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Article
Publication date: 3 June 2020

Jason Ian Pallant, Sean James Sands, Carla Renee Ferraro and Jessica Leigh Pallant

This paper investigates the degree to which self-selection explains the apparent higher purchase value of research shoppers.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper investigates the degree to which self-selection explains the apparent higher purchase value of research shoppers.

Design/methodology/approach

An online survey was administered to 594 retail shoppers. The purchase value of research shoppers and single-channel shoppers was compared before and after propensity score matching to account for self-selection effects.

Findings

Prior to matching, research shoppers spend significantly more than single-channel shoppers. This difference persists after accounting for self-selection but is reduced by 25%. The impact of self-selection differs across product categories and channels, with the online channel most likely to lead to higher purchase value.

Practical Implications

The findings build on existing literature on the value of omni-channel retail strategies and provide insights for retailers to determine the likely impact of encouraging research shopping among their customers.

Originality/value

The research provides important insights into the role that self-selection plays in the value of multi-channel shoppers, and the likely value to retailers of omni-channel strategies.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 48 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 29 July 2021

Imène Berguiga and Philippe Adair

This paper aims to address the following research question: Is loan funding to female entrepreneurs in Egypt, Tunisia and Morocco affected by self-selection from borrowers…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to address the following research question: Is loan funding to female entrepreneurs in Egypt, Tunisia and Morocco affected by self-selection from borrowers or/and discrimination from lenders? This paper sheds light on empirical literature review, which displays mixed evidence.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use a pooled sample of 3,896 businesses in Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia drawn from the 2013 World Bank Enterprise Survey (WBES). Despite selection biases and overweighing, the sample provides descriptive statistics upon gender ownership and gender management (human capital characteristics and financial data). The authors design two regression logistic models with interaction to investigate loan demand and loan granting with respect to self-selection vs discrimination. Female management is disentangled from female ownership with respect to entrepreneurship.

Findings

Neither self-selection nor discrimination affects female owners compared with their male counterparts, whereas female managers do self-select themselves. In as much as the WBES female subsample include several biases, the authors eventually emphasise the importance of the non-surveyed informal sector, which includes most (micro-)businesses, and loan funding provided by the microfinance industry to these female businesses. Microfinance fills the gap for working capital but not for fixed assets. The size of the business is a major factor explaining both self-selection and discrimination.

Research limitations/implications

Findings of this study have important policy implications for closing the gender gap in accessing finance. In addition to supply-side factors, demand-side factors should be addressed. Informality also needs to be addressed, as many micro and small enterprises owned or managed by women are informal entities without registration or/and social protection. One way to increase women's demand for financial services is to introduce financial products to meet their needs (e.g. social protection basic coverage). Governments can help develop these new products by strengthening the microfinance industry with a favourable regulatory and institutional framework. The authors also wonder about the extension of this study. Thus, a new cross-sectional analysis of the most recent surveys in the North African region would allow the authors to enlarge the overall sample and measure the evolution of the gender gap over time.

Originality/value

So far, funding female entrepreneurship remained little investigated in these North African countries. Several sampling biases in the WBES – small businesses underestimation and manufacturing industry overweighting, which have been overlooked so far, explain the absence of self-selection and discrimination. In contrast, size plays an important role. Hence, the focus on microenterprises (the informal sector) and the microfinance industry suggests indeed that female entrepreneurs operating in small businesses have to cope with both self-selection and discrimination.

Details

International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-6266

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2015

Torben Eli Bager, Kent Wickstrøm Jensen, Pia Schou Nielsen and Tue Avbæk Larsen

Entrepreneurial learning through formal growth-oriented training programs for SME managers promises to enhance the growth competences and growth intentions of the enrolled…

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1220

Abstract

Purpose

Entrepreneurial learning through formal growth-oriented training programs for SME managers promises to enhance the growth competences and growth intentions of the enrolled managers. The impact of such programs, however, depends on who enrolls since initial competence and growth-intention levels vary significantly. Potential participants may suffer from limited ability to transform new knowledge into practice, absence of growth intention and too high or too low a prior competence level to be able to benefit substantially. Selection and self-selection processes therefore have a bearing on the extent to which such programs result in additionality, i.e. improved growth performance compared to non-intervention. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

Selection and self-selection processes are explored through a study of a large-scale training program for growth-oriented managers of small Danish firms. This program has, from 2012 to 2015, trained about 700 SME managers. Data are currently available for 366 of these participants. This evidence is compared with survey results from a randomly selected control group of 292 growth-oriented SME managers in the same firm-size group. The data were analyzed through descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis.

Findings

A number of selection and self-selection biases were identified in the analysis. While some of the identified biases did not seem to conflict with the ambitions of this growth program, others potentially have consequences for the additionality of the program.

Originality/value

The paper is the first systematic study of the importance of who enrolls in training programs for SME managers.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 21 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 13 November 2009

Herbert Brücker and Cécily Defoort

The paper seeks to analyse the self‐selection of international migrants on observable skills.

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1167

Abstract

Purpose

The paper seeks to analyse the self‐selection of international migrants on observable skills.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on an extended version of the Roy model, which considers random migration costs, the authors analyse the self‐selection of migrants on observable skills empirically. For this purpose, the authors employ a new panel data set on the educational attainment of migrants, which covers migration from 143 sending countries into the six main receiving countries in the OECD from 1975 to 2000.

Findings

Migrants tend to be positively self‐selected on observable skills, although the inequality in earnings is larger in the sending country relative to the destination countries. The estimation results indicate that a higher inequality in the distribution of earnings in both the receiving and the sending country affects the skill bias of the migrant population favourably. Moreover, higher migration costs and selective immigration policies increase the skill level of migrants relative to those of stayers in the sending countries.

Research limitations/implications

The results may be affected by measurement error, since it was necessary to approximate the returns to education by measures for the inequality of earnings.

Practical implications

The paper provides, inter alia, insights as to how immigration and other policies affect the self‐selection of migrants on observable skills, which may be relevant for policy makers.

Originality/value

To the authors' knowledge, this is the first paper to analyse the self‐selection of migrants on the basis of a panel data set.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 30 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Article
Publication date: 2 July 2018

Emanuel Gomes, Ferran Vendrell-Herrero, Kamel Mellahi, Duncan Angwin and Carlos M.P. Sousa

Whilst substantial evidence from low-corruption, developed market environments supports the view that more productive firms are more likely to export, there has been…

Abstract

Purpose

Whilst substantial evidence from low-corruption, developed market environments supports the view that more productive firms are more likely to export, there has been little research into analysing the link between productivity and exports in high corruption, developing market environments. The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, to test the premise of self-selection theory whether the association between productivity and export is maintained in high-corruption environments, and second to identify other variables explaining export activity in high-corruption contexts, including cluster networks and firms’ competences.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors draw on the World Bank Enterprise survey to undertake a cross-section analysis including 1,233 small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) located in nine African countries. The advantage of this database is that it contains information about the level of perceived corruption at firm level. Logistic regressions are performed for the full sample and for subsamples of firms in high- and low-corruption environments.

Findings

The findings demonstrate that the self-selection theory only applies to low-corruption environments, whereas in high-corruption environments, alternative factors such as cluster networks and outward-looking competences (OLC) exert a stronger influence on the exporting activity of African SMEs.

Research limitations/implications

This research contributes to the theory as it provides evidence that contradicts the validity of self-selection theory in high-corruption environments. The findings would benefit from further longitudinal investigation.

Practical implications

African SMEs need to consider cluster networks and OLC as important strategic factors that might enhance their international competitiveness.

Originality/value

The criticism of the self-selection theory is distinctive in the literature and has important implications for future research. The authors show that the contextualisation of existing theories matters and this opens a research avenue for further more sensitive contextualisation of existing theories in developing economies.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 35 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Article
Publication date: 5 December 2018

Aliaksei Kazlou and Martin Klinthall

The purpose of this paper is to analyse how the introduction of a liberalised regime for labour immigration in Sweden affected the self-selection of new immigrant…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse how the introduction of a liberalised regime for labour immigration in Sweden affected the self-selection of new immigrant entrepreneurs and to what extent the changes in entrepreneurial income among new immigrants was due to self-selection or to a changing business environment.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on rich microdata from Swedish administrative registers, this paper investigates how incomes changed during the years before and after the migration policy reform. By decomposing the income differential of new immigrant entrepreneurs arriving before and after the reform, this study estimates the contribution of a changed composition of migrants to the changing entrepreneurial income.

Findings

Entrepreneurial income among self-employed new immigrants improved after the reform, narrowing the immigrant–native income gap, while among employees, the income gap remained during the whole period of the study. Out of the total 10.9 per cent increase in log income, the authors find that 2.7 per cent was due to selectivity, i.e., changing characteristics of new immigrant entrepreneurs. The remaining 8.2 per cent was due to increased returns to characteristics, i.e., the characteristics of new immigrant entrepreneurs were better rewarded in the markets in the latter period. Hence, increases in entrepreneurial income among new immigrants were due both to self-selection and changes in the business environment.

Practical implications

The authors find that the migration policy reform had the effect of attracting successful immigrant entrepreneurs. Hence, the findings have implications for migration policy as well as for growth and employment policy.

Originality/value

This paper reveals a positive trend regarding income from the entrepreneurship of new immigrants after the liberalisation of labour immigration policy in Sweden. Theoretically and methodologically, the authors combine self-selection theory and the mixed-embeddedness perspective in a novel way, using rich data and a quantitative approach.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 25 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 13 May 2015

Yusak O. Susilo

This chapter investigates the impacts of households’ residential self-selection, parents’ perceptions and travel patterns on their children’s daily travel mode shares…

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter investigates the impacts of households’ residential self-selection, parents’ perceptions and travel patterns on their children’s daily travel mode shares, among single parent households.

Methodology/approach

To capture the complexity of the relationships between parent and children daily travel mode choices, an integrated model structure is introduced and the model estimated with simultaneous equation modelling.

Findings

The results show that, beside the daily activity-travel engagements of the parent, both parent’s perceptions and his/her residential self-selection reasons play significant roles in influencing their children daily travel mode shares. The parent’s perceptions play more significant roles in influencing children’s travel modes shares, whilst the residential self-selection reasons have more significant influence on the parent’s travel mode choice.

Research limitations/implications

The finding of this study reveals a fact that wherever the children live, their travel behaviour tend to be ‘neutral’ and open to influence by their parents throughout their childhood.

Originality/value

This study adds to our understanding of the interactions between parents’ attitudes and behaviours with their children’s travel patterns. This study focuses on single parent households, on which there is very little literature.

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Book part
Publication date: 15 October 2008

Stephen C. Trainor

In this research paper, the attitudes of youth, in transition from high school to college and the adult world of work, are compared by their plans for college and military…

Abstract

In this research paper, the attitudes of youth, in transition from high school to college and the adult world of work, are compared by their plans for college and military service in order to better understand the impact of self-selection and anticipatory socialization on perceptions of opportunity and equality in military work. Data are drawn from a national survey of US high school seniors and from a sample of students entering their freshman year at the US Naval Academy. The results highlight the effects of both self-selection and anticipatory socialization on the attitudes youth express about the military work and have potential implications for military recruiting and personnel policy.

Details

Armed Forces and Conflict Resolution: Sociological Perspectives
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-8485-5122-0

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Book part
Publication date: 21 July 2004

Pervaiz Alam and Eng Seng Loh

We examine the sample self-selection and the use of LIFO or FIFO inventory method. For this purpose, we apply the Heckman-Lee’s two-stage regression to the 1973–1981 data…

Abstract

We examine the sample self-selection and the use of LIFO or FIFO inventory method. For this purpose, we apply the Heckman-Lee’s two-stage regression to the 1973–1981 data, a period of relatively high inflation, during which the incentive to adopt the LIFO inventory valuation method was most pronounced. The predicted coefficients based on the reduced-form probit (inventory choice model) and the tax functions are used to derive predicted tax savings in the structured probit. Specifically, the predicted tax savings are computed by comparing the actual LIFO (FIFO) taxes vs. predicted FIFO (LIFO) taxes. Thereafter, we estimate the dollar amount of tax savings under different regimes. The two-stage approach enables us to address not only the managerial choice of the inventory method but also the tax effect of this decision. Previous studies do not jointly consider the inventory choice decision and the tax effect of that decision. Hence, the approach we use is a contribution to the literature. Our results show that self-selection bias is present in our sample of LIFO and FIFO firms and correcting for the self-selection bias shows that the LIFO firms, on average, had $282 million of tax savings, which explains why a large number of firms adopted the LIFO inventory method during the seventies.

Details

Advances in Management Accounting
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-118-7

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Article
Publication date: 21 May 2020

Ute Stephan, Jun Li and Jingjing Qu

Past research on self-employment and health yielded conflicting findings. Integrating predictions from the Stressor-Strain Outcome model, research on challenge stressors…

Abstract

Purpose

Past research on self-employment and health yielded conflicting findings. Integrating predictions from the Stressor-Strain Outcome model, research on challenge stressors and allostatic load, we predict that physical and mental health are affected by self-employment in distinct ways which play out over different time horizons. We also test whether the health impacts of self-employment are due to enhanced stress (work-related strain) and differ for man and women.

Design/methodology/approach

We apply non-parametric propensity score matching in combination with a difference-in-difference approach and longitudinal cohort data to examine self-selection and the causal relationship between self-employment and health. We focus on those that transit into self-employment from paid employment (opportunity self-employment) and analyze strain and health over four years relative to individuals in paid employment.

Findings

Those with poorer mental health are more likely to self-select into self-employment. After entering self-employment, individuals experience a short-term uplift in mental health due to lower work-related strain, especially for self-employed men. In the longer-term (four years) the mental health of the self-employed drops back to pre-self-employment levels. We find no effect of self-employment on physical health.

Practical implications

Our research helps to understand the nonpecuniary benefits of self-employment and suggests that we should not advocate self-employment as a “healthy” career.

Originality/value

This article advances research on self-employment and health. Grounded in stress theories it offers new insights relating to self-selection, the temporality of effects, the mediating role of work-related strain, and gender that collectively help to explain why past research yielded conflicting findings.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 26 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

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