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Article
Publication date: 24 December 2021

Crystal T. Lee, Ling-Yen Pan and Sara H. Hsieh

This study investigates the determinants of effective human and artificial intelligence (AI) relationship-building strategies for brands. It explores the antecedents and…

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Abstract

Purpose

This study investigates the determinants of effective human and artificial intelligence (AI) relationship-building strategies for brands. It explores the antecedents and consequences of consumers' interactant satisfaction with communication and identifies ways to enhance consumer purchase intention via AI chatbot promotion.

Design/methodology/approach

Microsoft Xiaoice served as the focal AI chatbot, and 331 valid samples were obtained. A two-stage structural equation modeling-artificial neural network approach was adopted to verify the proposed theoretical model.

Findings

Regarding the IQ (intelligence quotient) and EQ (emotional quotient) of AI chatbots, the multi-dimensional social support model helps explain consumers' interactant satisfaction with communication, which facilitates affective attachment and purchase intention. The results also show that chatbots should emphasize emotional and esteem social support more than informational support.

Practical implications

Brands should focus more on AI chatbots' emotional and empathetic responses than functional aspects when designing dialogue content for human–AI interactions. Well-designed AI chatbots can help marketers develop effective brand promotion strategies.

Originality/value

This research enriches the human–AI interaction literature by adopting a multi-dimensional social support theoretical lens that can enhance the interactant satisfaction with communication, affective attachment and purchase intention of AI chatbot users.

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 28 June 2019

Pekka Stenholm and Mette Søgaard Nielsen

Recent research acknowledges entrepreneurial passion’s outcomes, but far less is known about how entrepreneurial passion comes about. In this study, the authors are…

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Abstract

Purpose

Recent research acknowledges entrepreneurial passion’s outcomes, but far less is known about how entrepreneurial passion comes about. In this study, the authors are interested in the emergence of entrepreneurial passion, and how competences and social network are associated with entrepreneurial passion. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors investigate whether entrepreneurial passion emerges out of socialisation, entrepreneurial experience or various combinations thereof. The authors tested the hypotheses on a data set of entrepreneurs who started their businesses with government financial support (n=1150).

Findings

The findings show that within a social environment, perceived emotional support is positively associated with entrepreneurial passion. Moreover, entrepreneurs’ task-related competence moderates this relationship positively. By investigating the emergence of entrepreneurial passion, the authors contribute to prior passion literature, which has mainly focused on its consequences.

Originality/value

The findings demonstrate both how entrepreneurial passion is associated with and how perceived emotional support can stem from unexpected sources, such as from a government-based start-up grant. For entrepreneurs, an increased awareness of passion’s emergence could better encourage them in their entrepreneurial endeavours. To people who are engaged in promoting entrepreneurship, our findings emphasise the symbolic and emotional aspects of instruments intended to support entrepreneurship.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 25 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 March 2013

Elyria Kemp, Aberdeen Leila Borders and Joe M. Ricks

The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of sales manager support in promoting the subjective well‐being of salespeople as well as the function of the sales…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of sales manager support in promoting the subjective well‐being of salespeople as well as the function of the sales manager in cultivating positive, motivating and productive environments.

Design/methodology/approach

An exploratory assessment of the relationship between sales manager support and emotional health in salespeople was conducted by interviewing sales professionals from diverse industries. The insight offered from these individuals, in conjunction with prior literature, provided the basis for the development of a conceptual model that elucidates the impact of sales manager support on the emotional well‐being of salespeople and subsequently salesperson effectiveness. The model was tested using 154 salespeople. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the data.

Findings

Results indicate that sales manager support is negatively related to emotional exhaustion and rumination, but positively associated with fostering positive working environments and future expectations. Salesperson motivation is positively related to positive working environments and customer‐oriented selling and negatively related to emotional exhaustion.

Research limitations/implications

The study is cross‐sectional in nature and no causal relationships could be established. Future studies might include field experiments that assess the effect of sales manager support on salesperson's well‐being and behavior.

Practical implications

The study demonstrates the important role sales managers have in promoting the subjective well‐being of salespeople.

Originality/value

This research addresses how sales manager coaching specifically impacts elements of a salesperson's emotional health.

Book part
Publication date: 10 August 2017

Miriam Naiman-Sessions, Megan M. Henley and Louise Marie Roth

This research examines effects on emotional burnout among “maternity support workers” (MSWs) that support women in labor (labor and delivery (L&D) nurses and doulas). The…

Abstract

This research examines effects on emotional burnout among “maternity support workers” (MSWs) that support women in labor (labor and delivery (L&D) nurses and doulas). The emotional intensity of maternity support work is likely to contribute to emotional distress, compassion fatigue, and burnout.

This study uses data from the Maternity Support Survey (MSS) to analyze emotional burnout among 807 L&D nurses and 1,226 doulas in the United States and Canada. Multivariate OLS regression models examine the effects of work–family conflict, overwork, emotional intelligence, witnessing unethical mistreatment of women in labor, and practice characteristics on emotional burnout among these MSWs. We measure emotional burnout using the Professional Quality of Life (PROQOL) Emotional Burnout subscale.

Work–family conflict, feelings of overwork, witnessing a higher frequency of unethical mistreatment, and working in a hospital with a larger percentage of cesarean deliveries are associated with higher levels of burnout among MSWs. Higher emotional intelligence is associated with lower levels of burnout, and the availability of hospital wellness programs is associated with less burnout among L&D nurses.

While the MSS obtained a large number of responses, its recruitment methods produced a nonrandom sample and made it impossible to calculate a response rate. As a result, responses may not be generalizable to all L&D nurses and doulas in the United States and Canada.

This research reveals that MSWs attitudes about medical procedures such as cesarean sections and induction are tied to their experiences of emotional burnout. It also demonstrates a link between witnessing mistreatment of laboring women and burnout, so that traumatic incidents have negative emotional consequences for MSWs. The findings have implications for secondary trauma and compassion fatigue, and for the quality of maternity care.

Details

Health and Health Care Concerns Among Women and Racial and Ethnic Minorities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-150-8

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 July 2013

Dan S. Chiaburu, Tomas G. Thundiyil and Gonzalo J. Muñoz

The purpose of this paper is to explore individual and contextual predictors of emotional support potential in training.

333

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore individual and contextual predictors of emotional support potential in training.

Design/methodology/approach

Relative weight analysis was used to assess the importance of individual (trainee regulatory focus) and contextual (trainer competence) predictors of emotional support potential in training.

Findings

Individual differences in self‐regulation including promotion and prevention focus explained emotional support potential to a greater extent than did trainer competence.

Research limitations/implications

For future research, further testing the current propositions can emphasize broader contextual predictors (e.g. support from trainees' social context).

Practical implications

A number of studies have indicated that social aspects of training are important; however, no one has yet examined predictors of emotional support. Consequently, understanding an individual's regulatory focus and personality can be an important way to improve emotional support potential.

Originality/value

This is the first study to examine predictors of emotional support potential in a training context and links trainee regulatory focus to this outcome.

Details

Industrial and Commercial Training, vol. 45 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0019-7858

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 September 2010

Kelly Z. Peng, Chi‐Sum Wong and Hong‐Sheng Che

The purpose of this paper is to preliminary explain the possibly complicated moderating effects of job resources. The paper specifies the missing link between job demand…

2942

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to preliminary explain the possibly complicated moderating effects of job resources. The paper specifies the missing link between job demand and burnout by focusing on the coping strategy argument.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper preliminary supports the mediated moderation model of the missing link by a large sample cross‐sectional survey.

Findings

The two coping strategies as mediators for the relationship between emotional demands and exhaustion are supported. Strong supports for the moderation effect of emotional intelligence on the relationship between emotional demands and the two coping strategies are found. Some support for the moderation of supervisor support on the relationship between deep acting and exhaustion are found.

Research limitations/implications

The paper contributes to the job demands‐control‐support and job demands‐resources models, as the proposed model helps to explain the inconsistent results for the buffering effect of job resources found in the literature. It also contributes to the literature of emotional intelligence, as it provides clear evidence of its importance in handling emotional demands.

Practical implications

Deep acting is important. An organization may take more efforts in training employees to equip them with it. Emotional intelligence is also a vital resource and so organizations may benefit if they engage in relevant selection and training practices.

Originality/value

Emotional intelligence, an individual ability, is empirically demonstrated to be an important type of job resources that can buffer the negative effect of job demands on employee well‐being.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 25 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 November 2022

Teidorlang Lyngdoh, Ellis Chefor and Bruno Lussier

Salespeople’s unethical behaviors have been the subject of extensive academic research and practitioner outcry. High pressure, complex selling environments and extant…

Abstract

Purpose

Salespeople’s unethical behaviors have been the subject of extensive academic research and practitioner outcry. High pressure, complex selling environments and extant methods of monitoring, control and compensation of salespeople have been found to lead to short-term sales behaviors, such as lying, that are detrimental to both customers and firms in the long run. Furthermore, work and family pressures can lead to unethical sales behaviors. However, research on the impact of the social environment on unethical behaviors in sales is scant. This study aims to examine the impact of social factors (e.g. supervisor support and family work support) on salespeople’s unethical behaviors as a social exchange process in an emerging market context where work and family pressures are high. Specifically, the mediating role of emotional and cognitive engagement on the relationship between social support and unethical behaviors is investigated.

Design/methodology/approach

An empirical study was conducted to examine the relationship between social support (family work support and supervisor support), engagement (emotional and cognitive) and unethical behaviors. Survey data were collected from 496 salespeople from multiple industries in India, and partial least squares structural equation modeling was used to test the hypothesized relationships. In addition, post hoc qualitative interviews were conducted with 15 salespeople to corroborate the findings.

Findings

Supervisor support is positively related to emotional and cognitive engagement and negatively related to unethical behaviors. Contrary to our hypothesis, family work support is positively related to unethical behaviors. However, this relationship becomes negative when the salesperson is emotionally and cognitively engaged with their work.

Research limitations/implications

This research enhances the understanding of the antecedents of unethical behaviors in sales. Supervisor support, emotional engagement and cognitive engagement reduce unethical behaviors. However, family work support increases unethical behaviors. The relationship between social support (supervisor and family work) and unethical behaviors is mediated by emotional and cognitive engagement. These findings offer sales managers dealing with increasing work and family pressures and the blurring of personal and professional life a way to motivate their sales force to act in a manner that benefits customers and the firm in the long run.

Practical implications

The findings offer insights on how sales managers and organizations can help design supportive work environments for their salespeople to help reduce unethical behaviors. The findings also highlight the importance of understanding salesperson family values during the hiring process and keeping salespeople engaged, especially while they work from home, are isolated from their work environment and spend more working hours at home with family members.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, the current research is the first to investigate the impact of family work support on unethical behaviors. This is timely and valuable as the current COVID-19 pandemic has increased the number of salespeople working from home, reduced sales performance and increased anxiety due to economic uncertainty, all of which could encourage unethical sales behaviors. This paper is also the first to investigate the mediating role of engagement on the effects of social support on unethical behaviors.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 September 2017

Arnoud T. Evers, Bogdan Yamkovenko and Daniël Van Amersfoort

Education depends on high-quality teachers who are committed to professional development and do not get burned out. The purpose of this paper was to investigate how job…

Abstract

Purpose

Education depends on high-quality teachers who are committed to professional development and do not get burned out. The purpose of this paper was to investigate how job demands and resources can affect the health and cognitive development of teachers using the Demand-Induced Strain Compensation model.

Design/methodology/approach

A cross-sectional sample of 120 teachers in vocational education was used to investigate the proposed relationships and hypotheses with Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) regression method.

Findings

In terms of teacher health and development, significant main effects were found for several predictors. Autonomy was significantly and negatively related to emotional exhaustion. Autonomy, emotional supervisor and colleague support were significantly and positively related to teachers’ development. However, little support was found for matching hypotheses, suggesting that matching demands and resources do not offer more explanatory power for occupation outcomes than other types of interaction effects.

Research limitations/implications

More powerful analyses techniques like structural equation modeling could be used in future research with a larger sample size. A second limitation is common method variance.

Practical implications

Schools in vocational education should provide sufficient job resources, such as autonomy and emotional support, but possibly also put a limit on teacher task variety.

Originality/value

Job demands and resources have until now mainly been related to negative outcomes such as poor health and ill-being, while the relationship with learning has also been hypothesized and is therefore meaningful to examine. In addition, it was investigated whether interaction effects of matching demands and resources, better explain these outcomes.

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 31 August 2021

Han Chen, Yvette Green and Kim Williams

Supervisory employees in the hotel industry experience high levels of emotional exhaustion. The current study aims to examine the impact of perceived manager support

Abstract

Purpose

Supervisory employees in the hotel industry experience high levels of emotional exhaustion. The current study aims to examine the impact of perceived manager support, perceived control over time and negative emotions at others on hotel supervisors' emotional exhaustion. It further investigates the mediating role of perceived control over time and negative emotions at others on the relationship between perceived manager support and hotel supervisors' emotional exhaustion.

Design/methodology/approach

Paper questionnaires were distributed at a hotel supervisor training seminar. A total of 155 usable responses were collected from hotel supervisors. Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling were used for hypotheses testing.

Findings

Results showed that perceived manager support and perceived control over time both were negatively associated with hotel supervisors' emotional exhaustion. Negative emotions at others were positively related to hotel supervisors' emotional exhaustion. Both perceived control over time and negative emotions at others were found to mediate the relationship between perceived manager support and hotel supervisors' emotional exhaustion.

Originality/value

The study applied the job demand–resources model and the affective event theory to examine hotel supervisors' emotional exhaustion. The mediating role of perceived control over time and negative emotions at others added to the current knowledge of factors that are associated with hotel supervisory employees' emotional exhaustion.

Details

International Hospitality Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2516-8142

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 January 2016

Camille Saintives and Renaud Lunardo

This paper aims to determine how consumers may regulate their guilt through rumination and emotional support and how such regulation affects their consumption. Compelling…

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to determine how consumers may regulate their guilt through rumination and emotional support and how such regulation affects their consumption. Compelling research indicates that consumption may sometimes induce guilt. Social–psychological literature suggests that a potential way for consumers to regulate their consumption-related guilt is to seek emotional support.

Design/methodology/approach

Two studies, which measure (Study 1) and manipulate (Study 2) guilt, investigate how guilt and rumination affect emotional support and subsequent consumption.

Findings

The results show that guilt and rumination interact and prompt individuals to seek emotional support. The valence (positive or negative) of feedback they receive affects and interacts with their guilt to affect their intention to consume the guilt-inducing product again. Shame is shown to mediate the effect of post-feedback guilt on consumption intentions.

Research limitations/implications

The results extend previous research on guilt by emphasizing emotional support seeking as a specific way of coping in response to guilt feelings and shame as an outcome of guilt. Moreover, the present research shows that guilt can affect behavioural intentions, an effect that surprisingly has not been previously identified in literature.

Practical implications

For brands and retailers providing guilt-inducing products, the results suggest that providing emotional support – for instance through reinsurance messages – may have positive effects on consumer emotions and intentions.

Originality/value

Using two different methods, the research findings offer deeper understanding of how guilt is related to cognitions such as rumination, to emotions such as shame and to behavioural intentions.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 33 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

Keywords

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