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Article
Publication date: 13 June 2023

Ejaz Aslam, Aziz Ur Rehman and Anam Iqbal

The purpose of this study is to investigate the mediating role of intellectual capital (IC) on the association between corporate governance mechanism (CGM) and the financial…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the mediating role of intellectual capital (IC) on the association between corporate governance mechanism (CGM) and the financial efficiency of Islamic banks (Z-score, net investment income and loan to deposit) and verify it through standard mediation in the panel based on interaction.

Design/methodology/approach

The data of this study draws from 125 full-fledged Islamic banks and windows from 26 Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) over the period of 2009 to 2019. A two-step system generalize method of moment estimation is used to test the hypotheses.

Findings

The results underwrite that the inclusion of IC as a mediating variable has influenced positively the corporate governance and financial efficiency of IBs. Besides, only CEO power and Shariah supervisory board positively affect the financial efficiency of IBs. While structural capital and relational capital positively affect the financial efficiency of IBs. Apart from that, results show that the CGM has a significant relationship with the IC value of IBs.

Research limitations/implications

These findings are valuable for policymakers and regulators to set policies to improve CG structure and effective use of IC resources to improve banking efficiency. Additionally, findings might be helpful for the bankers to proficiently use the IC as a premise to plan new strategies to get an upper hand in financial performance.

Originality/value

This study extends and contributes to the current literature by analysing the role of IC along with CG to boost the financial efficiency of banks in OIC countries.

Details

Corporate Governance: The International Journal of Business in Society, vol. 24 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-0701

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 July 2021

Ejaz Aslam and Razali Haron

This paper aims to investigate the impact of corporate governance and other related factors on the risk-taking of Islamic banks. Risk-taking is defined according to credit risk…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the impact of corporate governance and other related factors on the risk-taking of Islamic banks. Risk-taking is defined according to credit risk, liquidity risk and operational risk.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses the two step system generalized method of moment (2SYS-GMM) estimation technique by using a panel data set of 129 Islamic banks (IBs) from 29 countries in the Middle East, South Asia and the Southeast Asia regions covering from 2008 to 2017. Governance variables incorporated include board size, board independence, chief executive officer (CEO) power, Shariah board and audit committee, as well as other control variables.

Findings

This study provides evidence that board size and Shariah board are positively and significantly related to credit and liquidity risk. Board independence and CEO power are negative and significantly associated with credit and liquidity risk, but the audit committee has a mixed relationship with bank risk. Male CEOs take more risk compared to the female and more board meeting has an inverse relationship with Islamic banks risk. Bank size, however, does not influence the level of risk in Islamic banks, but leverage has an inverse relationship with bank risk.

Research limitations/implications

The present study sheds light on the risk-taking behaviour of the board of IBs, particularly the board independence and CEO power reducing the level of risk in IBs thereby contributing to the agency theory. Therefore, regulators and policymakers can use the findings of this study to strengthen the internal corporate governance mechanism to protect IBs at a time of financial distress. Moreover, it increases the trust of the shareholders and stakeholders in the effectiveness of governance reforms that have been pursued to reap long-term benefits.

Originality/value

To the best of the knowledge, this research is preliminary in examining the board behaviour on risk-taking of IBs from four different regions. The results are robust and suggest that the board of directors mitigate the level of risk in IBs.

Details

Corporate Governance: The International Journal of Business in Society, vol. 21 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-0701

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 November 2020

Ejaz Aslam and Razali Haron

The existing literature asserted that the Islamic banking industry progress significantly, but it has increasingly found asset deficient which assaulted the performance of Islamic…

1202

Abstract

Purpose

The existing literature asserted that the Islamic banking industry progress significantly, but it has increasingly found asset deficient which assaulted the performance of Islamic banks (IBs). The aim of this study to examine the mediating role of intellectual capital (IC) on the relationship between corporate governance (CG) mechanisms and IBs performance is examined (ATO, NPM).

Design/methodology/approach

A panel sample of 129 IBs is drawn from the 29 organisation of Islamic cooperation (OIC) countries from 2008 to 2017. Two-step system generalized method of moments (2SYS-GMM) was used to account for the unobserved endogeneity and heteroscedasticity problem.

Findings

The empirical findings demonstrate that there is a significant impact of the CG mechanism on IC. Moreover, the empirical findings indicate that CG has a direct influence on banking performance but it affects indirectly through IC. IC also appears to have a mediation role in the relationship between the CG mechanism and the performance of IBs.

Research limitations/implications

As the empirical research on IC from CG point of view in Islamic banking is generally new in the banking literature, the output of this research will contribute to the building up of empirical framework and practices regarding IC in the Islamic banking industry by using the resource-based theory as a leading theory and agency theory as a sub theory. It is anticipated that this study provided a superior comprehensive discussion of the IC in IBs across OIC countries which discovers the CG mechanism to influence the IC to improve banking performance.

Practical implications

This study offers useful insights to the regulators and practitioners to draw the rules and regulations in improving the CG mechanism and the effectiveness of internal controls by acknowledging the importance of IC in Islamic banking institutions. Particularly, the findings of this study may be of benefit to bankers to efficiently use the IC as a premise to design new and creative strategies to achieve a competitive advantage in the banking industry.

Originality/value

The study is unique in its nature because it presents a successful model for IBs to concentrate more on the role of IC in enhancing banking performance, which might be used by the banks to rearrange the roles within CG, to place their priorities regarding the internal governance system and financial plans for competency enhancement.

Details

Corporate Governance: The International Journal of Business in Society, vol. 21 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-0701

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 July 2020

Ejaz Aslam and Razali Haron

Corporate governance plays a significant role to overcome agency issues and develop the culture of transparency and openness. In this context, this paper aims to examine how…

1563

Abstract

Purpose

Corporate governance plays a significant role to overcome agency issues and develop the culture of transparency and openness. In this context, this paper aims to examine how corporate governance mechanisms affect the performance of Islamic banks (IBs).

Design/methodology/approach

Stepwise, two-step system generalize method of moment estimation technique is used in the analysis in which control variables are added into the model sequentially. This study used data on 129 IBs from 29 Islamic countries (Middle East, South Asia and Southeast Asia) during the period of 2008 to 2017.

Findings

The findings suggest that the audit committee (AUDC) and Shariah board (SB) have positive impact on the performance of IBs (return on assets and return on equity). However, board size and risk management committee have negative and significant effect on the performance of IBs. CEO duality and non-executive directors have mixed relationship with the performance of IBs. These results support the argument that IBs need to improve their financial performance through appropriate governance mechanism.

Research limitations/implications

The findings of the study added a new dimension to the governance research that could be a valuable source of knowledge for policymakers and regulators to improve the existing governance mechanism for better performance of IBs.

Originality/value

The study fills the gap in the literature by addressing the issue of corporate governance on performance of IBs across countries. Agency theory is discussed to explain the relationship between corporate governance mechanism and performance.

Details

Corporate Governance: The International Journal of Business in Society, vol. 20 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-0701

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 21 September 2020

Ejaz Aslam and Razali Haron

The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of corporate governance (CG) on intellectual capital efficiency (ICE) in Islamic banks (IBs) of Organisation of Islamic…

3136

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of corporate governance (CG) on intellectual capital efficiency (ICE) in Islamic banks (IBs) of Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) countries.

Design/methodology/approach

A sample of 129 IBs is drawn from the 29 OIC countries from 2008 to 2017. A two-step system of the generalised method of moments has been employed to account for the unobserved endogeneity and heteroscedasticity issue that arose due to time-variant and time-invariant variables.

Findings

The results revealed that CG measures, namely board size, non-executive directors do explain the extent and quality of ICE in the expected direction. In contrast, CEO duality, Shariah board and audit committee are negatively associated with the ICE. Moreover, the authors observed that male CEO in IBs has negative, but foreign ownership has a positive association with ICE in determining the extent of ICE in IBs. This study contributes specifically to the stakeholder theory and the literature of ICE and CG.

Research limitations/implications

The findings of the study provide insight into how a larger board can overcome skill deficiency and how making more investment in ICE would help to enhance productivity. Hence, bank managers, regulators, policymakers and shareholders have strong interest in designing the appropriate CG structure to develop ICE in banks.

Originality/value

This is one of the few studies which provide empirical evidence of CG mechanism to boost the ICE in the perspective of IBs of the OIC countries.

Details

Asian Journal of Accounting Research, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2443-4175

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 9 June 2021

Aziz Ur Rehman, Ejaz Aslam and Anam Iqbal

This study aims to apply the extended theory of planned behaviour (ETPB) to investigate the factors influencing the intention to give zakāt on employment income.

3549

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to apply the extended theory of planned behaviour (ETPB) to investigate the factors influencing the intention to give zakāt on employment income.

Design/methodology/approach

This study draws the required data through a survey in three main cities Makkah, Medina and Jeddah in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The final data sample is consisting of 650 useable questionnaires to analyse the objective of this study.

Findings

The study finds that moral norm, injunctive norm, descriptive norm and past behaviour have a significant influence on the intention to pay zakāt on employment income. The perceived behavioural control and attitude have a negative and weak impact on the intention to give zakāt on income.

Research limitations/implications

The findings of this study can be useful for the policymakers and regulators to enhance peoples' awareness to give zakāt to eradicate poverty and inequality in Muslim societies. zakāt is for the deprived people, so the consequences of this study might help to improve their liveability.

Originality/value

This study is unique because it identified the behavioural factors that affect the peoples' intention to give zakāt in KSA have yet to be profoundly explored in the literature. This study has gathered primary data and applied the ETPB to identify the factors influencing the zakāt compliance behaviour in KSA.

Details

Islamic Economic Studies, vol. 29 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1319-1616

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 31 March 2022

Ejaz Aslam, Muhammad Saleem Ashraf and Anam Iqbal

The prime objective of this study is to examine the impact of sight cues and corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities of the Islamic banks on loyalty by improving the…

Abstract

Purpose

The prime objective of this study is to examine the impact of sight cues and corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities of the Islamic banks on loyalty by improving the corporate image (CI) of the Islamic banks. This study also examines the mediating effect of a CI along with moderating impact of religion and collectivism on loyalty.

Design/methodology/approach

The data were obtained through the purposive sampling method by distributing questionnaires among the customers of Islamic banks. A total of 550 questionnaires were surveyed from six full-fledged commercial Islamic banks and eight Islamic windows of the commercial bank in Pakistan using variance-based structural equation modelling (partial least squares) to test the hypothesis.

Findings

The results of the study reflected that sight cues and CSR activities have a significant impact on CI and keeping the customer’s loyalty. Additionally, religion and collectivism also moderate the relationship between CI and loyalty.

Research limitations/implications

From a managerial perspective, the study finding exhibits the significant effect, both directly and indirectly, of religiosity on the loyalty intention of the customers of Islamic banks. Hence, persuading the client that the bank is in complete compliance with (Shariah) will forestall their clients switching to another bank.

Originality/value

This study is unique in its nature because it revealed the factors that lead to customer loyalty towards Islamic banks. The study found sight cues and CSR are the new indicators used to build CIs of Islamic banks.

Details

Journal of Islamic Marketing, vol. 14 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0833

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 11 January 2024

Ameni Ghenimi, Hasna Chaibi and Mohamed Ali Omri

The aim of this study is to conduct a comparative analysis between Islamic and conventional banks in terms of whether Islamic banks was more or less resilient/risky than…

1432

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this study is to conduct a comparative analysis between Islamic and conventional banks in terms of whether Islamic banks was more or less resilient/risky than conventional counterparts to the pandemic shock. It also examines the role of capital in improving the performance and stability within the two banking systems.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses 82 banks from MENA (Middle East and North Africa) region for periods across 2011–2020, and employs a dynamic panel data approach to examine the resilience within both banking systems during the Covid-19 pandemic.

Findings

The results show that the Covid-19 pandemic has a negative impact on conventional banks' stability. However, Islamic banks performed better and were less risky than conventional ones. Banks with high-quality capital are more effective at controlling their risks and improving their performance during the pandemic.

Practical implications

The results offer important financial observations and policy implications to many stakeholders engaging with banks. Actually, the findings of this study facilitate to the stakeholders and bankers to have an alluded picture about determinants of risk and performance. The results can be used by bankers’ policy decision-makers to improve and enhance their consideration for risk management, taking into consideration the type of banking systems.

Originality/value

Compared to the various studies on the stability of Islamic and conventional banks, researchers have not sufficiently addressed the effect of the Covid-19 pandemic on risk and performance. Moreover, none of these studies has examined if Islamic banks was more or less resilient/risky than conventional counterparts to the pandemic shock. This leads the authors to identify the similarities and differences between two types of banks in the MENA region in a pandemic shock context.

Details

Arab Gulf Journal of Scientific Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1985-9899

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 October 2022

Kristína Predanócyová, Peter Šedík and Elena Horská

The aim of this paper is to study attitudes and perception of Slovak consumers toward healthy food in terms of consumption, as well as to identify key factors during the…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to study attitudes and perception of Slovak consumers toward healthy food in terms of consumption, as well as to identify key factors during the purchasing process.

Design/methodology/approach

An online questionnaire survey was conducted using snowball sampling method in Slovakia (n = 1,138 respondents) between March and May 2021. By applying categorical principal component analysis, five latent factors were identified. Moreover, non-parametric tests (Chi-square test for independence, Kruskal–Wallis H test) were carried out to study differences between age cohorts.

Findings

Results showed that Slovak consumers mostly perceived as very healthy the following food categories: fruit, vegetables, honey, juices made of fruit and vegetables, fish meat or cereals, nuts and seeds. Moreover, research has identified five latent factors, which consumers mostly consider during purchase of healthy food as follows: price-marketing factor, information and composition factor, authenticity factor, quality factor and factor of motivation.

Originality/value

Research paper gives an important insight about consumer behavior and perception toward healthy food in Slovakia. Results provide valuable information for producers in terms of marketing and communication strategies. In addition, provided information can be used by policymakers for improving food policy to foster public health in the society.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 125 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 June 2023

Javed Aslam, Aqeela Saleem and Yun Bae Kim

This study aims to proposed that blockchain helps the organization improve supply chain (SC) performance by improving integration, agility and security through real-time…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to proposed that blockchain helps the organization improve supply chain (SC) performance by improving integration, agility and security through real-time information sharing, end-to-end visibility, transparency, data management, immutability, irrevocable information and cyber-security platforms.

Design/methodology/approach

This study has made an initial effort toward proposing a framework that shows the problems and challenges for the O&G SC under its segments (upstream, midstream and downstream) and provides the interlink among blockchain properties for SCM problems. SC managers were selected for survey questionnaires from the Pakistan O&G industries.

Findings

This study analyzes the impact of blockchain-enabled SC on firm performance with an understanding of the SC robustness capabilities as a mediator. The result revealed that the SC manager believes that the blockchain-enabled SC has a positive and significant on firm performance and robustness capabilities.

Research limitations/implications

Blockchain technology is reflected as high-tech to support the firm process, responses and methods. The technology helps eliminate bottlenecks, avoid uncertainties and improve decision-making, leading to improved SC functions. This study guides managers about the potential problems of existing SC and how blockchain solves SC problems more effectively.

Originality/value

The oil and gas (O&G) sectors are neglected by researchers, and there are limited studies on O&G supply chain management (SCM). Additionally, no empirical evidence suggests implementing blockchain for O&G as a solution for potential problems. Furthermore, present the roadmap to other industries those having complex SC networks for the implication of blockchain to improve the SC performance.

Details

Business Process Management Journal, vol. 29 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-7154

Keywords

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