problems, concerns about forthcoming court appearances and factors relating to drug withdrawal. Those who attempted suicide were more likely to describe concrete events or experiences as motivational factors. Those who injured themselves without suicidal intent were much more likely to describe negative feelings or emotions as precipitating factors. The results highlight the complex and multifactoral nature of suicidal and self‐injurious behaviours. At the very least they lend support to the suggestion that different strategies should be developed for those who attempt suicide and those who injure themselves for other reasons.

Details

The British Journal of Forensic Practice, vol. 4 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6646

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Article
Publication date: 9 December 2014

Diddy Antai and David Anthony

The purpose of this paper is to assess the prevalence of, and determined the factors associated with self-reported symptoms of suicide attempts and psychosocial distress…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to assess the prevalence of, and determined the factors associated with self-reported symptoms of suicide attempts and psychosocial distress among female victims of intimate partner violence (IPV).

Design/methodology/approach

Using cross-sectional data from 13,594 women aged 15-49 years from the 2008 Philippines Demographic and Health Surveys, the authors measured univariate prevalence, conducted bivariate and multivariate analyses using logistic regression models to examine the associations between outcomes, exposures, and potential explanatory variables.

Findings

In total, 47 and 8 per cent of the women reported psychological distress, and suicide attempts following IPV, respectively. Physical and psychological IPV occurred in 7 per cent of the women, respectively, whilst sexual IPV occurred in 5 per cent of the women. Multivariate analyses showed significant association between physical and psychological IPV and suicide attempt, as well as psychological distress.

Research limitations/implications

This study extends the knowledge about the interaction between IPV, suicide attempts, and psychological distress by redirecting the attention to more systemic expressions of the excess burden of IPV among abused women.

Practical implications

It highlights the significance of screening for the presence of, and accumulated effect of IPV exposures as a risk factor for suicide attempt and psychological distress.

Social implications

Since IPV is a product of gendered norms and power relations, the extent to which exposure to IPV results in poor mental health outcomes is determined by the interplay between societal gender norms and attitudes, poverty, and psychological distress.

Originality/value

Given that most of the literature on the association between traumatic events, psychosocial stress, and suicidality derive from high-income countries, they do not reflect cultural differences within the context of low-middle-income countries like the Philippines, or be generalizable to the low-middle-income countries.

Details

Journal of Public Mental Health, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5729

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 26 July 2012

Jerneja Sveticic and Diego De Leo

The idea of a progression in suicide phenomena, from death wishes to suicide attempts and completed suicides, is quite old and widely present in literature. This model of…

Abstract

The idea of a progression in suicide phenomena, from death wishes to suicide attempts and completed suicides, is quite old and widely present in literature. This model of interpreting suicidality has great relevance in preventative approaches, since it gives the opportunity of intercepting suicidal trajectories at several different stages. However, this may not be the case for many situations, and the hypothesis of a continuum can be true only in a limited number of cases, probably embedded with a specific psychopathological scenario (e.g. depression) and with a frequency that should not permit generalisations. This paper reviews the available evidence about the existence and validity of this construct, and discusses its practical implications.

Details

Mental Illness, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2036-7465

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Book part
Publication date: 15 January 2021

Jennifer Pearson, Lindsey Wilkinson and Jamie Lyn Wooley-Snider

Purpose: Sexual minority youth are more likely than their heterosexual peers to consider and attempt suicide, in part due to victimization experienced within schools…

Abstract

Purpose: Sexual minority youth are more likely than their heterosexual peers to consider and attempt suicide, in part due to victimization experienced within schools. While existing research suggests that rates of school victimization and suicidality among sexual minority students vary by school and community context, less is known about variation in these experiences at the state level.

Methodology: Using data from a large, representative sample of sexual minority and heterosexual youth (2017 Youth Risk Behavior States Data, n = 64,746 high school students in 22 states), multilevel models examine whether differences between sexual minority and heterosexual students in victimization and suicide risk vary by state-level policies.

Findings: Results suggest that disparities between sexual minority and heterosexual boys in bullying, suicide ideation, and suicide attempt are consistently smaller in states with high levels of overall policy support for LGBTQ equality and nondiscrimination in education laws. Sexual minority girls are more likely than heterosexual girls to be electronically bullied, particularly in states with lower levels of LGBTQ equality. Disparities between sexual minority and heterosexual girls in suicide ideation are lowest in high equality states, but state policies are not significantly associated with disparities in suicide attempt among girls.

Value: Overall, findings suggest that state-level policies supporting LGBTQ equality are associated with a reduced risk of suicide among sexual minority youth. This study speaks to the role of structural stigma in shaping exposure to minority stress and its consequences for sexual minority youth's well-being.

Details

Sexual and Gender Minority Health
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-147-1

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Article
Publication date: 2 December 2014

Louis Bailey, Sonja J. Ellis and Jay McNeil

The purpose of this paper is to present findings from the Trans Mental Health Study (McNeil et al., 2012) – the largest survey of the UK trans population to date and the…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present findings from the Trans Mental Health Study (McNeil et al., 2012) – the largest survey of the UK trans population to date and the first to explore trans mental health and well-being within a UK context. Findings around suicidal ideation and suicide attempt are presented and the impact of gender dysphoria, minority stress and medical delay, in particular, are highlighted.

Design/methodology/approach

This represents a narrative analysis of qualitative sections of a survey that utilised both open and closed questions. The study drew on a non-random sample (n=889), obtained via a range of UK-based support organisations and services.

Findings

The study revealed high rates of suicidal ideation (84 per cent lifetime prevalence) and attempted suicide (48 per cent lifetime prevalence) within this sample. A supportive environment for social transition and timely access to gender reassignment, for those who required it, emerged as key protective factors. Subsequently, gender dysphoria, confusion/denial about gender, fears around transitioning, gender reassignment treatment delays and refusals, and social stigma increased suicide risk within this sample.

Research limitations/implications

Due to the limitations of undertaking research with this population, the research is not demographically representative.

Practical implications

The study found that trans people are most at risk prior to social and/or medical transition and that, in many cases, trans people who require access to hormones and surgery can be left unsupported for dangerously long periods of time. The paper highlights the devastating impact that delaying or denying gender reassignment treatment can have and urges commissioners and practitioners to prioritise timely intervention and support.

Originality/value

The first exploration of suicidal ideation and suicide attempt within the UK trans population revealing key findings pertaining to social and medical transition, crucial for policy makers, commissioners and practitioners working across gender identity services, mental health services and suicide prevention.

Details

Mental Health Review Journal, vol. 19 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-9322

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Article
Publication date: 6 March 2017

Jurgita Rimkeviciene, John O’Gorman and Diego De Leo

Recent reports raise suicidality among asylum seekers as a pertinent issue in current Australian offshore detention centres. However, knowledge on the nature of the…

Abstract

Purpose

Recent reports raise suicidality among asylum seekers as a pertinent issue in current Australian offshore detention centres. However, knowledge on the nature of the suicidality in these centres is very limited. The purpose of this paper is to explore in depth how suicidality arises and develops in offshore detention centres.

Design/methodology/approach

A single case study approach was used.

Findings

This case study presents the findings on the suicidal process of an asylum seeker who attempted suicide three times while in Nauru Regional Processing Centre, the last of which being a near-lethal one. The prolonged mandatory detention, together with lack of clarity about the timeframes of detention and constant postponing of the legal processes were identified as the main factors driving the suicidal intent. The suicidal behaviour escalated from an interrupted attempt to a near lethal one within two years, which signals lack of adequate suicide prevention within detention.

Practical implications

The resources for mental health being limited in Nauru, it is likely overall changes in refugee status processing may be a more effective suicide prevention strategy rather than implementation of other additional measures.

Originality/value

Studies in offshore processing facilities have been scarce due to barriers for researchers to access the detention centres. This study offers a unique insight into suicidality in this hard to reach population.

Details

International Journal of Migration, Health and Social Care, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-9894

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Article
Publication date: 26 August 2014

Emma Mollison, Eddie Chaplin, Lisa Underwood and Jane McCarthy

Suicide is one of the top three leading causes of death amongst those aged between 15 and 44 years; and tenth leading cause of death in the wider population. The base…

Abstract

Purpose

Suicide is one of the top three leading causes of death amongst those aged between 15 and 44 years; and tenth leading cause of death in the wider population. The base rates of suicide, suicide attempts and suicide-related behaviours are comparably low in the general population with between 17 and 68 per cent of individuals who successfully commit suicide having made a previous attempt to take their own life. As recently as the 1980's it was still a widely held belief that individuals with intellectual disability (ID) did not have the cognitive capacity to experience mental health problems and this acted as a “buffer” against suicidal behaviour. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The literature review covered the time period 1993-2013 and returned 117 studies, 77 of which related to individuals with ID, 37 of which related to adults. Following screening titles and abstracts 28 articles were removed. A total of nine studies were found to be eligible for inclusion in the review. A further two studies examining suicide in adolescents (up to adulthood) with ID were also considered. From the eligible studies the following information was considered: study design, sample size, strengths, limitations and the risk factors associated with an increased risk of suicide.

Findings

The suicide risk factors identified during the review were found to be in keeping with the general population and included a diagnosis of clinical depression, history of self-harm, unemployment, loneliness, unemployment, an increased need for support from others, early onset mental illness and being treatment resistive.

Originality/value

Suicide in individuals with ID is a topic that has not received a great deal of attention from professionals and clinicians alike. People with ID have higher rates of mental health problems and therefore it could be argued that they are more likely to be at risk. This study aims to look at risk factors specific to people with ID for clinicians to consider in their daily practice.

Details

Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities, vol. 8 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1282

Keywords

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