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Article
Publication date: 13 April 2020

Evy Rombaut and Marie-Anne Guerry

The main goal of employee retention is to prevent competent employees from leaving the company. When analysing the main reasons why employees leave and determining their…

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1775

Abstract

Purpose

The main goal of employee retention is to prevent competent employees from leaving the company. When analysing the main reasons why employees leave and determining their turnover probability, the question arises: Which retention strategies have an actual effect on turnover and for which profile of employees do these strategies work?

Design/methodology/approach

To determine the effectiveness of different retention strategies, an overview is given of retention strategies that can be found in the literature. Next, the paper presents a procedure to build an uplift model for testing the effectiveness of the different strategies on HR data. The uplift model is based on random forest estimation and applies personal treatment learning estimation.

Findings

Through a data-driven approach, the actual effect of retention strategies on employee turnover is investigated. The retention strategies compensation and recognition are found to have a positive average treatment effect on the entire population, while training and flexibility do not. However, with personalised treatment learning, the treatment effect on the individual level can be estimated. This results in an ability to profile employees with the highest estimated treatment effect.

Practical implications

The results yield useful information for human resources practitioners. The personalised treatment analysis results in detailed retention information for these practitioners, which allows them to target the right employees with the right strategies.

Originality/value

Even though the uplift modelling approach is becoming increasingly popular within marketing, this approach has not been taken within human resources analytics. This research opens the door for further research and for practical implementation.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 41 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Article
Publication date: 21 April 2020

Michael J. Tews and Kathryn Stafford

As employers are purportedly becoming more receptive to tattoos, the question arises whether tattooed employees are nonetheless subject to unfavorable treatment. In this…

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1107

Abstract

Purpose

As employers are purportedly becoming more receptive to tattoos, the question arises whether tattooed employees are nonetheless subject to unfavorable treatment. In this light, the purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of different tattoo characteristics on four outcomes: annual earnings, fair interpersonal treatment from supervisors, perceived discrimination and perceived overqualification. The specific tattoo characteristics were tattoo number, visibility and content.

Design/methodology/approach

Survey data from a sample of 162 tattooed hospitality employees were obtained from a Qualtrics research panel and analyzed using regression.

Findings

The results demonstrated that employees with a greater degree of dark tattoo content (content of a more threatening and intimidating nature) received less favorable treatment, as demonstrated by significant relationships with fair interpersonal treatment, perceived discrimination and perceived overqualification. Tattoo number was related to increased perceived discrimination and perceived overqualification. At the same time, tattoo number was related to increased annual earnings, signaling a benefit.

Research limitations/implications

Measures of tattoo characteristics and workplace outcomes were collected in a single survey. An analysis of data collected at different points would potentially provide a more definitive test of cause and effect.

Practical implications

On one front, organizations should establish grooming policies that specify what is acceptable with respect to tattoos. To help minimize personality-related tattoo stereotypes from influencing hiring decisions, organizations could use personality assessments to make the hiring process more objective. Moreover, diversity training could address tattoo-related stereotypes, bias and prejudice.

Originality/value

Even though prior studies have demonstrated that tattooed people are viewed as less suitable for employment, research focused on the relationship between tattoos and actual discrimination has been limited. The results from this study highlight that employees with tattoos may still be subject to maltreatment, despite the mainstreaming of tattoos.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 32 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article
Publication date: 13 February 2017

Jesper Verheij, Sandra Groeneveld and Lisette Kuyper

This purpose of this paper is to examine whether and how different diversity approaches of public, semi-public and private sector organizations affect negative treatment

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1339

Abstract

Purpose

This purpose of this paper is to examine whether and how different diversity approaches of public, semi-public and private sector organizations affect negative treatment experienced in the workplace. Broadly speaking, organizations might either approach diversity as a problem of inequality or as a resource and an added value for the organization. As such, a pro-equality and a pro-diversity approach can be distinguished which are both examined in this paper.

Design/methodology/approach

In a quantitative study, structural equation modeling was used on survey data of a representative sample of Dutch employees.

Findings

Results show that while both approaches are negatively associated with negative treatment, the pro-diversity is most strongly so. Sector differences were less pronounced than expected, although employees across different sectors of employment benefit from both the approaches to a different extent.

Research limitations/implications

Further research examining the effect of diversity approaches to negative treatment across sectors is required. Suggestions for further research are discussed.

Practical implications

Looking at sector differences, the findings showed that employees across public, semi-public and private sector organizations benefitted from the diversity approaches to a different extent. Organizations across different sectors are therefore suggested to adopt different diversity approaches to combat negative treatment in the workplace.

Originality/value

Most studies either focus on a pro-equality or pro-diversity approach. The present study combines both and, moreover, pays attention to the way both approaches affect negative treatment experienced in the semi-public sector. Examining variation within the public sector is unique in the context of diversity research.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 36 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

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Article
Publication date: 10 August 2010

Robert Folger, Robert C. Ford, Mary Bardes and Duncan Dickson

The purpose of this paper is to present and partially test the triangle model of fairness (TMF) by examining employee reactions to customer fairness.

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1140

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present and partially test the triangle model of fairness (TMF) by examining employee reactions to customer fairness.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 217 undergraduate hospitality students at a US university participated in the study. Participants seated in a classroom were asked to take part in the study. Customer interpersonal justice was manipulated (high justice versus low justice) in a completely randomized between‐subjects design. The manipulation consisted of written scenarios that depicted interactions between a customer and an employee. Participants read the scenarios. Then, they were instructed to imagine they were the employee in the scenario and were asked to answer questions that assessed their reactions to the interaction with the customer.

Findings

Consistent with the predictions, the results of the study revealed that when employees experience interpersonally fair treatment from customers, they are more likely to engage in helping behaviors toward their organization and future customers.

Originality/value

The paper examines employee responses to fairness from customers, in terms of helping (or harming) the organization and future customers. As rationale for the study, the authors drew on the TMF. The study makes a contribution to research on services and organizational justice by being the first to empirically examine the TMF. Overall, this paper demonstrates that organizations need to be cognizant of the effects of customers' treatment on service employees, as customers' treatment can have serious effects on employees' subsequent behaviors.

Details

Journal of Service Management, vol. 21 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-5818

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Article
Publication date: 11 October 2021

Omer Unsal

In this paper, the author utilizes a unique hand-collected dataset of workplace lawsuits, violations and allegations to test the relation between employee mistreatment and…

Abstract

Purpose

In this paper, the author utilizes a unique hand-collected dataset of workplace lawsuits, violations and allegations to test the relation between employee mistreatment and information asymmetry.

Design/methodology/approach

The author tests the impact of employee treatment on firms' information environment by utilizing the S&P 1500 firms of 17,663 firm-year observations, which include 2,992 unique firms and 5,987 unique CEOs between 2000 and 2016. These methods include panel fixed effects, as well as alternative measures of information asymmetry, event study and matched samples for further robustness tests.

Findings

The author finds that employee disputes exacerbate the information flow between insiders and outsiders. Further, the author reports that case characteristics, such as case outcome and case duration, aggravate that problem. The author documents that the positive relationship between employee mistreatment and information asymmetry is stronger for small firms and firms with smaller market power, as well as firms with a high level of equity risk.

Originality/value

This study is the first to investigate how employee relations influence a firm's information asymmetry. The author aims to contribute to the literature by studying (1) the relation between information asymmetry and employee mistreatment, (2) how firm characteristics affect the path from employee disputes to information asymmetry and (3) the influence of various other types of evidence of employee mistreatment beyond litigation on the information environment.

Details

International Journal of Managerial Finance, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1743-9132

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Article
Publication date: 23 August 2019

Sonja N. Kralj, Andreas T. Lechner and Michael Paul

Studies report that frontline employees frequently discriminate against overweight customers, a group of vulnerable consumers that is growing worldwide. However, because…

Abstract

Purpose

Studies report that frontline employees frequently discriminate against overweight customers, a group of vulnerable consumers that is growing worldwide. However, because most discrimination by frontline employees is covert, the authors ask whether overweight customers perceive discrimination and what influences this perception. Drawing on field theory, this paper aims to investigate how two environment factors (frontline employee overweight and frontline employees’ neutral treatment of other customers) and two person factors (customer pre-encounter affect and self-esteem) influence customer-perceived weight discrimination.

Design/methodology/approach

In a pilot study and three experimental studies, the authors examine the impact of covert discrimination of overweight customers by frontline employees on customers’ perception of discrimination and the influencing effects of environment and person factors. Hypotheses are tested using regression analysis.

Findings

The authors find that overweight customers perceive covert weight discrimination by frontline employees. Frontline employee overweight mitigates the effect of covert discrimination, and (state and trait) self-esteem amplifies this effect. Frontline employees’ neutral treatment of other customers is insignificant. Customer (state and trait) negative affect directly increases customer-perceived discrimination independent of covert discrimination.

Originality/value

While extant research focuses on marketplace discrimination triggers and consequences, the perspective of the discriminated customer and what influences his or her perception of covert discrimination has attracted much less attention. Moreover, research rarely addresses overweight as a discrimination trigger. As environment and person influences frequently shape service encounters, the authors contribute novel and relevant insights to the literature. This is of high value, especially in light of the harmful consequences marketplace discrimination entails for customers and service firms.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 33 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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Article
Publication date: 7 March 2016

Raed Ismail Ababneh

The purpose of this paper is to explore the attitudes of disabled employees toward availability of work facilities, treatment of other employees, and the working…

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1013

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the attitudes of disabled employees toward availability of work facilities, treatment of other employees, and the working conditions in the Jordanian public sector.

Design/methodology/approach

A purposive sample of disabled public sector employees (198) was selected to participate in the study by filling the designated questionnaire.

Findings

Disabled employees reported a relatively moderate level of satisfaction about the availability of facilities. Also, participants are satisfied with the treatment of their supervisors and colleagues and of the working conditions. Disabled female participants and those who hold graduate degrees reported high-satisfaction level about the treatment they receive from their colleagues at work. The findings also showed that 55 percent of the participants were hired based on humanitarian bases as a result of their disability cases compared with 45 percent who were hired based on their qualifications and merits.

Practical implications

This research significantly contributes to the scarce knowledge that currently exists in the position of disabled employees in the Arab world. Policy makers and human resource managers should develop a clear strategy to provide the facilities for disabled people to accommodate at work. In addition, they should provide professional guidance and rehabilitation training programs aiming to enhance disabled employees’ participation and involvement in the labor market.

Originality/value

The study is one of the first to investigate the status of disabled public sector employees in Jordan and in the Arab world.

Details

International Journal of Public Sector Management, vol. 29 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3558

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Article
Publication date: 6 December 2018

Camilla M. Holmvall, Sonya Stevens and Natasha Chestnut

Employees are affected by the interpersonal treatment received from leaders (i.e. interactional justice), especially when being informed of negative outcomes (Brockner

Abstract

Purpose

Employees are affected by the interpersonal treatment received from leaders (i.e. interactional justice), especially when being informed of negative outcomes (Brockner, 2010). Although respectful treatment may be expected from leaders generally, little is known about when leaders are more likely to display interactional justice and whether less interactional justice might be acceptable under certain circumstances. Drawing on reciprocity theory (e.g. Gouldner, 1960), and leader–member exchange (LMX) theory (e.g. Gerstner and Day, 1997), the purpose of this paper is to test the hypothesis that employees who are disrespectful and inconsiderate toward their supervisors (i.e. who are themselves interactionally unjust) would and should receive less interactional justice when being informed of a negative outcome.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conducted three experimental studies (Ns=87, 47 and 114), in the context of leaders communicating a layoff decision to their subordinates.

Findings

The results supported the predictions albeit the effect of subordinate interactional justice on supervisor justice was modest, yet consistent, across studies.

Research limitations/implications

The findings are consistent with reciprocity theory and the LMX literature and suggest that leader actions when communicating bad news are dependent on employee conduct. Limitations of the studies include a primary reliance on students as participants and the measurement of behavioral intentions rather than behavior.

Originality/value

The studies are among the first to examine interactional injustice perpetrated by subordinates toward their leaders, and its impact on leader behavior when delivering negative outcomes. There is a paucity of literature understanding the causes of leader fairness behavior, in addition to a consideration of unfairness from perpetrators of lower positional power.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 48 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Article
Publication date: 25 August 2021

Elodie Arnéguy, Marc Ohana and Florence Stinglhamber

Although justice perceptions have been proven to be a critical determinant of readiness for change (RFC), research is still needed to investigate which source(s) of…

Abstract

Purpose

Although justice perceptions have been proven to be a critical determinant of readiness for change (RFC), research is still needed to investigate which source(s) of justice fosters employee's preparedness to face change within his/her organization. The aim of this study is to examine the simultaneous influence of three sources of justice, namely the organization, the supervisor and the coworkers, on RFC through perceived organizational support, perceived supervisor support and perceived coworker support, respectively.

Design/methodology/approach

Three different sets of data were collected from employees in the United States and in Europe. Path analyses were performed to test the hypotheses.

Findings

The results indicated that perceived organizational support mediates the relationship between organizational justice and RFC. Conversely, however, the effect of supervisory justice and coworkers justice on RFC was not mediated by perceived supervisor support and perceived coworker support.

Originality/value

This study is the first to examine the simultaneous influence of organizational, supervisory and coworkers justice on RFC. In doing so, it highlights the need to consider justice stemming from the organization as a priority when considering implementing an organizational change, as opposed to justice emanating from the supervisor and coworkers. In addition, this study responds to long-standing calls for the simultaneous examination of multiple sources of justice and the exploration of the largely neglected role of justice stemming from coworkers.

Details

Employee Relations: The International Journal, vol. 44 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

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Article
Publication date: 13 July 2015

Simon Chak-keung Wong and Jane Shiyin Li

This study aims to investigate how Chinese hotel employees (Zhejiang province in mainland China) perceive unethical managerial behavior. It targets to identify any…

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4116

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate how Chinese hotel employees (Zhejiang province in mainland China) perceive unethical managerial behavior. It targets to identify any underlying dimensions that exist among the hotel employees. This study also aims to discover any relationship between overall job satisfaction and the derived dimensions. The effects of demographic variables on employees’ job satisfaction and its relationship with unethical managerial behavior are also investigated. Recommendations are presented to hoteliers and human resources practitioners on developing an ethical climate in the hotel industry.

Design/methodology/approach

Quantitative mixed methods incorporated both in-depth interviews on identifying 20 unethical managerial behaviors among hotel employees, and statistical analyses of the dimensions of the said behaviors were applied to this research. As quantitative analysis was the principal data analysis method adopted to test the hypotheses on hotel employees’ perception of unethical managerial behavior and job satisfaction, a self-administrated questionnaire was developed. A total of 268 completed questionnaires were collected, and factor analysis, multiple regression, independent t-test and ANOVA were conducted to analyze the data.

Findings

Three factors of unethical managerial behavior were developed: unethical treatment of employees; unfair and broken promises to employees; and inequity and unsympathetic treatment of employees. “Unethical treatment of employees” was found to be significantly related to overall job satisfaction among hotel employees in multiple regression analysis. Demographic differences were also found to exert effects on the three factors and overall job satisfaction.

Practical implications

This paper successfully identified three underlying dimensions that exist among Chinese hotel employees’ perception of unethical managerial behavior. Three recommendations are presented to hoteliers as well as human resources practitioners for developing an ethical climate in the hotel industry.

Originality/value

This study contributes to advance the understanding of the hotel employees’ perception of unethical managerial behavior. The relationship between job satisfaction and the derived three underlying dimensions is discovered.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 27 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

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