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Article
Publication date: 6 May 2021

Yun-na Liu and Zhiyu Liu

With the development of social economy, the problem of female labor force and talent ecology mechanism has become increasingly prominent. They do not assign jobs according…

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Abstract

Purpose

With the development of social economy, the problem of female labor force and talent ecology mechanism has become increasingly prominent. They do not assign jobs according to their abilities, but decide their duties according to their interpersonal relationships. The uneven distribution of human resources makes the difference, the impact of the female talent social mobility tends to solidify and the social strata between the contradictions are deepening.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper mainly investigates the current situation of female talents social mobility to solve the problem of the social mobility of female talent, and evaluates the main factors that affect female talents social mobility by analyzing the flow of ordinary female labor, enterprise female talents and educational female talents.

Findings

Society should pay attention to the social mobility of female talent, carry out comprehensive ecology mechanism in time, take different methods to the management of female talents in different industries, remove the obstacles that affect the social mobility of female talents and create a good ecology mechanism of female talent.

Originality/value

This paper provides corresponding suggestions and countermeasures on the ecology mechanism of female talents social mobility.

Details

Ecofeminism and Climate Change, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2633-4062

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Article
Publication date: 15 June 2012

Nicky Garcea, Alex Linley, Katarzyna Mazurkiewicz and Trudy Bailey

This article sets out to highlight some of the positive outcomes in the development of rising female leaders. Latest research shows that organizations and women need to be…

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1344

Abstract

Purpose

This article sets out to highlight some of the positive outcomes in the development of rising female leaders. Latest research shows that organizations and women need to be aware of the challenges hindering the realization of female talent. The article provides an overview of how the strengths approach can help address these challenges through its integration into future female leader development programs. It also presents a pilot case study of strengths‐based development from Thomson Reuters, the world's leading source of intelligent information for businesses and professionals.

Design/methodology/approach

Thomson Reuters explored using the Centre for Applied Positive Psychology's (Capp) 3S‐P model of talent development in relation to the development of female leaders. The 3S‐P model looks at the effect that working on strengths, strategy and situation has on performance. As part of this exploration, Capp's 4M model of strengths development was also used in a coaching and development environment to help delegates align their strengths to their organizational objectives.

Findings

The pilot, which was targeted at emerging female future leaders, showed that the strengths‐based “Women in Leadership” program at Thomson Reuters was just as effective for delegates who received the program face‐to‐face as those who received the training virtually, and demonstrated that strengths awareness had an impact on their capacity to deliver their goals and ability to influence.

Practical implications

Strengths‐based emerging female leadership development provides an effective and reliable methodology for developing talent at this level and helps ensure that future female leaders can align their unique strengths profile to their goals and career aspirations.

Originality/value

Thomson Reuters is the first organization to take an explicit strengths‐based approach to the development of its rising female leaders. It is also one of the few organizations to maximize the use of virtual technology in order to develop women at this level in locations around the world. This approach is consistent with the organization's commitment to developing future leaders who demonstrate global mind set and embrace technology to effectively communicate and influence virtually.

Details

Strategic HR Review, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1475-4398

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Article
Publication date: 29 June 2018

Mariko Morimoto

Based on congruency theory, this study aims to examine the effects of celebrity endorsement on endorser credibility in Japanese over-the-counter (OTC) drug advertising…

Abstract

Purpose

Based on congruency theory, this study aims to examine the effects of celebrity endorsement on endorser credibility in Japanese over-the-counter (OTC) drug advertising using multiple celebrity categories. In particular, this research explored brand–endorser congruence and endorser–consumer congruence and their roles in attitude formation.

Design/methodology/approach

A 3 (endorser categories: actor/actress, athlete and talent/TV personality) × 2 (endorser’s gender) factorial experimental design with 480 Japanese consumers was used in the study.

Findings

In Japanese OTC drug advertising, actors/actresses and athletes were regarded as more credible than talents (TV personalities) by Japanese consumers. Endorser categories also had a significant influence on identification with the endorser through ideal self-congruency. Additionally, endorser credibility mediated the relationship between identification and advertising evaluations. However, it did not mediate the relationship between perceived similarity with the endorser and advertising responses.

Originality/value

Little is known about the effectiveness of celebrity endorsers in OTC drug advertising from a source credibility perspective. This study attempted to shed light on the role of endorser fit in the framework of source credibility in drug advertising that usually places an emphasis on informational cues rather than peripheral cues such as source effects.

Details

International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6123

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Article
Publication date: 5 October 2015

Val Singh, Sébastien Point and Yves Moulin

The purpose of this paper is to explore how an environmental threat (possible quotas for female supervisory directors) might change supervisory board gender composition in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore how an environmental threat (possible quotas for female supervisory directors) might change supervisory board gender composition in SBF120 French company boards between 2008 and 2010.

Design/methodology/approach

From a census of supervisory board membership of SBF120 companies in France in January 2008 and December 2010, data were obtained to test hypotheses relating to changes in gender composition of boards and demographic differences between new and earlier director appointees. The authors drew on institutional theory to inform the discussion of this paper’s findings.

Findings

The authors reveal significant increases over 2008-2010 in SBF120 board female representation and significant cohort differences between recent and earlier appointees. Newer female appointees differed from male peers and from earlier appointed females and males, bringing youth and international experience. New females were more likely to gain CAC40 seats than their male peers. There was an increase in boards with multiple female directors.

Research limitations/implications

Actual motivations for increase in female appointments are unknown, but institutional theory provides possible explanations, as suggestion of coercive forces loomed. Chairmen of larger firms may have made strategic choices to attract younger and English-speaking foreign women, before the rush. Limitations include the descriptive nature of the paper, but it sets a benchmark for later studies to monitor progress in depth.

Practical implications

The talent pool for female directors has widened to include foreign English-speaking women, bringing a range of new insights and experience of international governance practice to traditional French boardrooms. However, this could be seen as further discriminatory practice that requires female appointees to bring more human and social capital than that required of their male peers.

Originality/value

This is the first paper charting the changes in supervisory board composition during the three-year period of environmental unrest as quotas were proposed and legislated in France and comparing new and existing cohort French director demographics.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal, vol. 30 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

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Article
Publication date: 22 May 2009

Elizabeth F. Cabrera

This paper aims to understand women's careers better in order to help organizations make changes to increase female retention. Two specific questions are addressed: Are…

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4367

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to understand women's careers better in order to help organizations make changes to increase female retention. Two specific questions are addressed: Are women adopting a protean career orientation by becoming career self‐agents?; and Are women's career decisions guided by the kaleidoscope values of challenge, balance, and authenticity? Results are used to discuss changes that organizations can make to better attract and retain female talent.

Design/methodology/approach

Open‐ended semi‐structured interviews were conducted by telephone with 25 women graduates of a top ranked international business school located in the USA who had voluntarily left the workforce at some time in their career and had since returned to work.

Findings

Results show that 17 of the women interviewed followed a protean career orientation when they returned to the workforce, finding part‐time or reduced‐hours positions or completely changing careers. Of the women, five returned to work following a traditional career orientation and three chose to return to a job rather than reinitiating their careers. The vast majority of the women who adopted a protean career were driven to do so in order to satisfy their need for balance in their lives. Overall, eight of the women expressed a need for authenticity in their careers and only two mentioned a desire for challenge. Many of them felt they had already satisfied their need for challenge earlier in their career, as the KCM suggests.

Practical implications

As with protean careers, protean organizations adapt to evolving circumstances. Companies that recognize and respond to the need to reshape how work gets done and how careers are built will achieve a competitive advantage by attracting and retaining valuable female talent. Organizations should shift their focus from an emphasis on face time to an emphasis on results, giving employees more control over how, when, and where they work. They also need to move away from the traditional career model that emphasizes full‐time, continuous employment and instead embrace arc‐of‐the‐career flexibility that allows women to adopt a protean orientation, managing their own careers in order to align them with their personal values.

Originality/value

The paper helps to explain the motives behind professional women' career moves and makes suggestions on how organizations can better attract and retain female talent.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

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Article
Publication date: 6 March 2017

Marc Cowling and Neil Lee

The creation and distribution of human capital, often termed talent, has been recognised in economic geography as an important factor in the locational decisions of firms…

Abstract

Purpose

The creation and distribution of human capital, often termed talent, has been recognised in economic geography as an important factor in the locational decisions of firms (Florida, 2002), and at a more general level as a key driver of economic growth (Romer, 1990). The purpose of this paper is to consider how talent is created and distributed across the cities of the UK and the key factors which are driving this spatial distribution. They also consider what the economic outcomes of these disparities are for cities.

Design/methodology/approach

The multivariate models can estimate the dynamic inter-relationships between human capital (talent), innovative capacity, and economic value added. These can be estimated, using talent as an example, in the form: human capital measurei =α0i+α1i innovative capacity +α2i quality of life + α3i labour market indicators + α4i economic indicators + α5i HEI indicators + β6i population demographics + β7i population + υi.

Findings

The first finding is that talent is unequally distributed across cities, with some having three times more highly educated workers than others. Talent concentration at the city level is associated with entrepreneurial activity, culture, the presence of a university, and to a lesser degree the housing market. This feeds into more knowledge-based industry, which is associated with higher gross value added.

Research limitations/implications

The research is limited in a practical sense by the fact that UK data at this level have only become available quite recently. Thus, it is only possible to capture talent flows and city growth in a relatively small window. But the prospects going forward will allow more detailed analysis at the city level of the relationship between talent flows and local economic growth. And additional insights could be considered relating to the on-going changes in the UK university system.

Practical implications

The question of whether universities are simply producers of talent or play a much broader and deeper role in the socio-economic landscape and outcomes of cities is an open one. This research has identified what the key drivers of city level economic growth and knowledge creation are, and sought to explain why some cities are capable of attracting and harnessing three times more talent than other cities. This has significant implications for the future development of UK cities and for those seeking to address these imbalances.

Social implications

Universities are a major economic agent in their own right, but they are increasingly being asked to play a wider role in local economic development. The authors’ evidence suggests that universities do play a wider role in the growth and development of cities, but that there are large discrepancies in the subsequent spatial distribution of the talent they create. And this has significant implications for those seeking to address these imbalances and promote a broader and less unequal economic landscape.

Originality/value

The authors explore how cities create economic value via a process whereby talent is attracted and then this stimulates knowledge-based industry activity. The originality relates to several key aspects of the work. First, the authors look at the stock of talent, and then the authors explore how “new” talent from universities is attracted by looking at graduate flows around the cities of the UK, differentiating between top-level graduates and less talented graduates. The authors then allow a wide variety of economic, cultural, and population factors to influence the locational decision of talented people. The results highlight the complexity of this decision.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 36 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

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Article
Publication date: 7 June 2011

Ting Ren and Zheng Wang

This paper proposes an examination of the relationship between female participation in top management teams and firm performance in the emerging Chinese private economy…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper proposes an examination of the relationship between female participation in top management teams and firm performance in the emerging Chinese private economy. It aims to examine the direct link between female participation in top management teams and firm performance. This is examined in the context of human capital and social capital associated with female top executives to investigate the origins and the contingencies of the linkage.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing on resource dependence theory, the study develops and tests a set of hypotheses regarding the key relationships, using the data of listed private‐owned companies in China's security exchanges in 2008, with critical information on financial performance, corporate governance structure and the top management team composition of the companies. Regression analyses are conducted to test the direct relationship and the moderating effects.

Findings

The empirical analysis supports a positive relationship between the degree of female participation and firm performance in Chinese privately owned companies. The positive relationship is further strengthened by female top executives' human capital and social capital, consistent with the hypotheses.

Research limitations/implications

The present study gains consistent results with research conducted in the Western context, suggesting that the top management behavior of Chinese private enterprises is similar to that of their Western counterparts, possibly due to the fact that they are less influenced by direct governmental control and are more profit‐driven than state‐owned companies.

Practical implications

The results of the study suggest that Chinese private companies can gain competitive advantages through identifying, attracting, and developing female managerial talents. And the female executives in the new era should be ones with systematic education and strong social connections. Both factors facilitate female executives to contribute better to their companies' performance.

Originality/value

The contribution of the present study is twofold. First, drawing on extant literature in the Western business context, the present study is the first to examine how female participation in top management influences firm performance in the context of the Chinese private sector, which contributes to the understanding of and offers insights to Chinese managerial practices. Second, the study enriches the extant literature by examining the moderating effects of female executives' human and social capitals.

Details

Nankai Business Review International, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8749

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Article
Publication date: 2 October 2017

Sharjeel Saleem, Asia Rafiq and Saquib Yusaf

The purpose of this paper is to identify hurdles in women’s rise up the organizational ladder through the epistemic concept of the glass ceiling phenomenon. The secondary…

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1926

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify hurdles in women’s rise up the organizational ladder through the epistemic concept of the glass ceiling phenomenon. The secondary aim is to determine how the glass ceiling effect results in women’s failure to secure equal representation in high-ranking executive positions in comparison to males. The study intends to come up with empirical evidences to advance plausible justifications and support for the organizations to manage their workforce with the sense of egalitarianism.

Design/methodology/approach

The questionnaire is administered to a sample of 210 respondents including CEOs, directors, managers, assistants, accountants, doctors and teachers from public and private sectors. The variables that influence the glass ceiling phenomenon are gender (female) represented on the board of directors (BODs), stereotypical behavior and training and development of females to measure the glass ceiling effect. Further, this influence is examined regarding the selection and promotion of the females as candidates, as well as female effectiveness at work. To verify the glass ceiling phenomenon, multiple linear regression analyses with the ordinary least square method are used.

Findings

Drawing on the perspective of the social role theory, the authors identify plausible causes of the glass ceiling phenomenon in the Asian context. The results show the presence of glass ceiling, particularly characterizing its effects on the selection and promotion of the female candidates and their effectiveness. The authors found that glass ceiling was negatively related to both female effectiveness and “selection and promotion.” It was also identified that research variables such as lesser women’s representation on the BODs, training and development and stereotypical attitude toward women promote glass ceiling.

Research limitations/implications

The larger sample and data collection from different cultures would have assured more generalizability. The glass ceiling is affected by numerous variables; other factors can also be explored.

Practical implications

Organizations must consider competitive females in their selection and promotion decision making. Asian countries, especially developing countries such as Pakistan, need to develop policies to encourage active participation of the female workforce in upper echelon. The equal employment policies will reduce the dependency ratio of females, consequently driving the country’s economic growth.

Social implications

Societies need to change their stereotype attitudes toward women and encourage them to use their potential to benefit societies by shattering glass ceilings that continue to place women at a disadvantage. Developing a social culture that advances women empowerment will contribute to social and infrastructure development in Asian countries.

Originality/value

This paper adds a thought-provoking attitude of organizations in South Asia, especially in Pakistani societies that play a role in creating a glass ceiling, more so to shatter it even in 2016. This study compels firms in Pakistan and other Asian regions to use unbiased practices by investigating the impact of glass ceiling on female effectiveness that has not previously been conducted in the Asian context. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, the study of glass ceiling in Pakistani context is first in the literature.

Details

South Asian Journal of Business Studies, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-628X

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Article
Publication date: 14 June 2013

Michelle Fullerton

The purpose of this paper is to examine how Bank of America Merrill Lynch is achieving gender diversity through an initiative aimed at women returning to the workforce…

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447

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine how Bank of America Merrill Lynch is achieving gender diversity through an initiative aimed at women returning to the workforce after having a family and a break from their career.

Design/methodology/approach

It is a case study that outlines how the Returning Talent program was developed and implemented and its ongoing improvement based on participant feedback.

Findings

Over 50 percent of the women who participated in the 2012 program have now returned to work. The program raised the profile of the financial services sector and Bank of America Merrill Lynch as an employer of choice for women.

Originality/value

This case study is of value to organizations in any sector looking to retain skills and talent, help employees achieve a balance between family and work, and build a strong employee brand.

Details

Strategic HR Review, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1475-4398

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Article
Publication date: 20 November 2018

Marzena Baker and Erica French

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the structural career barriers in project-based construction and property development organizations in Australia, and explore…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the structural career barriers in project-based construction and property development organizations in Australia, and explore how these affect women and their project careers. It applies the insights of the institutional theory to explain how the process of normative isomorphism continues to reproduce female underrepresentation in those organizations.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on an exploratory interpretive approach, this study consisted of 16 in-depth interviews with female project managers from the Australian construction and property industry.

Findings

The research shows that organizational practices may contribute to the ongoing female underrepresentation in the Australian construction and property development industries. The structural career barriers unique to project organizations include work practice, presenteeism, reliance on career self-management and the “filtering of personnel” in recruitment and promotion practices.

Research limitations/implications

The results support the institutional theory as an explanation for the factors that influence women’s’ perceptions of their project management careers. Addressing inequity between men and women is perceived as an organizational choice.

Practical implications

To achieve a substantive change in the numbers of women in project management, organizational leaders in male dominated industries such as construction and property development are encouraged to think strategically about how to overcome the access and opportunity that affect women’s career progress.

Originality/value

Drawing on the institutional theory, this study explores how the process of normative isomorphism may reproduce female underrepresentation and gender segregation in traditional project-based organizations.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 37 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

Keywords

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