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Article
Publication date: 7 March 2016

Houcine Akrout, Mbaye Fall Diallo, Wafa Akrout and Jean-Louis Chandon

This paper aims to develop and validate a scale measurement of trust in long-term relations, specifically in the maintenance phase, between buyers and sellers. Relying on…

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to develop and validate a scale measurement of trust in long-term relations, specifically in the maintenance phase, between buyers and sellers. Relying on a cognitive conception, existing scales do not measure the affective trust occurring in the maintenance stage of the relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

Three surveys were conducted with purchasing managers of enterprises in various business-to-business (B2B) sectors to build a bi-dimensional measurement scale of affective trust as a sentiment of security and affective attachment. For measurement scale development, established construction procedures were followed, including qualitative and quantitative surveys. The process can be summarized as: domain specification, generation of questionnaire items, empirical survey and iterative process of scale purification based on reliability assessment and validity checks.

Findings

The results indicate satisfactory psychometric properties of the new Affective Trust Scale (ATS). Furthermore, they demonstrate the scale’s measurement invariance across business sectors. The research confirms the importance of affective aspects of trust and supports the reliability and validity of the measure. Nomological validity assessment of the scale shows that sentiment of security-based trust impacts investment in business relationships.

Research limitations/implications

The ATS developed and tested in the B2B French context needs to be evaluated taking into account several limitations. First, the specific context was a sample of buyers in France experiencing lasting relationships, suggesting that an extension of the study to other countries would be desirable. Also, the ATS needs to be further validated and confirmed in other contexts, for instance, within buyer–supplier relationship intensity.

Practical implications

The ATS can help firms to identify key parameters in buyer–seller relationships. It is important for the seller to collect information to determine the stage of the relationship before spending money on targeting customers, as they may not be ready to broaden the scope of their contract. The ATS can be very useful for companies to assess the state of the relationship and the strength of the bond in a timely manner and, therefore, anticipate the relational orientation. Segmentation based on relational phases requires tailoring to each form of trust strategies and hence the accurate identification of the relationship phase could help to better categorize and subcategorize customers with respect to the sentiment of security and affective attachment degrees. Furthermore, an understanding of the two dimensions is useful for key account managers to adjust relationship management toward specific actions (e.g. sentiment of security and/or affective attachment). The ATS could be very useful to guide managers in taking the right decision, by focusing both on sentiment of security and affective attachment dimensions of affective trust.

Originality/value

Affective trust is important to B2B managers, who frequently struggle to build and maintain close relationships with customers and suppliers. This paper adds insights into the complex but important construct of trust. The scale could be used for empirical studies of affective trust in B2B relationships. It may also help marketing managers develop better relationships with partners.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 31 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 13 July 2016

Jeongkoo Yoon and Soojung Lee

This study examines the effects of a firm’s corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiative on its employees’ organizational attachment and intent to leave. We propose…

Abstract

Purpose

This study examines the effects of a firm’s corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiative on its employees’ organizational attachment and intent to leave. We propose that employees’ perceived authenticity of their firm’s CSR activity mediates the effects of a firm’s CSR initiative on employees’ attachment to the firm and intent to leave. We also hypothesize that employees understand the authenticity of their firm’s CSR initiative based on internal and external attribution mechanisms. We propose that internal attribution enhances authenticity, while external attribution reduces it.

Methodology/approach

We surveyed a sample of 450 employees from 38 Korean companies that were included in the 2009 Dow Jones Sustainability Index Korea (DJSI Korea). To test the theoretical model, we employed a linear structural equation modeling which allows the causal estimation of theoretical constructs after taking into account their measurement errors.

Findings

As predicted, internal attribution significantly increases employees’ perceptions of their firm’s CSR authenticity, whereas external attribution significantly reduces such perceptions. Employees’ perceptions of authenticity, in turn, increase their affective attachment and decrease their intent to leave. In addition, the effects of the two attribution mechanisms on organizational attachment and intent to leave were mediated by employees’ perceptions on authenticity.

Research limitations/implications

Research on authenticity has been case studies or narrative ones. This is one of the first studies investigating the role of authentic management empirically.

Practical implications

We demonstrate that a firm’s CSR initiative is a double-edged sword. When employees perceive inauthenticity of their firm’s CSR initiative, the CSR initiative could be detrimental to employees’ attachment to the firm. This study calls attention to the importance of authentic management of CSR.

Social implications

Informational transparency through social network services become the foundational reality to the contemporary management. To maintain competitive edge in this changing world, every stakeholder of a firm including managers, employees, customers, shareholders, government, and communities should collaborate and help each other live the principle of authenticity.

Details

Advances in Group Processes
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-041-1

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 April 2017

Adel A.A. Al-Wugayan

This paper aims to investigate the conceptual and empirical effects of corporate social responsibility (CSR) on affective and behavioral inclinations of financial service…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the conceptual and empirical effects of corporate social responsibility (CSR) on affective and behavioral inclinations of financial service representatives (FSRs) in faith-expressive (FE) banks and financial institutions in non-Western markets.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing upon recent CSR research findings, this study proposed a conceptual model of the association between FSRs’ perceptions of the firm’s CSR toward stakeholders with FSRs’ affective attachment, work engagement and proactive work inclinations using survey data (n = 175). Pre-analysis procedures were applied followed by structural equation modeling to test the hypotheses.

Findings

FSRs were more emotionally attached to the firm when CSR initiatives were directed at them or toward social organizations, but were generally ambivalent to CSR directed to suppliers or competition. As firm attachment becomes stronger, propensity to engage in work and proactive work behaviors increases.

Research limitations/implications

This paper improves management understanding and sensitivity to managing the service salesforce in FE firms as emerging organizations. Future research can focus on actual measures of job performance and on comparative results when applied to traditional financial firms.

Practical implications

Marketing managers relying on CSR to motivate FSRs should realize its limitations when applied to FE firms. Qualitative approaches to solicit stakeholders’ input are encouraged to improve CSR performance.

Originality/value

In non-Western FE firms, strategizing CSR initiative spending should include its potential impact on service employees dealing with customers with particular attention to firm attachment, and inclination to excel in service providing.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 31 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 16 August 2007

Edward J. Lawler

This paper theorizes the role of shared responsibility in the development of affective group attachments, interweaving ideas from social exchange and social identity…

Abstract

This paper theorizes the role of shared responsibility in the development of affective group attachments, interweaving ideas from social exchange and social identity theories. The main arguments are that (1) people engaged in task interaction experience positive or negative emotions from those interactions; (2) tasks that promote more sense of shared responsibility across members lead people to attribute their individual emotions to groups or organizations; and (3) group attributions of own emotions are the basis for stronger or weaker group attachments. The paper suggests that social categorization and structural interdependence promote group attachments by producing task interactions that have positive emotional effects on those involved.

Details

Affect and Groups
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1413-3

Article
Publication date: 4 November 2020

Philip Fei Wu and Roberta Bernardi

The purpose of this study is to investigate how community attachment to an OHC reduces the OHC users' emotional distress and therefore improves their emotional well-being.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate how community attachment to an OHC reduces the OHC users' emotional distress and therefore improves their emotional well-being.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey study was conducted in one of the largest online health communities (OHC) for people with diabetes.

Findings

OHC participants are likely to experience reduced emotional distress when they have developed an attachment to the community. This attachment is, in turn, positively associated with the normative expectations of reciprocity and the affective feeling of gratitude. However, some commonly used behavioral measures of community participation, such as visit frequency and membership tenure, have little to do with either community attachment or reduced emotional distress.

Research limitations/implications

The research highlights the pivotal role of community attachment in appraising the much-debated benefits of OHCs. However, the cross-sectional survey study has its limitations in terms of establishing causality.

Practical implications

OHC managers need to look beyond some of the commonly used metrics, such as monthly visits and number of new postings, and focus on fostering a sense of attachment among existing users in order to fulfill the OHC's potential of emotional support. Our study implies that design features facilitating reciprocation and gratitude expression among users can lead to a strong emotional bond.

Originality/value

This is one of the first studies on the antecedents of community attachment and the relationship between community attachment and emotional distress in the context of OHC.

Details

Information Technology & People, vol. 34 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-3845

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 August 2016

Abhigyan Sarkar, Juhi Gahlot Sarkar and K.S. Venu Gopal Rao

The purpose of this qualitative study is to explore the antecedents and consequences of hospital brand attachment and associated intervening factors amongst patients and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this qualitative study is to explore the antecedents and consequences of hospital brand attachment and associated intervening factors amongst patients and attendants in the context of the emerging Indian market where the hospital industry has a heterogeneous structure consisting of state-owned and private hospitals.

Design/methodology/approach

Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted to collect data. Data were coded using the grounded theory method to explore and validate interrelationships between the constructs that emerged.

Findings

Based on the data analysis, a grounded theory framework has been developed, which recognizes hospital brand attachment as the central construct, and depicts its related antecedents, consequences and intervening or moderating factors.

Originality/value

The study contributes to the existing body of healthcare marketing research by having discovered actionable antecedents of hospital brand attachment that could help healthcare marketers in emerging markets to formulate branding strategies that strengthen the patient–hospital brand attachment relationships. Based on the concepts explored in this qualitative study, it has been put forth that the concept of brand love or brand attachment that is well-researched in the case of general consumer brands is also applicable in the case of hospital brands, without ignoring the specific idiosyncrasies of the hospital industry.

Details

Journal of Asia Business Studies, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1558-7894

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 September 2013

Rodoula H. Tsiotsou

Given its importance in the brand management of sport teams, the present research initiative primarily concerns the investigation of the formation process of sport team…

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Abstract

Purpose

Given its importance in the brand management of sport teams, the present research initiative primarily concerns the investigation of the formation process of sport team loyalty. By integrating a hierarchy of effects model into a relational perspective, the study aims to investigate the role of sport consumers' involvement, self-expression, trust and attachment with a sport team in building loyal relationships. A conceptual model is proposed and tested in the context of professional soccer teams.

Design/methodology/approach

The data of the study comes from 287 consumers of a South East European country. The fit of the model is tested using structural equation modeling and the statistical program LISREL.

Findings

The results confirm that: all the hypothesized constructs constitute either direct or indirect determinants of sport team loyalty; a hierarchy of effects approach, cognition-affect-conation, can explain how strong consumers-team relationships can be developed; and team attachment acts as a partial mediator in the relationship between the cognitive components of the model (team involvement, trust and self-expression) and team loyalty.

Practical implications

The findings provide several implications to marketing managers of sport teams in how to go about and develop loyal sport fans.

Originality/value

No previous investigation has integrated relationship marketing with a hierarchy of effects in order to explain loyalty to a sport team.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 27 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 September 2005

Venkat R. Krishnan

To show that relationship duration enhances the effect of transformational leadership on follower's terminal value system congruence and identification (cognitive…

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Abstract

Purpose

To show that relationship duration enhances the effect of transformational leadership on follower's terminal value system congruence and identification (cognitive outcomes), but not on attachment and affective commitment (affective outcomes).

Design/methodology/approach

Data for this study were collected from the principal and 144 teachers of a prominent high school in western India. The principal and the teachers answered the value survey. The teachers also answered questions on transformational leadership and outcomes.

Findings

The positive effect of transformational leadership on the outcomes is enhanced by the duration of relationship between leader and follower in the case of congruence and identification, but not in the case of attachment and affective commitment.

Research limitations/implications

The entire sample of teacher‐respondents had a common leader (the school principal); this study needs to be replicated across a larger set of leaders to confirm the findings.

Practical implications

Transformational leaders, by spending more time with followers, would be able to change their cognitive framework including value systems and identities. On the other hand, time spent with a follower may not make any difference when it comes to enhancing affective outcomes.

Originality/value

Burns distinguished between heroes (emotion‐based) and ideologues (values‐based). The leadership that stops only at the hero level and does not proceed to the ideological level is pseudo‐transformational. This study demonstrates the role of relationship duration in leaders becoming heroes or ideologues. Transformational leadership is not complete without the enduring change in values and identities.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 26 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 December 2021

Crystal T. Lee, Ling-Yen Pan and Sara H. Hsieh

This study investigates the determinants of effective human and artificial intelligence (AI) relationship-building strategies for brands. It explores the antecedents and…

Abstract

Purpose

This study investigates the determinants of effective human and artificial intelligence (AI) relationship-building strategies for brands. It explores the antecedents and consequences of consumers' interactant satisfaction with communication and identifies ways to enhance consumer purchase intention via AI chatbot promotion.

Design/methodology/approach

Microsoft Xiaoice served as the focal AI chatbot, and 331 valid samples were obtained. A two-stage structural equation modeling-artificial neural network approach was adopted to verify the proposed theoretical model.

Findings

Regarding the IQ (intelligence quotient) and EQ (emotional quotient) of AI chatbots, the multi-dimensional social support model helps explain consumers' interactant satisfaction with communication, which facilitates affective attachment and purchase intention. The results also show that chatbots should emphasize emotional and esteem social support more than informational support.

Practical implications

Brands should focus more on AI chatbots' emotional and empathetic responses than functional aspects when designing dialogue content for human–AI interactions. Well-designed AI chatbots can help marketers develop effective brand promotion strategies.

Originality/value

This research enriches the human–AI interaction literature by adopting a multi-dimensional social support theoretical lens that can enhance the interactant satisfaction with communication, affective attachment and purchase intention of AI chatbot users.

Details

Internet Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 November 2021

Ngoc Lan Nguyen

Applying social commitments theory, this paper aims to study the effect of shared responsibility as a structural characteristic of project teams to foster tacit knowledge…

Abstract

Purpose

Applying social commitments theory, this paper aims to study the effect of shared responsibility as a structural characteristic of project teams to foster tacit knowledge sharing with the mediating role of affective bonding. Besides, the moderating effect of normative conformity is also examined.

Design/methodology/approach

The quantitative method was applied through surveying senior auditors representing 263 audit teams in Vietnam to examine the model.

Findings

This study found that in the joint projects, when team members perceive high shared responsibility for both success and failure, the affective bonding among them are generated. The affective bonding becomes salient to tacit knowledge sharing only when the team members perceive high obligations to conform the general knowledge sharing norms and the serial reciprocity norms.

Originality/value

This study provides the evidence for partial confirmation and expansion of the social commitments theory. The practical takeaways are provided for managers of project-based organizations in the social aspects for facilitating sharing culture.

Details

VINE Journal of Information and Knowledge Management Systems, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5891

Keywords

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