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Article
Publication date: 15 February 2016

Bill Dimovski, Luisa Lombardi, Christopher Ratcliffe and Barry John Cooper

There is a large literature advocating the importance of a greater proportion of women directors on boards of publicly listed firms. The purpose of this paper is to…

Abstract

Purpose

There is a large literature advocating the importance of a greater proportion of women directors on boards of publicly listed firms. The purpose of this paper is to examine the numbers and proportions of women directors, including women executive directors, on listed Australian Real Estate Management and Development (REMD) companies to identify how prevalent women directors are on such boards.

Design/methodology/approach

The study examines the numbers and proportions of women directors for 35 REMDs in 2011 and compares this to the broad board composition data on 1,715 Australian Stock Exchange listed entities. Statistically significant findings are evident due to the identified low proportions.

Findings

The study finds that of all the Financials Sub Industry sector groups, REMDs have the lowest proportion of female directors on theirs boards – eight women on each of 35 company boards compared to 159 men on these 35 boards at 2011. Of the eight, there were only two women executive directors on boards compared to 50 men. Statistically, it appears that having women directors on REMD boards is not considered important. Even at December 2014, there are only ten women on seven company boards and only one remaining executive director of an REMD company.

Practical implications

Given that female board representation is positively related to accounting returns and that there is a growing voice for legislation to impose mandatory proportions of women directors on boards around the world, it may be in the interests of REMD boards to consider appointing more women more quickly.

Originality/value

The study is the first to examine the numbers and proportions of women directors amongst REMD companies to identify the paucity of such women directors.

Details

Property Management, vol. 34 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-7472

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 May 1996

Jacqui Shilton, Judy McGregor and Marianne Tremaine

Changes to government policy, deregulation and corporatization in New Zealand have influenced the number and status of women on boards of directors. Using company records…

987

Abstract

Changes to government policy, deregulation and corporatization in New Zealand have influenced the number and status of women on boards of directors. Using company records, archival material and interviews, examines gender equity on boards of directors in New Zealand and compares the progress of women on the boards of corporate companies in the private sector with those on crown company boards in the public sector. While increasing numbers of New Zealand women are entering the business arena, they continue to be underrepresented in the boardrooms and there exists a clear disparity between gender representation on the boards of crown and corporate companies with women being disadvantaged in the private sector. Includes interview material from women who have successfully achieved directorships and examines the approaches they adopted. Outlines some positive steps to assist women in the bid for corporate directorship, but suggests that the challenge of changing corporate and societal attitudes remains.

Details

Women in Management Review, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0964-9425

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 November 2003

Deborah Dahlen Zelechowski and Diana Bilimoria

Inside directors are executives who hold the dual roles of officers of the firm and corporate board members. Six women inside directors from Fortune 1,000 corporations…

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Abstract

Inside directors are executives who hold the dual roles of officers of the firm and corporate board members. Six women inside directors from Fortune 1,000 corporations were interviewed for this exploratory study. Through systematic coding of the interviews, two independent dimensions of influence and inclusion emerged as the critical factors that enhance or restrict the performance and contributions of women at the top of corporations. Three sub‐themes characterized women inside directors’ influence: their role in the board’s decision making, the bases of influence, and influence strategies used. Three sub‐themes characterized the inclusion dynamics experienced by women inside directors: support and acceptance, exclusion, and the nature of the advice they received. Conclusions are drawn regarding the convergence of the influence and inclusion dynamics for women to function most effectively at the top of corporations.

Details

Women in Management Review, vol. 18 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0964-9425

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 June 2010

Jacqui Shilton, Judy McGregor and Marianne Tremaine

Changes to government policy, deregulation and corporatization in New Zealand have influenced the number and status of women on boards of directors. Using company records…

966

Abstract

Purpose

Changes to government policy, deregulation and corporatization in New Zealand have influenced the number and status of women on boards of directors. Using company records, archival material and interviews, this paper seeks to examine gender equity on boards of directors in New Zealand and compare the progress of women on the boards of corporate companies in the private sector with those on crown company boards in the public sector.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper includes interview material from women who have successfully achieved directorships and examines the approaches they adopted. The paper uses company records and interviews to achieve this aim.

Findings

While increasing numbers of New Zealand women are entering the business arena, they continue to be underrepresented in the boardrooms and there exists a clear disparity between gender representation on the boards of crown and corporate companies with women being disadvantaged in the private sector.

Originality/value

The paper outlines some positive steps to assist women in the bid for corporate directorship, but suggests that the challenge of changing corporate and societal attitudes remains.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal, vol. 25 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 September 1994

Ronald J. Burke

Highlights the historical set‐up of Canadian boards of directors, whyand how women were first appointed to corporate boards. Examines factorsrelated to women serving on…

1528

Abstract

Highlights the historical set‐up of Canadian boards of directors, why and how women were first appointed to corporate boards. Examines factors related to women serving on corporate boards, detailing advantages and barriers to the appointments. Reports on a survey of Canadian Chief Executive Officers (CEOs) which considers factors related to the appointment of women to corporate boards. Results indicated the CEOs′ opinions on, for example, how important a variety of qualifications is to the appointment of female directors; the women with difficulties in finding women with these qualifications; preferred candidate profiles; issues which would benefit from a female perspective; effects of women on boards and companies; and the question of why there are not more women directors. Finally, with the survey as a background, looks at why there are so few women on the boards of directors of Canadian private sector organizations; and the future prospects of women as board members.

Details

Women in Management Review, vol. 9 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0964-9425

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 August 1997

Karl Pajo, Judy McGregor and Jacqui Cleland

While the absence of female directors on corporate boards in New Zealand is controversial, little is known about the first wave of women in boardrooms in the private…

724

Abstract

While the absence of female directors on corporate boards in New Zealand is controversial, little is known about the first wave of women in boardrooms in the private sector. This benchmark study, a questionnaire survey, provides the first demographic data about females in the boardrooms of the top 200 companies. The findings show that only 4.4 per cent of directors of major companies in New Zealand are female. Analyses the relevant skill base for directorship, the barriers to recruitment and male cronyism as a factor in the gender imbalance. The findings show that a high public profile is important for women wanting to open the boardroom door. Suggests that agencies which target potential directors apply conservative criteria which discriminate against the qualified but untested female candidate.

Details

Women in Management Review, vol. 12 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0964-9425

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 10 June 2021

Donnalyn Pompper, Tugce Ertem Eray, Eric Kwame Adae, Elinam Amevor, Layire Diop and Samantha Nadel

We enjoin stakeholder theory, radical-cultural feminist theory, and critical race theory with critical intersectionality to critique findings which suggest that there…

Abstract

We enjoin stakeholder theory, radical-cultural feminist theory, and critical race theory with critical intersectionality to critique findings which suggest that there still are significantly more men than women on nearly every Fortune 500 board of directors, with only six corporations featuring (50-50%) gender equity in 2017. Also, only 4.1% board members are women of color and 9% are men of color. Sixty-five people of color on corporate boards serve on more than one board. This means there are even fewer people of color filling top corporate leadership positions than meets the eye. The proposed alternative course of action is for boards of directors to follow the example of the small handful of peer Fortune 500 corporations that have achieved greater levels of board diversity, equity, and inclusion.

Details

Public Relations for Social Responsibility
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-168-3

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1994

Ronald J. Burke

Reports a study into the way in which women on Canadian corporate boardsof directors perceived and defined their board roles andresponsibilities. Concludes that women

1400

Abstract

Reports a study into the way in which women on Canadian corporate boards of directors perceived and defined their board roles and responsibilities. Concludes that women directors are functioning as champions for change on women′s issues. Suggests ways in which organizations can reap benefits in terms of the interaction of women directors with senior‐level women.

Details

Women in Management Review, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0964-9425

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 31 December 2021

Mahnoor Sattar, Pallab Kumar Biswas and Helen Roberts

This paper aims to examine the relationship between board gender diversity and private firm performance.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the relationship between board gender diversity and private firm performance.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors test the association between board gender diversity and private firm performance by estimating pooled multivariate regressions using an unbalanced panel data set of 115,253 firm-year observations.

Findings

The authors find that younger, less busy and local women directors enhance private firm performance. Firms with 40% or more women directors report triple the economic benefits compared to boards with at least 20% women directors. Considering firm size, women directors significantly increase small firm profitability, and the effect is more pronounced for high-risk firms. Greater board gender diversity enhances small firm performance as the monitoring role of women directors benefits the firm even in the presence of busy men directors. Consistent with the agency theory framework, the authors find that women directors improve small firm profitability in the presence of agency costs.

Research limitations/implications

Due to the lack of availability of data about private firms, many factors are not directly observable. The analysis uses accounting-based performance measures that may be subject to managerial discretion. Nevertheless, the authors report highly significant results using cash-based performance measures that substantiate the overall findings.

Practical implications

The results of the present study point to the need for private firms to increase board gender diversity and consider women director busyness, age, nationality and firm size when making board director appointments.

Originality/value

This study adds to the scarce existent literature investigating private firms. The results contribute to the understanding of gender-diverse boards as well as the attributes of women directors that enhance private firm performance.

Details

Meditari Accountancy Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-372X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 May 2007

Elin Smith

The purpose of the paper is to examine the gender composition and structure of the board of directors in not‐for‐profit organisations and their relation to firm‐level…

2066

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the paper is to examine the gender composition and structure of the board of directors in not‐for‐profit organisations and their relation to firm‐level entrepreneurship.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected through a survey sent to Swedish riding schools. The paper focuses on not‐for‐profit associations and the analysis is based on 60 respondents. The data were analysed by multivariate methods.

Findings

The overall gender composition of boards had no influence on firm‐level entrepreneurship. However, a high proportion of women in powerful positions were found to have a positive influence on one of the study's two dimensions of firm‐level entrepreneurship, i.e. strategic opportunism. No influence concerning gender in powerful positions was found on risk taking, the other dimension of firm‐level entrepreneurship.

Originality/value

The attention to gender composition not only focuses on the board at large, but also highlights the specific positions of the chairperson, secretary and treasurer in the board structure. Another valuable insight concerns firm‐level entrepreneurship, here treated as a two‐dimensional concept, consisting of strategic opportunism and risk taking, which finds support in the analysis. Further, the empirical data were collected from an industry that includes a high proportion of women on the boards, i.e. the Swedish riding school industry. The study contributes to the debate concerning the gender composition on the board of directors where a high proportion of women in powerful positions is positively related with strategic opportunism.

Details

Women in Management Review, vol. 22 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0964-9425

Keywords

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