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Book part
Publication date: 29 July 2020

Stefano Grando, Gianluca Brunori, Teresa Pinto-Correia and Lee-Ann Sutherland

This chapter provides a first systemic analysis of the environment in which small farms operate, hinging on the concept of ‘food system’. Food systems are not detached…

Abstract

This chapter provides a first systemic analysis of the environment in which small farms operate, hinging on the concept of ‘food system’. Food systems are not detached from the territory: an effective conceptualization must take into account the geographical dimension in which actors operate, originating material and immaterial flows. Thus food systems can be represented according to their functional elements, but also conceptualized and represented in their spatial dimension. This chapter provides a conceptualization of territorialized food systems, seen as a set of relations between actors located in a regional geographic space and coordinated by territorial governance (Rastoin, 2015). In the analysis of a food system in the context of a specific territory, geographical elements like distances, spatial distribution and physical and administrative borders become key factors that influence the systems’ capability to provide sustainable food and nutrition security and to achieve the other socially expected outcomes. Having explored the conceptualization of food systems as systems of actors ad flows in a given space, the chapter ends with a representation of small farms' interaction with the system (taken from a report by the High Level Panel of Experts on Food Security and Nutrition of the Committee on World Food Security – HLPE), where the specific types of flows they activate are highlighted (HLPE, 2013).

Details

Innovation for Sustainability
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-157-8

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 April 2009

Pornlert Arpanutud, Suwimon Keeratipibul, Araya Charoensupaya and Eunice Taylor

The purpose of this paper is to investigate factors affecting the adoption of food‐safety management systems by Thai food‐manufacturing firms.

2507

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate factors affecting the adoption of food‐safety management systems by Thai food‐manufacturing firms.

Design/methodology/approach

The study employs a survey questionnaire using a sample of Thai food‐manufacturing firms. The three‐part questionnaire was mailed to managers performing food‐safety management activities in 480 firms. A total of 217 questionnaires were returned, with a response rate of 45.2 percent.

Findings

The results of hypothesis testing indicated that the adoption of a food safety management system can be significantly predicted by: expected gain of social legitimacy; expected gain of economic competitiveness; perceived importance of external stakeholders (government, community, food safety organizations, and media); top management commitment to food safety; firm size and amount of export sales. It can also be predicted by the extent to which firms exchange food safety knowledge with other stakeholders.

Practical implications

The results of the study suggest that the Government should formulate food safety policies in favour of educating senior managers in the potential benefits of food safety management systems for their firms. In addition it confirms the importance of Government information dissemination on the successful adoption of such systems and the need to focus Government resources on assisting smaller firms. The findings present evidence of the commercial benefits of system adoption.

Original/value

The paper identifies statistically significant factors that can “predict” the uptake of food safety management systems within the Thai food industry.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 111 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 20 July 2010

Rosita Jamaluddin, Nurul Aqmaliza Abd Manan, Aina Mardiah Basri and Muhd Shahrim Ab Karim

The purpose of this paper is to determine patients' satisfaction with the bulk trolley food service system and the effect of the system on energy and protein intakes.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine patients' satisfaction with the bulk trolley food service system and the effect of the system on energy and protein intakes.

Design/methodology/approach

An interview‐based questionnaire was used to measure patients' satisfaction (n=70) with the hospital food services. Dietary intake of hospital food was determined through one‐day weighed food intake survey and a food record for non‐hospital food.

Findings

The majority of the patients (98.6 per cent) were satisfied and 1.4 per cent was very satisfied with the food service. Energy (kcal) and protein (g) intakes from hospital food were higher than that of outside food (p<0.05). However, most patients did not obtain their full energy and protein requirements from the hospital food provided. Four food service dimensions were found to be significantly correlated with patients' overall satisfaction (p<0.05).

Research limitations/implications

The questionnaire was adapted from the study by Capra et al. and modified to suit the local food service system, thus the application may be context‐specific. The instrument did not measure factors that influence hospital food consumption, nor did it differentiate between the acceptability of different kinds of food. Also a comparison of patients' acceptance between the plated and bulk trolley system was not conducted in this study.

Practical implications

The results of the study can be used as a basis for decision making and for future planning of the food service system. The findings prompt analytical comparison, between the bulk trolley, and plated systems, in determining patients' preference, and to increase food intake.

Originality/value

Patient satisfaction surveys are regularly conducted in the country but none had ever studied the effectiveness of the bulk trolley system in relation to patients' satisfaction. The findings are noteworthy and, compared with the past literature review, the difference in the way the system is carried out in the country may be the contributing factor regarding patients' satisfaction system.

Details

Leadership in Health Services, vol. 23 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-1879

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Book part
Publication date: 29 June 2017

Jeffery Sobal

Food system channels are proposed to be major components of the larger food system which influence health and illness.

Abstract

Purpose

Food system channels are proposed to be major components of the larger food system which influence health and illness.

Methodology/approach

Food system channels are defined, discussed in relationship to other food system components, considered in terms of historical food system changes, examined in relationship to wellbeing and disease, and proposed to have useful applications.

Findings

Food system channels are broad, organized, and integrated pathways through which foods and nutrients pass. Channels are larger in scale and scope than previously described food system structures like chains, stages, sectors, networks, and others. Four major types of contemporary Western food system channels differ in their underlying values and health impacts. (1) Industrialized food channels are based on profit as an economic value, which contributes to a diversity of inexpensive foods and chronic diseases. (2) Emergency food channels are based on altruism as a moral value, and try to overcome gaps in industrialized channels to prevent diseases of poverty. (3) Alternative food channels are based on justice and environmentalism as ethical values, and seek to promote wellness and sustainability. (4) Subsistence food channels are based on self-sufficiency as a traditional value, and seek self-reliance to avoid hunger and illness. Historical socioeconomic development of agricultural and industrial transitions led to shifts in food system channels that shaped dietary, nutritional, epidemiological, and mortality transitions.

Implications

Food system channels provide varying amounts of calories and types of nutrients that shape wellbeing and diseases. Sociologists and others may benefit from examining food system channels and considering their role in health and illness.

Details

Food Systems and Health
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-092-3

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Book part
Publication date: 29 July 2020

Gianluca Brunori, Tessa Avermaete, Fabio Bartolini, Natalia Brzezina, Terry Marsden, Erik Mathijs, Ana Moragues-Faus and Roberta Sonnino

This chapter focusses on food systems' vulnerability. In a rapidly and unpredictably changing world, vulnerability of farming and food systems becomes a key issue. The…

Abstract

This chapter focusses on food systems' vulnerability. In a rapidly and unpredictably changing world, vulnerability of farming and food systems becomes a key issue. The conceptual bases for food vulnerability analysis and food vulnerability assessment are discussed in a systemic perspective with an eye to the transition approach (Geels, 2004) as a perspective capable to analyze how novelties can develop and influence the system capability to fulfil societal functions, and food and nutrition security in particular. A framework for assessing people's food vulnerability is presented together with a simple vulnerability model based on the three dimensions of exposure (the degree to which a system is likely to experience environmental or sociopolitical stress), sensitivity (the degree to which a system is modified or affected by perturbations) and adaptive capacity (the ability to evolve in order to accommodate environmental hazards or change) (Adger, 2006). Then, other sections are dedicated to discuss the general questions that should be answered by a vulnerability assessment exercise, and the specific challenges emerging when the assessment concerns a food system. These elements are then used in the Annex to this chapter as a base for the development of a detailed method based on seven distinct steps for conducting participatory assessments of the vulnerability of food systems.

Book part
Publication date: 3 December 2014

Douglas H. Constance, William H. Friedland, Marie-Christine Renard and Marta G. Rivera-Ferre

This introduction provides an overview of the discourse on alternative agrifood movements (AAMs) to (1) ascertain the degree of convergence and divergence around a common…

Abstract

This introduction provides an overview of the discourse on alternative agrifood movements (AAMs) to (1) ascertain the degree of convergence and divergence around a common ethos of alterity and (2) context the chapters of the book. AAMs have increased in recent years in response to the growing legitimation crisis of the conventional agrifood system. Some agrifood researchers argue that AAMs represent the vanguard movement of our time, a formidable counter movement to global capitalism. Other authors note a pattern of blunting of the transformative qualities of AAMs due to conventionalization and mainstreaming in the market. The literature on AAMs is organized following a Four Questions in Agrifood Studies (Constance, 2008) framework. The section for each Question ends with a case study to better illustrate the historical dynamics of an AAM. The literature review ends with a summary of the discourse applied to the research question of the book: Are AAMs the vanguard social movement of our time? The last section of this introduction provides a short description of each contributing chapter of the book, which is divided into five sections: Introduction; Theoretical and Conceptual Framings; Food Sovereignty Movements; Alternative Movements in the Global North; and Conclusions.

Details

Alternative Agrifood Movements: Patterns of Convergence and Divergence
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-089-6

Book part
Publication date: 29 July 2020

Gianluca Brunori, Tessa Avermaete, Fabio Bartolini, Natalia Brzezina, Terry Marsden, Erik Mathijs, Ana Moragues-Faus and Roberta Sonnino

To analyze more deeply and in a systemic perspective food system outcomes, and the contribution that small farming can give to the achievement of those outcomes, a…

Abstract

To analyze more deeply and in a systemic perspective food system outcomes, and the contribution that small farming can give to the achievement of those outcomes, a detailed analysis of food systems is required, which highlights its components, activities and dynamics. Thus, this chapter deepens the analysis of the food system. We first reflect on the complexity of the concept of food system, discussing the abundance of different conceptualizations proposed in the scientific and political debate on the base of different disciplines and perspectives. Then, a comprehensive representation is shown, which is then unpacked. The food system actors, assets and functions are explored, with an eye on power relations among actors and on the main drivers of change. Governance (that also includes actors external to the food systems) is called ‘reflexive’, as long as it characterizes a system that is able to reflect upon the conditions and the forms of its own functioning, to detect and analyze threats and to change accordingly, with the involvement of actors external to the food systems. This analysis, which represents the focus of this section, provides the base for the description of the food system vulnerability developed in Chapter 4. Drivers of change and governance emerge as key categories to consider.

Book part
Publication date: 29 July 2020

Gianluca Brunori, Francesca Galli and Stefano Grando

This chapter suggests a further step in the development of a representation capable to grasp food systems' complexity. Food systems are neither fully consistent structures…

Abstract

This chapter suggests a further step in the development of a representation capable to grasp food systems' complexity. Food systems are neither fully consistent structures resulting from an overall planning, nor stable along time. The transition towards more sustainable and less vulnerable food systems capable to pursue food and nutrition security (FNS) goals in a changing environment needs organizing the diversity of food models that coexist within a territory. These models are based on different conventions and configurations (Fournier & Touzard, 2014; Reardon & Timmer, 2012) which involve different actors and evolve over time according to their changing needs, objectives and capabilities. Understanding this picture requires a shift from a systemic to an ‘assemblage’ approach (DeLanda, 2006), where actors engage themselves in different configurations, on the base of their different agendas. The assemblage approach also shows that linked components retain their autonomy, as attachment to one assemblage normally does not imply total involvement in it. As a consequence, this approach provides space to analyze actors making part of more than one assemblage. Four levels at which assemblage processes can occur are identified in the chapter: assemblages around a firm, a function, a town or a region. It is within these assemblages that the activity of small players and their contribution to sustainable FNS can be effectively identified and possibly promoted.

Details

Innovation for Sustainability
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-157-8

Keywords

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 29 July 2020

Abstract

Details

Innovation for Sustainability
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-157-8

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 1 February 2021

David M. Blodgett and Marjorie N. Feld

The sustainability of the global food system hinges on its environmental resiliency and safety, including the health and well-being of its labor force. Single disciplinary…

Abstract

Purpose

The sustainability of the global food system hinges on its environmental resiliency and safety, including the health and well-being of its labor force. Single disciplinary courses in liberal arts or science often fail to highlight the overlap between environmental and social vulnerabilities that lead to food insecurity and diminish the sustainability of food systems. This paper aims to present the design and delivery of a successfully co-taught, interdisciplinary module on agricultural labor and sustainable food systems as a case study.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors designed a co-taught module in which they joined each other’s respective history and science class sessions at the undergraduate business college where they teach. Innovating the cross-disciplinary content of food security, immigration status, labor exploitation and pesticide exposure, they approached sustainability from the disciplinary perspectives of labor history and environmental science to show how these elements had both unique and overlapping impacts across food systems levels. Comparisons between pre- and post-module survey responses, alongside assessments of a co-authored exam question, measured the effectiveness of this module is changing students’ perspectives as food consumers and as citizens.

Findings

This module altered students’ understanding and perspectives around issues of food systems sustainability. Assessments indicated that students increased their awareness of agricultural workers at the front end of the food system, during production; students also gained awareness beyond consumption as they came to see the connections between workforce invisibility and ecosystem degradation.

Originality/value

These insights are valuable to educators at all institutional levels who seek to collaborate on sustainability initiatives and teaching, both in the singular, robust modules and in building modules that will lead to the development of entire courses focused on sustainability. The module described here builds on previous demonstrations of the value, significance and effectiveness of cross-disciplinary collaborations; it pioneers the use of the food system as the link between social and environmental sustainability education.

Details

International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1467-6370

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