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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1986

Horst Parisch

A previously presented finite element shell formulation is extended to the application of large strains. The finite elements are those based on the concept of ‘the…

Abstract

A previously presented finite element shell formulation is extended to the application of large strains. The finite elements are those based on the concept of ‘the degenerated solids’, which are widely used in non‐linear finite element programs. The constitutive equation of hyperelastic incompressible material is adopted and specialized to the Mooney‐Rivlin law. The additional state variable, the hydrostatic pressure, which occurs for incompressible materials, is eliminated on element level using the plane stress condition. Attention is drawn to the efficient calculation of the element matrices by applying a layer concept. The effectiveness of the proposed total Lagrangian formulation is demonstrated in a number of example problems.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Article
Publication date: 23 August 2013

Milagros Vivel‐Búa, Luis Otero‐González, Sara Fernández‐López and Pablo Durán‐Santomil

Using hedging theories, we analyse the variables that determine the decision to hedge with foreign currency debt.

Abstract

Purpose

Using hedging theories, we analyse the variables that determine the decision to hedge with foreign currency debt.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a sample of 100 Spanish companies with a significant social and economic role in Latin American during 2004‐2007, we estimated probit models for panel data.

Findings

Our results showed that the main determinants are scale economies and the use of derivatives. On the one hand, we found that this hedging is positively related to tax loss carry‐forwards and long‐term economic sectors, and on the other, that it is related negatively to information asymmetries and growth opportunities. Results were mixed for foreign currency exposure.

Research limitations/implications

The limitations of this paper are associated to the availability of information from annual reports and the SABI database, especially the variables in relation to operational hedging. Therefore, as a future line of research, we propose gathering of data on these internal hedging practices in order to obtain more accurate evidence about its use in companies and their relationship with financial hedging.

Originality/value

This paper makes three major contributions to the existing literature. First, it contributes by illustrating currency hedging practices used by Spanish firms – which are important in Latin markets – to manage exchange rate exposure in. Second, we used more variables for the empirical analyses to contrast the hedging theories than previous studies had. Finally, we used a data panel because it allows the control of unobservable heterogeneity and endogeneity problems. Previous studies only used cross‐section estimations.

Objetivo

Este trabajo analiza la cobertura cambiaria con deuda en divisa utilizando las teorías de cobertura.

Diseño/metodología/aproximación

Se estimaron modelos probit para datos de panel usando una muestra de 100 empresas españolas con un papel económico‐social relevante en Latinoamérica durante el período 2004‐2007.

Resultados

Los resultados muestran que esta cobertura se relaciona principalmente con las economías de escala y el uso de derivados. Asimismo, existe una relación positiva con la convexidad impositiva y la localización empresarial en sectores orientados al largo plazo, y negativa con las asimetrías informativas y oportunidades de crecimiento. No existe evidencia concluyente para la exposición cambiaria.

Limitaciones de la investigación/implicaciones

La investigación tuvo como limitación la disponibilidad de algunos datos en los informes anuales de las empresas y la base de datos SABI, en especial, aquellos referidos a la cobertura operativa. En consecuencia, una línea de trabajo futura es la mejora de la información sobre esta cobertura, lo cual permitiría aportar mayor evidencia sobre su utilización y su relación con la cobertura financiera.

Originalidad/valor

Esta investigación realiza tres contribuciones a la literatura existente: a) permite un mejor conocimiento de la cobertura cambiaria en empresas españolas internacionales que ejercen un papel relevante en los mercados latinoamericanos; b) utiliza un conjunto de variables más amplio para contrastar las teorías de cobertura que el aplicado en estudios precedentes; c) emplea la metodología de datos de panel y no estimaciones en sección cruzada como presentan los trabajos previos, lo cual permite controlar la heterogeneidad inobservable y posibles problemas de endogeneidad.

Details

Academia Revista Latinoamericana de Administración, vol. 26 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1012-8255

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 1982

Joseph R. MAUTZ and Roger F. HARRINGTON

The magnetic field integral equation for electromagnetic scattering from a perfectly conducting body of revolution is solved by the method of moments. A Fourier series in…

Abstract

The magnetic field integral equation for electromagnetic scattering from a perfectly conducting body of revolution is solved by the method of moments. A Fourier series in ø is used. The t dependence of the expansion functions is subsectional. Pulses are used for the ø component of the unknown electric current induced on the surface S of the body of revolution. Triangles divided by the cylindrical coordinate radius are used for the t component. Here, t and ø are orthogonal coordinates on S, t being the arc length along the generating curve of S and ø the azimuthal angle.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 1 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Book part
Publication date: 19 October 2020

Pablo Estrada and Leonardo Sánchez-Aragón

Financial contagion refers to the propagation of shocks that can generate widespread failures. The authors apply a financial contagion model proposed by Elliott, Golub…

Abstract

Financial contagion refers to the propagation of shocks that can generate widespread failures. The authors apply a financial contagion model proposed by Elliott, Golub, and Jackson (2014) to a cross-shareholding network of firms in Ecuador. The authors use a novel dataset to study the potential channels for contagion. Although diversification is not high, results reveal enough conditions for a contagion event to occur. However, the low level of integration attenuates the effects of shocks. The authors run simulations affecting a particular firm at the time, and find that two firms coming from the finance and trade industry cause the highest contagion. In addition, when an entire industry receives a shock, trade and manufacturing industries contagion more companies than the rest. Finally, the model can assist policymakers to monitor the market and evaluate the fragility of the network in different scenarios.

Details

The Econometrics of Networks
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-576-9

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 26 May 2022

Khaira Amalia Fachrudin and Fachrudin

Economic growth can be pursued through company performance. However, few companies present negative equity. In Indonesia, some firms with negative equity have positive net…

Abstract

Economic growth can be pursued through company performance. However, few companies present negative equity. In Indonesia, some firms with negative equity have positive net income and stock returns. This study compares the performance of negative (and positive) equity in the Indonesia Stock Exchange. The observation was conducted from 2019, in marked negative equity notation and two previous periods. It involved all the market negative equity notation companies. We found no significant difference between companies with negative equity and those with positive equity on the asset's efficiency using comparative analysis. The difference relied on the capability of managing the expenses, including interest expenses. Leverage has a positive and significant correlation to assets utilization in companies with negative equity only, while it is insignificant in companies with positive equity. The investors consider the stock companies with negative equity even though the obtained stock returns are not different whether they invested either in the companies with positive or negative equity.

Details

Modeling Economic Growth in Contemporary Indonesia
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80262-431-1

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 22 November 2016

Alessandro Danovi, Patrizia Riva and Marina Azzola

As a sort of Italian equivalent of US’s Chapter 11, the Preventive Arrangement with Creditors (Concordato Preventivo) is now the main instrument in Italy for small and…

Abstract

As a sort of Italian equivalent of US’s Chapter 11, the Preventive Arrangement with Creditors (Concordato Preventivo) is now the main instrument in Italy for small and medium-sized companies (and sometimes large ones) to manage insolvency by avoiding bankruptcy.

Through the examination of 60% of the total cases filed at the Court of Milan during the 2005–2014 period, authors investigated the different features of the procedure, the characteristics of the company that adopts it, and its diverse purposes of liquidation or restructuring. The complexity of the Italian system and the novelty of the legislation have made it rather difficult to reach definitive conclusions. However, Preventive Arrangements with Creditors can be considered a more efficient instrument than the alternative bankruptcy, both in terms of timeframe and creditors’ satisfaction. Within the overall European reform process of insolvency proceedings, Italy seems to provide useful insights for other countries in Europe, following in particular the 2014 Recommendation issued by the European Commission.

Details

Contemporary Issues in Finance: Current Challenges from Across Europe
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-907-0

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 June 2022

Hung Son Tran, Thanh Dat Nguyen and Thanh Liem Nguyen

The purpose of this study is to carry out an empirical investigation about how the level of market concentration or competitiveness of the banking system and institutional…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to carry out an empirical investigation about how the level of market concentration or competitiveness of the banking system and institutional quality are associated with bank’s financial stability.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses dynamic panel data techniques on the sample of 133 developing and emerging countries over the years 2002–2020.

Findings

The authors document several significant findings. First, there is evidence that bank stability is positively associated with the level of market concentration. The result is in line with the concentration–stability view that banks operating in a more concentrated market tend to be more stable than those in a less concentrated market. Second, the results confirm that the quality of the institutional environment plays a critical role in improving the stability of banks in developing and emerging countries. Third, the authors find that institutional development can moderate the effect of market concentration (or competitiveness of the banking system) on bank stability. Specifically, the results show that better institutional quality enhances the positive influence of bank concentration on the bank’s financial stability in developing and emerging countries. These results are robust to different specifications with the alternative measures of bank stability and market concentration.

Originality/value

This study provides further understanding regarding the effects of the level of market concentration or competitiveness of the banking system and institutional quality on bank stability in 133 developing and emerging countries over the years 2002–2020.

Details

Competitiveness Review: An International Business Journal , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1059-5422

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 January 2022

Muhammad Mushafiq, Syed Ahmad Sami, Muhammad Khalid Sohail and Muzammal Ilyas Sindhu

The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the probability of default and examine the relationship between default risk and financial performance, with dynamic panel…

Abstract

Purpose

The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the probability of default and examine the relationship between default risk and financial performance, with dynamic panel moderation of firm size.

Design/methodology/approach

This study utilizes a total of 1,500 firm-year observations from 2013 to 2018 using dynamic panel data approach of generalized method of moments to test the relationship between default risk and financial performance with the moderation effect of the firm size.

Findings

This study establishes the findings that default risk significantly impacts the financial performance. The relationship between distance-to-default (DD) and financial performance is positive, which means the relationship of the independent and dependent variable is inverse. Moreover, this study finds that the firm size is a significant positive moderator between DD and financial performance.

Practical implications

This study provides new and useful insight into the literature on the relationship between default risk and financial performance. The results of this study provide investors and businesses related to nonfinancial firms in the Pakistan Stock Exchange (PSX) with significant default risk's impact on performance. This study finds, on average, the default probability in KSE ALL indexed companies is 6.12%.

Originality/value

The evidence of the default risk and financial performance on samples of nonfinancial firms has been minimal; mainly, it has been limited to the banking sector. Moreover, the existing studies have only catered the direct effect of only. This study fills that gap and evaluates this relationship in nonfinancial firms. This study also helps in the evaluation of Merton model's performance in the nonfinancial firms.

Details

Journal of Economic and Administrative Sciences, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1026-4116

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 March 2022

Ba Hung Nguyen, Nhat Bao Quyen Pham and Thi Hong Ha Do

As small and medium-size enterprises (SMEs) rely on board heterogeneity to raise capital and establish credit relationships with suppliers, it is crucial to investigate…

Abstract

Purpose

As small and medium-size enterprises (SMEs) rely on board heterogeneity to raise capital and establish credit relationships with suppliers, it is crucial to investigate the board heterogeneity effect on their survival. In this study, the first research objective is to provide further insights on the discriminatory power of survival approaches, specifically on semiparametric approaches in survival analysis that take into consideration both fixed and time-varying covariates. The second objective is to examine the relationship between board size and SME liquidation by using resource-based theories that focus on measuring board heterogeneity through board size.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper uses survival approaches for modelling SMEs survival by examining the survival of more than 68,000 SMEs in the UK covering the before, onset and post 2008 crisis periods and with firms’ demographic characteristics and financial indicators. Survival analysis is effective to examine multiple causes of default/failure and how do particular circumstances or characteristics increase or decrease the probability of survival. Survival analysis brings more advantages than linear-based regression approaches by effectively handling the censoring of observations.

Findings

Motivated by resource-based theories, the authors find that the likelihood of a firm being liquidated robustly increases with a reduction in its board heterogeneity measured through board size. This finding is held under non-parametric, parametric, and semiparametric approaches using survival analysis. The research shows better causal explanation and discriminatory power on using the semiparametric-based survival analysis approach considering both fixed and time-varying covariates.

Practical implications

This study demonstrates the better performance and causal explanation of the survival model using time-varying covariates compared with those using fixed covariates. In addition, the authors delve into board heterogeneity, measuring through the board size to investigate how the number of board directors affects the firm liquidation, it is also a factor worth considering when a small and medium firm is forming its board.

Originality/value

This research investigates the board heterogeneity effect on firm survival using survival analysis approaches. The authors contribute to the knowledge on board heterogeneity of SMEs. Specifically, the size of more than three directors could help reduce SMEs liquidation risk. This result gives a recommendation to firms or start-ups when forming their director board. This research also provides further insights on the applicability of survival models with unique UK SMEs data covering the before, onset and post 2008 crisis periods.

Details

Studies in Economics and Finance, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1086-7376

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 30 June 2021

Mohammad Abdullah

Financial health of a corporation is a great concern for every investor level and decision-makers. For many years, financial solvency prediction is a significant issue…

2042

Abstract

Purpose

Financial health of a corporation is a great concern for every investor level and decision-makers. For many years, financial solvency prediction is a significant issue throughout academia, precisely in finance. This requirement leads this study to check whether machine learning can be implemented in financial solvency prediction.

Design/methodology/approach

This study analyzed 244 Dhaka stock exchange public-listed companies over the 2015–2019 period, and two subsets of data are also developed as training and testing datasets. For machine learning model building, samples are classified as secure, healthy and insolvent by the Altman Z-score. R statistical software is used to make predictive models of five classifiers and all model performances are measured with different performance metrics such as logarithmic loss (logLoss), area under the curve (AUC), precision recall AUC (prAUC), accuracy, kappa, sensitivity and specificity.

Findings

This study found that the artificial neural network classifier has 88% accuracy and sensitivity rate; also, AUC for this model is 96%. However, the ensemble classifier outperforms all other models by considering logLoss and other metrics.

Research limitations/implications

The major result of this study can be implicated to the financial institution for credit scoring, credit rating and loan classification, etc. And other companies can implement machine learning models to their enterprise resource planning software to trace their financial solvency.

Practical implications

Finally, a predictive application is developed through training a model with 1,200 observations and making it available for all rational and novice investors (Abdullah, 2020).

Originality/value

This study found that, with the best of author expertise, the author did not find any studies regarding machine learning research of financial solvency that examines a comparable number of a dataset, with all these models in Bangladesh.

Details

Journal of Asian Business and Economic Studies, vol. 28 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2515-964X

Keywords

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