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Article
Publication date: 19 September 2016

Lancy Mac and Felicitas Evangelista

This study aims to gauge the interactive effect of export intensity and diversity on export performance among exporters in an emerging economy and explore the moderating…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to gauge the interactive effect of export intensity and diversity on export performance among exporters in an emerging economy and explore the moderating effect of export intermediaries on the internationalization–export performance relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey was undertaken among a convenience sample of small and medium exporters located in Guangdong and Fujian Provinces in South China.

Findings

The results show that intensity and diversity interact negatively with export performance, whereas the use of export agents registered a positive effect. Exporters pursuing a strategy of high export intensity will achieve better performance provided that these exports are concentrated in a few countries. Using export agents can help in enhancing the intensity–performance relationship but not that for diversity–performance.

Practical implications

Chinese exporters are advised not to blindly pursue international expansion without regard to their own resources and capabilities. They should try to strike a balance between intensity and diversity and employ external agents when needed.

Originality/value

This research seeks to address the void in the literature on how export intensity and diversity should be balanced to create a positive effect on the performance of exporting ventures in an emerging economy, which is under-addressed in the literature. It is also found that employment of export intermediaries is not always good for export performance.

Details

Multinational Business Review, vol. 24 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1525-383X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 October 2021

Jooh Lee and He-Boong Kwon

This study aims to explore the strategic impact of R&D and export activity on the diverse dimensions of US manufacturing firms’ performance. It also explores, using a…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explore the strategic impact of R&D and export activity on the diverse dimensions of US manufacturing firms’ performance. It also explores, using a predictive analytic model, the interactive synergistic effect that R&D and exports have on firm performance.

Design/methodology/approach

This study presents an innovative two-stage regression-neural network approach. Complementing conventional statistical analysis, the predictive backpropagation neural network explores the relative impact of R&D and exports and their synergistic effect on firm performance.

Findings

This study demonstrates the significant and positive effect of R&D and export strategy/activity on the economic performance of leading US manufacturing firms, particularly on their market-based performance (i.e. sustained growth rate or SGR). Furthermore, this study finds that the synergistic effect of R&D and exports on short-term performance (i.e. return on investment) is positive in high-tech firms but negative in low-tech firms. However, the synergistic effect on SGR is increasingly positive regardless of the level of technology.

Originality/value

In addition to traditional statistical analysis, this study uniquely investigates the relative importance of selected strategic variables, along with R&D and export activity and their differential synergistic effects, for firms’ economic performance in contrasting industry settings (high-tech vs low-tech).

Details

Journal of Modelling in Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5664

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 May 2022

Rosa Portela Forte and Sérgio Carvalho

The purpose of this study is to analyze the influence of the firms' external environment on their export intensity. More specifically, it assesses whether domestic market…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to analyze the influence of the firms' external environment on their export intensity. More specifically, it assesses whether domestic market characteristics such as domestic demand and general export environment related to tradability across borders affect firms' export intensity.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use a sample of 29,266 firms from nine European countries, for the period of 2010–2016, and test several estimation methods (random effects models, Tobit models, and Heckman's selection models).

Findings

Results show that external factors such as domestic demand and ease of trade across borders are important determinants of firms' export intensity. Moreover, results reveal that firm's internal characteristics such as age, size and productivity also play an import role.

Originality/value

Studies about the influence of the firms' external environment on firms' export intensity are scarce because most of them are confined to a single country context. In this way, the present study contributes to the body of knowledge on the influence that external factors can have on firms' export performance by analyzing firms from nine European countries, which has important policy implications.

Details

EuroMed Journal of Business, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1450-2194

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 March 2022

Quyen Nguyen

The author contributes to the theory of the multinational enterprise by examining subsidiary-specific capability in financial management, defined as the stock of knowledge…

Abstract

Purpose

The author contributes to the theory of the multinational enterprise by examining subsidiary-specific capability in financial management, defined as the stock of knowledge and capability to plan, manage, control and direct financial resources effectively and efficiently, and the perceptions of subsidiary managers of host country financial development as drivers of export intensity (the share of sales that are exported) of foreign subsidiaries of multinational enterprises (MNEs). The author theorizes that subsidiary-specific capability in financial management is conceptually a valuable subsidiary-specific advantage and it is as important as other traditional competitive advantages, such as research and development and marketing intensity. Perceptions of subsidiary managers of host country financial development are argued to be largely related to the characteristics of the host country-specific advantages.

Design/methodology/approach

The author uses a survey dataset of the foreign subsidiaries of Western multinational enterprises (MNEs) together with other public data sources.

Findings

The author provides empirical evidence to support for these arguments that export intensity of MNE foreign subsidiaries depends on subsidiary-specific advantages and host country specific advantages.

Originality/value

The study broadens the understanding of the relationships between subsidiary-specific advantage in financial management, host country specific advantage, and export intensity of MNE foreign subsidiaries. In this way, the author makes an original contribution to new internalization theory by emphasizing the internal capability building of subsidiaries. The author discusses the implications of the findings for MNE foreign subsidiary managers, and policy makers because exporting is critical to the overall strategy of foreign subsidiaries, and it also contributes to the balance of trade and economic development of host countries where foreign subsidiaries operate.

Article
Publication date: 9 January 2017

Belay Seyoum

The paper aims to investigate the effects of several determinants of firm import intensity in US foreign trade zones (FTZs). Even though the major objective for the…

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Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to investigate the effects of several determinants of firm import intensity in US foreign trade zones (FTZs). Even though the major objective for the establishment of US FTZs is to encourage exports by facilitating the duty-free entry of imports, US firms have used it as a gateway to import goods into the US market. Currently, over 90 per cent of US FTZ output is consumed in the USA. The author examines the major determinants for such import intensity in US FTZs.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is based on a survey that was conducted to explore the factors that influence import intensity of firms operating in US FTZs.

Findings

The findings reveal that besides export orientation of firms, the most promising predictors of import intensity of firms operating in USA FTZs are the policy environment in the form of inverted tariff benefits and firm business strategy.

Practical implications

The findings are important for managers presently operating in US FTZs or intend to do so in future.

Originality/value

Even though there are numerous studies on free trade zones and exports, this is the first study to examine the import intensity of US FTZs and their determinants.

Details

European Business Review, vol. 29 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-534X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 June 2021

Halit Keskin, Hayat Ayar Şentürk, Ekrem Tatoglu, Ismail Gölgeci, Ozan Kalaycioglu and Hatice Tuba Etlioglu

This study aims to determine the simultaneous effect of exporting firms' competitive strategies and capabilities on the achievement of competitive advantages and export

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to determine the simultaneous effect of exporting firms' competitive strategies and capabilities on the achievement of competitive advantages and export performance under the boundary conditions of competitive intensity. In so doing, the study combines the alternative theoretical lenses of the resource-based view (RBV) and the structure–conduct–performance (SCP) paradigm.

Design/methodology/approach

Primary data were obtained from 281 Turkish manufacturer–exporter firms operating in different sectors and located in several regions of the country. Structural equation modeling was utilized to test our conceptual framework, which combined the effects of RBV-based and SCP-based factors on competitive advantages and export performance under the moderating influence of competitive intensity.

Findings

This study reveals that unique firm capabilities, specifically informational, relational, and marketing capabilities, and competitive strategies, including differentiation and cost leadership, provide export firms with a competitive advantage and improve their export performance in foreign markets. Furthermore, competitive advantages partially mediate the effects of competitive strategies and unique firm capabilities on export performance. Finally, unexpectedly, and contrary to most of the existing literature, we find that competitive intensity negatively moderates the link between service advantages and export performance.

Originality/value

This research offers a comprehensive view of manufacturer–exporter firms' export performance by accounting for the overlooked simultaneous effect of firm capabilities and competitive strategies through the mediation of competitive advantages and under the boundary conditions of competitive intensity.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 38 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 January 2022

Mohammad Tayeenul Hoque, Mohammad Faisal Ahammad, Nikolaos Tzokas, Shlomo Tarba and Prithwiraj Nath

Drawing on the knowledge-based view of the firm (KBV) and Dynamic Marketing Capabilities (DMC), this paper examines the role of key internationalization knowledge…

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing on the knowledge-based view of the firm (KBV) and Dynamic Marketing Capabilities (DMC), this paper examines the role of key internationalization knowledge absorption processes as learning strategies, namely market exploitation and market exploration in enabling internationalization knowledge absorption in export-oriented firms involved in manufacturing goods or producing electrical/engineering products.

Design/methodology/approach

The data were gathered via a cross-sectional survey using a questionnaire (i.e. n = 315) on a sample of Bangladeshi manufacturing firms exporting in US and European markets.

Findings

The findings suggest that an export firm's internationalization absorption strategies are positively associated with export performance. The authors also found that the mediator, DMC, strengthened the relationship between knowledge absorption and export performance. Moreover, the findings of moderated mediation model revealed that the direct and indirect effects of market exploitation on export performance are more prevalent when competitive intensity is low. While competitive intensity is high, the direct and indirect effects of market exploration on export performance are more prevalent.

Practical implications

By introducing a higher-level dynamic marketing capability approach and linking it to ambidexterity constructs (learning though exploration and exploitation), export business professionals should appreciate the full spectrum of mid-level marketing capabilities they need to develop alongside their exploration and exploitation strategies to improve their export performance. This study directs attention to the competitive intensity conditions the exporting firm is facing. When export business professionals are faced with high-level of competitive intensity in the market, they should establish a clear focus on their exploration learning strategies if they wish to enhance their export performance.

Originality/value

The authors contribute to two broad domains of literature: organizational learning and DMC strategy. The study results show that how the two components of international ambidexterity as organizational learning constructs (i.e. market exploration and exploitation) influence knowledge management processes within firms through a firm's possession of a fine configuration of higher-level marketing capability. This study also theoretically and empirically examines how higher-level DMC strategy can mediate the consequence of international knowledge absorption mechanism on firm export performance. From a practical perspective, this study provides useful lessons for exporting firms wishing to enhance their performance.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 39 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 August 2011

David Crick, Godwin E. Kaganda and Harry Matlay

The purpose of this study is to examine whether differences exist between low and high export intensity Tanzanian internationalising small to medium‐sized enterprises…

1155

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine whether differences exist between low and high export intensity Tanzanian internationalising small to medium‐sized enterprises (SMEs) in respect of their perceived competitiveness in overseas markets. In this study, export intensity, i.e. the percentage exports make towards total turnover, is viewed as a representation of firms' commitment to serving overseas markets.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology employed a quantitative phase involving a questionnaire completed by 205 Tanzanian SMEs; 112 low intensity (exporting less than 50 per cent of their sales) in comparison with 93 high intensity exporting firms (exporting 50 per cent or more of their sales); also a qualitative phase of interviews with international entrepreneurs in 23 firms.

Findings

The findings provide an initial understanding of the two types of firms' patterns of internationalisation and, more specifically, statistically significant issues are identified in respect of items perceived as affecting their competitiveness in overseas markets, including the extent to which they concentrated on serving key markets rather than diversifying risk over a number of markets.

Practical implications

The results offer insights into the practices of Tanzanian exporting firms and recommendations for policy makers as well as an indication for further research.

Originality/value

This research study explores managerial practices of particular types of firms in Tanzania, which have been largely viewed from a developed as opposed to a developing African country perspective.

Article
Publication date: 13 January 2022

Mara Mataveli, Juan Carlos Ayala and Alfonso J. Gil

Few studies have analysed the determinants of exports in emerging economies, which are critical in the exporting reality of firms. Two variables decisively affect the…

Abstract

Purpose

Few studies have analysed the determinants of exports in emerging economies, which are critical in the exporting reality of firms. Two variables decisively affect the export performance of firms – their size and their export experience. This paper analyses the relationship between size and export experience in the export intensity of Brazilian firms. In addition, it considers two variables (location and sector) that identify firms in Brazil and could affect their export intensity. This research answers the question of which characteristics of Brazilian companies determine their export intensity.

Design/methodology/approach

A statistically significant sample of 318 firms is collected from Brazilian exporting companies. Regression analysis is performed, and data describing the relationship between the export determinants and the export intensity of Brazilian firms are presented. Three evaluation models are proposed. In the first, the location and sector variables are considered. In the second, the firm size, firm location and sector are presented. In the third, the firm size, export experience, location and sector are proposed.

Findings

The results of the third model confirm that only export experience is statistically significant. Therefore, there is no relationship between firms' size, location and sector and export intensity for companies in Brazil.

Originality/value

This work shows the organisational characteristics that affect export performance in Brazil from the firm’s perspective; these are aspects that have been analysed less in emerging economies.

Details

Baltic Journal of Management, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5265

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 February 2014

Sulaman Hafeez Siddiqui, Muhammad Zafarullah, Muhammad Ijaz Latif and Ghulam Shabir

The purpose of this paper is to postulate the impact of preferential trade agreements (PTAs) on internationalization strategies of member countries’ firms. The study also…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to postulate the impact of preferential trade agreements (PTAs) on internationalization strategies of member countries’ firms. The study also aims to triangulate the proposed model using empirical data from PTA partner economies.

Design/methodology/approach

The mixed methods research design is used for the purpose of inquiry as suggested by Creswell. The inductive reasoning based on critical literature review and grounded theory methodology is used to postulate the model. Explanatory strength of the model is triangulated using empirical longitudinal trade data of Pakistan with her bilateral PTA partners, i.e. Malaysia, Mauritius, Iran, Sri Lanka and China. Internationalization indices are adapted following the Ietto-Gillies and London (2009) and Petri (1994) to measure the intensity and geographical diversification dimensions of internationalization. Country-level trade statistics are used as a proxy of firm-level data to explain the international expansion of home firms resulting from PTAs.

Findings

Empirical results confirm a strong and long-term impact of PTAs on the intensity and extensity dimensions of internationalization over post-agreement period in Pakistan and member economies. Gravity index depicts greater concentration of Pakistan's trade in FTA markets and thereby confirms the influence of PTAs on international market selection. Analysis at sectoral level depicts a contraction in services trade whereas expansion in the manufacturing firms’ export growth to member economies.

Originality/value

The paper extends the theory of internationalization by identifying PTAs as exogenous variable influencing internationalization strategies of member countries’ firms in a developing South Asian context. Coupled with findings from empirical data, the study identifies PTAs as a new strategic trade policy tool available to policy makers for promoting and influencing the home firms’ internationalization strategies.

Details

South Asian Journal of Global Business Research, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2045-4457

Keywords

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