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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2011

Vinay Kumar Midha, A Mukhopadhyay and Ramanpreet Kaur

Owing to a high amount of stress, seam failure in workwear fabrics makes the fabric unsuitable although the fabric strength is high. It is therefore important to predict…

Abstract

Owing to a high amount of stress, seam failure in workwear fabrics makes the fabric unsuitable although the fabric strength is high. It is therefore important to predict the seam strength to ascertain the performance of the garments during use and determine the required thread strength and stitch density to match the required seam strength. In all of the earlier predictive equations, seam strength is predicted from thread strength and stitch density along with some multiplicative factors. During the sewing process, a substantial loss in needle thread strength occurs; therefore, the thread becomes weaker than expected after incorporation into the seam. In this paper, the effects of various machine and process parameters are studied on thread strength loss and seam strength. The seam strength is predicted from the loop strength after considering the loss in thread strength. It is observed that higher seam strengths are observed when stronger threads are used for sewing. Loss in thread strength has a significant influence on the seam strength. Seam strength can be predicted using stitch density and thread loop strength, by considering the loss in thread strength during the sewing process. A closer match between predicted and experimental seam strength is possible.

Details

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1560-6074

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Article
Publication date: 5 October 2021

Indunil Erandi Ariyaratne, Anthony Ariyanayagam and Mahen Mahendran

This paper presents the details of a research study on developing composite masonry blocks using two types of mixes, conventional and lightweight mix, to enhance their…

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper presents the details of a research study on developing composite masonry blocks using two types of mixes, conventional and lightweight mix, to enhance their fire/bushfire resistance and residual compressive strength.

Design/methodology/approach

Composite masonry blocks (390 × 190 × 90 mm) were fabricated using conventional cement–sand mix as the outer layer and lightweight cement–sand–diatomite mix as the inner layer. Material properties were determined, and all the mixes were proportioned by the absolute volume method. After 28 days of curing, density tests, compression tests before and after fire exposure and fire resistance tests of the developed blocks were conducted, and the results were compared with those of conventional cement–sand and cement–sand–diatomite blocks.

Findings

Developed composite blocks satisfy density and compressive strength requirements for loadbearing lightweight solid masonry units. Fire resistance of the composite block is –/120/120, and no cracks appeared on the ambient side surface of the block after 3 h of fire exposure. Residual strength of the composite block is higher compared to cement–sand and cement–sand–diatomite blocks and satisfies the loadbearing solid masonry unit strength requirements.

Practical implications

Composite block developed in this research can be suggested as a suitable loadbearing lightweight solid masonry block for several applications in buildings in bushfire prone areas.

Originality/value

Limited studies are available for composite masonry blocks in relation to their fire resistance and residual strength.

Details

Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-2317

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Article
Publication date: 14 October 2021

Hala Mohamed Elkady, Ola M. Bakr, Mohamed Kohail and Elsayed Abdel Raouf Nasr

This paper presents the second part of the investigation on resistance to elevated temperatures of a proposed hybrid composite concrete (NCSF-Crete) mix. The composite…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper presents the second part of the investigation on resistance to elevated temperatures of a proposed hybrid composite concrete (NCSF-Crete) mix. The composite including nano metakaolin (NC) and steel fibers (SF) in addition to regular concrete components has proven -in the first published part-earlier promoted fresh concrete behavior, and to have reduced loss in compressive strength after exposure to a wide range of elevated temperatures. This presented work evaluates another two critical mechanical characteristics for the proposed composite -namely- splitting and bond strengths.

Design/methodology/approach

A modified formula correlating splitting and compressive strength (28 days) based on experiments results for NCSF is proposed and compared to formulas derived for regular concrete in different design codes. Finally, both spitting and bond strengths are evaluated pre- and post-exposure to elevated temperatures reaching 600 °C for two hours.

Findings

The proposed NCSF-Crete shows remarkable fire endurance, especially in promoting bond strength as after 600 °C heat exposure tests, it maintained strength equivalent to 70% of a regular concrete control mix at room temperature. Improving residual splitting strength was very significant up to 450 °C exposure.

Research limitations/implications

Obvious deterioration is monitored in splitting resistance for all concretes at 600 °C.

Practical implications

This proposed composite improved elevated heats resistance of the most significant concrete mechanical properties.

Social implications

Using a more green and sustainable constituents in the composite.

Originality/value

The proposed composite gathers the merits of using NC and SF, each has been investigated separately as an addition to concrete mixes.

Details

Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-2317

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Article
Publication date: 22 September 2021

He Ding, Enhai Yu and Shenghua Xu

The purpose of the current article was to propose the strengths-based human resource (HR) system construct as well as develop and validate the perceived strengths-based HR…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the current article was to propose the strengths-based human resource (HR) system construct as well as develop and validate the perceived strengths-based HR system scale by using three independent studies.

Design/methodology/approach

Study 1 mainly adopted exploratory factor analysis to test whether fifteen items proposed by the authors can represent the perceived strengths-based HR system construct. The aim of Study 2 was to examine the discriminant validity and criteria validity of the fifteen-item perceived strengths-based HR system scale and reliability of this scale. By structural equation modeling analysis, Study 3 primarily tested the incremental predictive validity of the perceived strengths-based HR system for employee performance (i.e. task performance and innovative behavior) after controlling for the perceived high-performance work system (HPWS) and perceived high-commitment work system (HCWS).

Findings

Study 1 showed that initial fifteen items of the perceived strengths-based HR system appropriately are loaded on one factor and exhibit a good reliability. Study 2 found that there is good discriminant validity between the perceived strengths-based HR system, perceived organizational support, perceived supervisory career support, and work engagement, and the perceived strengths-based HR system exhibits better convergent validity and criteria validity. Study 3 demonstrated that the perceived strengths-based HR system could significantly predict employee performance (i.e. task performance and innovative behavior) even after controlling for perceived HPWS and HCWS.

Originality/value

The current article contributes to advancing HR theory and research and provides a valuable tool for future empirical research on the strengths-based HR system.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Article
Publication date: 13 September 2021

Vijaya Prasad B., Arumairaj Paul Daniel, Anand N. and Siva Kumar Yadav

Concrete is a building material widely used for the infrastructural development. Cement is the binding material used for the development of concrete. It is the primary…

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Abstract

Purpose

Concrete is a building material widely used for the infrastructural development. Cement is the binding material used for the development of concrete. It is the primary cause of CO2 emission globally. The purpose of this study is to develop sustainable concrete material to satisfy the present need of construction sector. Geopolymer concrete (GPC) is a sustainable concrete developed without the use of cement. Therefore, investigations are being conducted to replace the cement by 100% with high calcium fly ash (FA) as binding material.

Design/methodology/approach

High calcium FA is used as cementitious binder, sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium silicates (Na2SiO3) are used as alkaline liquids for developing the GPC. Mix proportions with different NaOH molarities of 4, 6, 8 and 10 M are considered to attain the appropriate mix. The method of curing adopted is ambient and oven curing. Workability, compressive strength and microstructure characteristics of GPC are analysed and presented.

Findings

An increase of NaOH in the mix decreases the workability. Compressive strength of 29 MPa is obtained for Mix-I with 8 M under ambient curing. A polynomial relationship is obtained to predict the compressive strength of GPC. Scanning electron microscope analysis is used to confirm the geo-polymerisation process in the microstructure of concrete.

Originality/value

This research work focuses on finding some alternative cementitious material for concrete that can replace ordinary portland cement (OPC) to overcome the CO2 emission owing to the utilisation of cement in the construction industry. An attempt has been made to use the waste material (high calcium FA) from thermal power plant for the production of GPC. GPC concrete is the novel building material and alternative to conventional concrete. It is the ecofriendly product contributing towards the improvement of the circular economy in the construction industry. There are several factors that affect the property of GPC such as type of binder material, molarity of activator solution and curing condition. The novelty of this work lies in the approach of using locally available high calcium FA along with manufactured sand for the development of GPC. As this approach is rarely investigated, to prove the attainment of compressive strength of GPC with high calcium FA, an attempt has been made during the present investigation. Other influencing parameter which affects the strength gain has also been analysed in this paper.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

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Article
Publication date: 8 September 2021

Renjini Girija and Sudhakar Rajagopal

Bond strength is an indicator of the quality of the fusing process. The study's primary purpose is to predict the bond strength using easily measurable variables. This…

Abstract

Purpose

Bond strength is an indicator of the quality of the fusing process. The study's primary purpose is to predict the bond strength using easily measurable variables. This study focuses on shirting fabrics fused with woven interlinings and changes in bond strength before and after washing.

Design/methodology/approach

This study attempts to model and predict bond strength of fused shirt composites using an initial screening design followed by full factorial design of experiments. After screening out, those found significantly affecting the bond strength are fabric fiber content, interlining areal weight and fusing temperature. This study proposes the regression models explaining the effect of the three variables on bond strength before and after washing the fused composites.

Findings

This study found that heavy interlinings (250 g/sq.m) require higher fusing temperatures than the lighter interlining (225 g/sq.m). After washing, the bond strength of samples fused at high temperatures reduced in some instances. Maintaining a high temperature without considering interlining weight can lower the bond strength after washing the fused composites.

Originality/value

A combination of screening and full factorial DOE is used to analyze and predict bond strength of composites comprising medium-weight shirting fabrics and heavier weight interlinings used in shirts.

Details

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1560-6074

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Article
Publication date: 7 September 2021

Alfred Presbitero, Mendiola Teng-Calleja and Elaine Farndale

Studies have explored perceptions of human resource management (HRM) system strength and how they can relate to employee-level outcomes. However, the authors understand…

Abstract

Purpose

Studies have explored perceptions of human resource management (HRM) system strength and how they can relate to employee-level outcomes. However, the authors understand little about the boundary conditions for such relationships. Here, the authors apply signaling theory to explain the relationship between HRM system strength and affective commitment as well as the role of an organization's communication climate and organizational collectivism.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conducted an initial study among HR practitioners (N = 115) to determine their perception of HRM system strength, its outcomes and boundary conditions. The authors then conducted a second study to increase the reliability of our earlier findings by focusing on non-HR employees (N = 179).

Findings

The findings in both studies indicate that employee perceptions of HRM system strength positively and significantly relate to affective commitment. Moreover, the results show support for the moderating roles of both communication climate and organizational collectivism. These findings are novel and extend the nomological network of employee perceived HRM system strength.

Originality/value

These findings offer valuable practical insights regarding approaches to strengthen the relationship between HRM system strength and affective commitment. In particular, we offer practical recommendations pointing to the relevance of improving the communication climate as well as the sense of belonging within the organization (organizational collectivism).

Details

Personnel Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Article
Publication date: 3 August 2021

Jinhua Chen, Graeme Harrison and Lu Jiao

This paper examines how lateral accountability mechanisms may be used to address the unity–diversity tension in a large not-for-profit (NFP) inter-organizational…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper examines how lateral accountability mechanisms may be used to address the unity–diversity tension in a large not-for-profit (NFP) inter-organizational partnership governed under a lead organization model.

Design/methodology/approach

A case study was conducted in the New South Wales Settlement Partnership comprising 23 NFP organizations providing settlement services for migrants and humanitarian entrants. Multiple data sources included semi-structured interviews, proprietary and publicly available documents and observation.

Findings

The paper demonstrates (1) the usefulness of a strength-based approach that the lead organization adopts in enacting lateral accountability mechanisms, which enables a balance between unity and diversity in the partnership; and (2) the capability of the lead organization governance model to address the unity–diversity tension.

Research limitations/implications

The paper (1) identifies the importance of a strength-based approach in implementing lateral accountability mechanisms to address the unity–diversity tension; and (2) challenges prior research that advocates the network administrative organization governance model in addressing the tension.

Practical implications

For practice, the paper identifies a suite of lateral accountability practices designed to address the unity–diversity tension. For policy, it provides confidence for government in promulgating the lead organization governance model in “purchasing” public services.

Originality/value

The paper demonstrates how lateral accountability mechanisms may be used to provide a balance between the objectives of preserving and leveraging the benefits of partner diversity and achieving unity. The strength-based approach (used in enacting the accountability mechanisms), while having a history in psychology and social work research, has not been recognized in prior partnership accountability and governance studies.

Details

Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3574

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Article
Publication date: 19 August 2021

Oliver Bahr

This paper aims to answer two questions. First, are there any differences in the fire performance of columns made of normal and of high-strength concrete? Second, under…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to answer two questions. First, are there any differences in the fire performance of columns made of normal and of high-strength concrete? Second, under which circumstances does the fire design govern the cross-sectional dimensions of concrete columns? Is it feasible to replace columns out of normal strength concrete by more slender high-strength concrete columns?

Design/methodology/approach

The author conducted numerical studies using the finite element code “Infocad” of the German company “Infograph”. The studies included the effect of different parameters on the fire performance of columns out of normal and high-strength concrete, i.e. the load ratio and eccentricity, boundary conditions and times of fire exposure.

Findings

Results from the numerical investigations showed that high-strength concrete columns suffer much more from heating than normal strength concrete columns. This is the outcome of the unfavourable mechanical properties of high-strength concrete at elevated temperatures. Although the relative fire performance of columns out of high-strength concrete is worse than that of columns out of normal strength concrete, initial load reserves are beneficial to achieve even high fire ratings.

Originality/value

Many researchers addressed in experimental and numerical studies the fire performance of columns out of normal and high-strength concrete. A special emphasis was often laid on the spalling of fire-exposed high-strength concrete. However, there are no systematic investigations when the fire design governs the cross-sectional dimensions of high-strength concrete columns. Based on a previous comparison of the relative fire performance of columns out of normal and high-strength concrete, this paper, hence, addresses the question whether there is a reasonable lower limit for the use of these columns. This is an important aspect for designers since there is a tendency to replace columns out of normal strength concrete by columns out of high-strength concrete. Higher concrete strengths allow for smaller cross sections of the columns, and designers may, hence, increase the usable space of buildings.

Details

Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-2317

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Article
Publication date: 25 August 2021

Sunaina Shrivastava, Gaurav Jain, JaeHwan Kwon and Dhananjay Nayakankuppam

Traditionally, it has been held that strong attitudes are a result of the conscious cognitive process of elaboration where one engages in effortful issue-relevant…

Abstract

Purpose

Traditionally, it has been held that strong attitudes are a result of the conscious cognitive process of elaboration where one engages in effortful issue-relevant thinking. The purpose of this work is to show that attitude strength can follow from processes not just limited to elaboration – as a function of certain embodied states. This work examines bodily manipulations that could alter perceptions about the quality of the information describing a target (e.g. notion of “hard/soft” evidence), and, finds that such an embodiment leads one to have strong attitudes toward the target object. This work proposes an attitude-rehearsal-based mechanism to explain the phenomenon.

Design/methodology/approach

This work has relied on lab experiments as a methodology – undergraduate students and American residents served as participants. There is a pre-registered study included as well.

Findings

This work shows that strong attitudes can result from processes not just limited to elaboration, as a function of certain embodied states. This paper examines bodily manipulations that could alter perceptions about the quality of information describing the target (e.g. notion of “hard vs soft”; “converging vs diverging” information), and, find that such an embodiment leads one to have strong attitudes toward the target. This paper consistently observed that the bodily manipulations influence attitude accessibility, a direct and operational indicator of attitude strength. This paper further validates an attitude-rehearsal-based mechanism to explain the observed phenomenon.

Originality/value

While much work has investigated the impact of embodiment on attitudes, little attention has been paid to whether, and, how embodied states can impact the “strength” of the attitude without impacting the attitude itself – to the knowledge, this paper is the first to document this. Moreover, traditionally, it has been held that strong attitudes are a result of the conscious cognitive process of elaboration where one engages in effortful issue-relevant thinking. This work however shows that attitude strength can follow from processes not just limited to elaboration – as a function of certain embodied states.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 38 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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