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This chapter presents a study on the work of commercial diplomats as international business promoters at foreign posts. Research has largely overlooked the actual roles…
This chapter presents a study on the work of commercial diplomats as international business promoters at foreign posts. Research has largely overlooked the actual roles and activities of commercial diplomats in explaining the effectiveness of commercial diplomacy and international business support. In this study, it is assumed that commercial diplomats’ behavior is influenced by informal institutions. Face-to-face semi-structured interviews with 23 commercial diplomats at foreign posts from different countries were conducted and analyzed. The results show three different types of role behavior and differences in proactivity per type. Informal institutions such as background, skills, and experience, cultural differences, and the working environment suggest to explain the differences in levels of proactive international business support behavior of commercial diplomats. Further research is needed to assert these findings.
The purpose of this paper is to present a new constrained optimization algorithm based on a particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm approach.
The purpose of this paper is to present a new constrained optimization algorithm based on a particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm approach.
This paper introduces a hybrid approach based on a modified ring neighborhood with two new perturbation operators designed to keep diversity. A constraint handling technique based on feasibility and sum of constraints violation is adopted. Also, a special technique to handle equality constraints is proposed.
The paper shows that it is possible to improve PSO and keeping the advantages of its social interaction through a simple idea: perturbing the PSO memory.
The proposed algorithm shows a competitive performance against the state‐of‐the‐art constrained optimization algorithms.
The proposed algorithm can be used to solve single objective problems with linear or non‐linear functions, and subject to both equality and inequality constraints which can be linear and non‐linear. In this paper, it is applied to various engineering design problems, and for the solution of state‐of‐the‐art benchmark problems.
A new neighborhood structure for PSO algorithm is presented. Two perturbation operators to improve PSO algorithm are proposed. A special technique to handle equality constraints is proposed.
Achieving Sustainable Developments Goals (SDGs) is main agenda of any democratic government. The demand for needs of the society is increasing day by day due to increasing…
Achieving Sustainable Developments Goals (SDGs) is main agenda of any democratic government. The demand for needs of the society is increasing day by day due to increasing globalization and rapid transformation in all spheres of the society, and as a result, agriculture has shifted from a situation where food is primarily considered as a national concern with high self-sufficiency goals to a situation, where food can be traded subject to high degree of vertical integration of value chain. This study attempts to examine first, how far the state Tripura has developed toward to achieving its SDGs; so that Central dependency of the state would be reduced; second, the impact of globalization on its sustainable development; and, third, the possibility of development in different sectors of the economy toward fulfilling the SDGs through globalization. It observes that the state is in the take-off stage; it needs to go long way to make it developed. The state has lot of potentialities for its sustainable development.
Lester and Wolff (2013) find little empirical support for the Austrian business cycle theory. According to their analysis, an unexpected monetary shock does not alter the…
Lester and Wolff (2013) find little empirical support for the Austrian business cycle theory. According to their analysis, an unexpected monetary shock does not alter the structure of production in a way consistent with the Austrian view. Rather than increasing production in early and late stages relative to middle stages, they find the opposite – a positive monetary shock typically decreases production in early and late stages relative to middle stages. We argue that the measures of production and prices employed by Lester and Wolff (2013) are constructed in such a way that makes them inappropriate for assessing the empirical relevance of the Austrian business cycle theory’s unique features. After describing how these measures are constructed and why using ratios of stages is problematic, we use a structural vector autoregression to consider the effects of a monetary shock on each stage of the production process. We show that, with a clearer understanding of what is actually being measured by the stage of process data, the results are consistent with (but not exclusive to) the Austrian view.
This research investigated the market conditions caused by IPO advertising by examining the impact of IPO advertising, based on the US stock market from 1986 to 2009. The…
This research investigated the market conditions caused by IPO advertising by examining the impact of IPO advertising, based on the US stock market from 1986 to 2009. The relationship between advertising intensity in the IPO year and the degree of IPO underpricing was examined. It was found that an increase in advertising intensity around an IPO event increases the initial returns. Simultaneously, however, advertising intensity around an IPO event also increases the degree of overvaluation, which raises the question as to whether advertising serves primarily as a mechanism to convey a firm’s true value to investors. The theoretical valuation of IPO and the relation between IPO advertising and the degree of stock overvaluation are discussed. Based on the Peasnell’s (1982) residual-income valuation framework (henceforth RIV), IPO advertising was proved to cause stock price to be more overvalued in the secondary market: a positive relationship was found between advertising and the degree of stock overvaluation relative to its theoretical value. Accordingly, an alternative hypothesis, that advertising inflates the short-run stock price, was proposed. The results of this study are consistent with the view of Purnanandam and Swaminathan (2004), namely that the stock price of newly listed firms can be overvalued.
This chapter develops a no-arbitrage, futures equilibrium cost-of-carry model to demonstrate that the existence of cointegration between spot and futures prices in the New…
This chapter develops a no-arbitrage, futures equilibrium cost-of-carry model to demonstrate that the existence of cointegration between spot and futures prices in the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX) crude oil market depends crucially on the time-series properties of the underlying model. In marked contrast to previous studies, the futures equilibrium model utilizes information contained in both the quality delivery option and convenience yield as a timing delivery option in the NYMEX contract. Econometric tests of the speculative efficiency hypothesis (also termed the “unbiasedness hypothesis”) are developed and common tests of this hypothesis examined. The empirical results overwhelming support the hypotheses that the NYMEX future price is an unbiased predictor of future spot prices and that no-arbitrage opportunities are available. The results also demonstrate why common tests of the speculative efficiency hypothesis and simple arbitrage models often reject one or both of these hypotheses.
This study is intended to investigate the volatility patterns in Bombay Stock Exchange Limited Sensitivity Index (BSE Sensex) based on time series data collected for 10…
This study is intended to investigate the volatility patterns in Bombay Stock Exchange Limited Sensitivity Index (BSE Sensex) based on time series data collected for 10 years period of time. To reach out the predefined objectives of the study, the authors have employed generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedastic models. The study revealed that the presence of heteroscedasticiy is found in BSE Sensex. Further, the model produced highly accurate results when the researchers compared the estimated results from actual. Furthermore, the volatility of BSE Sensex has shown the features of clustering and significant time varying. Moreover, the model has indicated that there is a positive correlation between daily stock returns and the BSE Sensex volatility.
Introduction: Studies on the insurance sector/companies have, in recent years, taken their place in literature at an increasing rate. Especially after the 2008 global…
Introduction: Studies on the insurance sector/companies have, in recent years, taken their place in literature at an increasing rate. Especially after the 2008 global financial crisis, the need for people to ensure their assets has structurally changed both the transaction volume and the yield structure of insurance sector. The increase in demand for insurance has also increased the appetite of investors to make an investment on this sector. The transaction volume of the insurance sector has increased year by year coupled with the number of insurance companies traded on the stock exchanges has started to increase in the same direction.
Aim: This chapter aims to determine the return structure of the Borsa Istanbul Insurance Index (XSGRT) based on daily closing values.
Method: Markedly with similar studies in the literature review, the authors determined that the Markov Regime Switching (MRS) model is the best-suited model for the current research. It was applied for the data set of XSGRT Index from 1997 to 2020.
Results: The result shows that XSGRT has three regimes named as expansion regime, normal regime and recession regime. Subsequently, it has been determined that the index generally attends to transition from the recession regime to the expansion regime and normal regime. This outcome is statistically significant at a 5% significance level and confirmed by backtesting results. Likewise, the duration of the recession regime is longer than the normal and expansion regime.
Conclusion: Despite the fact that the XSGRT has not yet completed its development compared to other main and sectoral indices, it is one of the indices that offer attractive earnings for investors. To put it differently, the desire of insurance companies to stay longer totally in the normal and expansion period and their immediate exit from the recession period provides them with a significant competitive advantage in contrast to other indices.
Originality/Value: This research contributes to the literature by providing additional evidence for existing studies using the longer duration of data set and applying the MRS model for Insurance Index. Best of our knowledge, it is the first study that examines the return structure of XSGRT based on its daily closing values from 1997 to 2020. In essence, investors can use the result of this study and compare it with other stock indices to make the accurate investment decision to maximise their welfare and return on their equity investments. The authors suggest that not only the return but also the regime structures of the invested shares (indices) should be taken into account for investment decisions.
Introduction – The banking sector is one of the most important building blocks of the financial system. A failure in the banking sector can cause serious problems in a…
Introduction – The banking sector is one of the most important building blocks of the financial system. A failure in the banking sector can cause serious problems in a country’s economy. In order for countries to achieve economic growth and development goals, the banking sector, which affects all sectors significantly, needs to be strong. Countries with a robust and reliable banking system have a high credit rating. As a result of this high credit rating, the interest of foreign capital in the country increases. Thus, the credit volume of banks expands and loans are provided at a more appropriate rate for investments. In this respect, the performance and profitability of banks are important. The CAMELS performance model is a valuation system used to determine the general status of banks. The CAMELS model consists of six components. According to this, C represents capital adequacy; A, asset quality; M, management adequacy; E, earnings; L, liquidity; and S, sensitivity to market risks.
Purpose – The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the effect of the CAMLS variables on the variable E.
Methodology – In the implementation part of the study, the data of 11 banks in the BIST Bank Index between 2004 and 2018 were used. In the analysis part of the study, a panel data analysis method was used.
Findings – The capital adequacy (C), management adequacy (M) and liquidity (L) variables were effective on profitability. This study revealed the importance of the capital, management and liquidity variables, which are internal factors, in increasing the profitability of banks.
The ratio between share price and current earnings per share, the Price Earning (PE) ratio, is widely considered to be an effective gauge of under/overvaluation of a…
The ratio between share price and current earnings per share, the Price Earning (PE) ratio, is widely considered to be an effective gauge of under/overvaluation of a corporation’s stock. Arguably, a more reliable indicator, the Cyclically Adjusted Price Earning ratio or CAPE, can be obtained by replacing current earnings with a measure of permanent earnings i.e. the profits that a corporation is able to earn, on average, over the medium to long run. In this study, we aim to understand the cross-sectional aspects of the dynamics of the valuation metrics across global stock markets including both developed and emerging markets. We use a time varying DCC model to exploit the dynamics in correlations, by introducing the notion of value spread between CAPE and the respective Market Index from 2002 to 2014 for 34 countries. Value spread is statistically significant during the 2008 crisis for asset allocation. The signal can be utilized for better asset allocation as it allows one to interpret the common movements in the stock market for under/overvaluation trends. These estimates clearly indicate periods of misvaluation in our sample. Furthermore, our simulations suggest that the model can provide early warning signs for asset mispricing in real time on a global scale and formation of asset bubbles.