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Book part
Publication date: 26 July 2008

Morton I. Kamien and Israel Zang

The possibility of an established firm repelling a newcomer's cost reducing technical advances by providing the newcomer access to its currently superior technology, is…

Abstract

The possibility of an established firm repelling a newcomer's cost reducing technical advances by providing the newcomer access to its currently superior technology, is explored. The oldtimer is supposed to offer his technology in return for the newcomer either ceasing R&D or sharing her findings. It is found that newcomers with the R&D potential to drive the oldtimer out of business cannot be coopted, but that less potent newcomers can. Whenever newcomers are deterred, the product price is higher and technical advance lower than it would be in the absence of a deal.

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The Economics of Innovation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-444-53255-8

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Article
Publication date: 20 June 2008

Brendan O'Dwyer and Mary Canning

The purpose of this paper is to examine the operation of the Institute of Chartered Accountants in Ireland's (ICAI) complaint process from the complainant's perspective…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the operation of the Institute of Chartered Accountants in Ireland's (ICAI) complaint process from the complainant's perspective. The findings are interpreted drawing on key elements of Parker's private interest model of professional accounting ethics, particularly the private interest roles of professional authority and professional insulation.

Design/methodology/approach

The primary evidence used is drawn from numerous sources. These include: extensive “private” documentation comprising original correspondence between the complainant in the case examined (or his advisors) and various representatives of the ICAI spanning a five‐year period; detailed supporting documentation included with this correspondence; Independent Experts' Reports on the complaints submitted; and in‐depth interviews with the complainant prior to, during, and post the examination of the documentary evidence.

Findings

The paper reveals how high levels of professional authority and professional insulation worked in tandem to prevent complaints entering the complaint process and deny the complainant reasons for decisions taken. It demonstrates how a key structural barrier in the complaint process, the screening role of the professional accounting body's secretary, created a complainant impression of a process concerned primarily with protecting members' interests. Subsequent to complaint process changes, an erosion of professional insulation is unveiled. However, this proves fleeting and, in response to persistent complainant challenges to heightened demonstrations of professional authority, the degree of professional insulation intensifies further.

Research limitations/implications

The paper focuses on a specific case where the complainant was dissatisfied with the ICAI's procedures. It reveals the extent to which complainants using professional body complaints procedures may, often by virtue of the structures in place, feel that profession protection motives are overriding purported concerns for society protection.

Originality/value

The paper extends and advances the literature examining professional accounting body disciplinary and complaint procedures. Prior research investigating the operation of these procedures has neglected to examine complaint processes in depth to inform their evaluations, particularly from the perspective of potential users of these processes.

Details

Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, vol. 21 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3574

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Book part
Publication date: 17 March 2010

Anna Gunnthorsdottir, Roumen Vragov and Jianfei Shen

Purpose and approach – We examine theoretically and experimentally how unequal abilities to contribute affect incentives and efficiency when players compete for membership…

Abstract

Purpose and approach – We examine theoretically and experimentally how unequal abilities to contribute affect incentives and efficiency when players compete for membership in stratified groups based on the contributions they make. Players have either a low or a high endowment. Once assigned to a group based on their group contribution, players share equally in their group’s collective output. Depending on the parameters, the mechanism has several distinct equilibria that differ in efficiency.

Findings – Somewhat counter to conventional expectation our theoretical analysis indicates that as long as certain assumptions are satisfied, efficiency increases rather than decreases the more abilities to contribute differ. The analysis also suggests various follow-up experiments about equilibrium selection, tacit coordination, and the effect of unequal abilities in systems with endogenous grouping. We conduct an experiment that shows that subjects tacitly coordinate the mechanism’s asymmetric payoff-dominant equilibrium with precision; this precision is robust to a change in the structure and complexity of the game.

Implications – The results suggest that people respond to merit-based grouping in a natural way and that competitive contribution-based grouping encourages public contributions even when abilities to contribute differ, which is the case in all communities and societies.

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Charity with Choice
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-768-4

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1998

Mitsuhiro Imaizumi, Kazumi Yasui and Toshio Nakagawa

A large number of microprocessors (μPs) have been widely used in many practical fields and the demand for improvement of their reliabilities have recently increased…

Abstract

A large number of microprocessors (μPs) have been widely used in many practical fields and the demand for improvement of their reliabilities have recently increased. Watchdog processors (WDPs) are small and simple coprocessors that can detect errors by monitoring the behavior of μPs. This paper formulates three reliability models of μP systems with WDPs: model 1 considers the system where a main processor (MPu) has n WDPs with self checking. Next, model 2 considers the system with upper limit number of resets. Further, model 3 discusses the system with limit processing time. The expected costs of each model are derived and the optimal policies which minimize them are discussed analytically. Finally, the numerical examples are given.

Details

Journal of Quality in Maintenance Engineering, vol. 4 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2511

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Article
Publication date: 30 September 2021

Wooje Cho, Woojung Chang and Dongryul Lee

In responding to competitors' strategic choices, firms must choose whether to allocate their customer relationship management (CRM) resources primarily to retaining…

Abstract

Purpose

In responding to competitors' strategic choices, firms must choose whether to allocate their customer relationship management (CRM) resources primarily to retaining existing customers or to acquiring new customers. To address this critical but understudied question, the authors examine the strategic choices of two competing firms between retention- and acquisition-focused strategies in consideration of switching costs, technological advancement level, and market share.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors develop and analyze a game-theoretic model to investigate the strategic choices of two competing firms between retention- and acquisition-focused strategies.

Findings

When switching costs are high, findings show that when the degree of technological advancement is high (low), both firms should employ acquisition-focused (retention-focused) strategies to maximize their profits. When switching costs are low and there are a low degree of technological advancement and asymmetric market shares, the firms choose retention-focused strategies in equilibrium, but only the firm with the higher market share can maximize its profit. When switching costs are low, technological advancement levels are high, and the market shares are asymmetric, the firm with the higher market share chooses a retention-focused CRM strategy, while the rival with lower market share adopts an acquisition-focused strategy in equilibrium. However, neither firm can maximize its profits.

Originality/value

Prior research focused on a single firm's price discrimination decision without considering a competitor's strategic choice. To address this research gap, the authors examine where firms should assign their CRM resources (retention vs. acquisition) in response to a competitor's CRM strategy. This study provides guidance for optimal decision-making regarding a firm's CRM resource allocation in a duopoly market.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Article
Publication date: 31 May 2021

Shiang-Wuu Perng, Horng Wen Wu and Jun-Kuan Wu

The purpose of this study is to promote laminar heat transfer from the channel heated through a slab with slits and inclined ribs protruding across.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to promote laminar heat transfer from the channel heated through a slab with slits and inclined ribs protruding across.

Design/methodology/approach

The novel design of this study is performed through making the slits in the slab (C1–C3: with slits; C4–C6: without slits) and changing the vertical location of this slab (1/4, 1/2 and 3/4 channel height). The thermal fluid characteristics of all cases are analyzed for various Reynolds numbers (500, 1,000, 1,500 and 2,000) by the SIMPLE-C algorithm.

Findings

The results display that the ribbed slab effectively improves the heat transfer. The slits can modify the flow field in the vortexes around the inclined ribs and remove more heat from this zone to promote the heat transfer. As compared with C0 (without a slab), C2 (the slab with slits and inclined ribs protruding across located vertically on the 3/4 channel height) raises the averaged Nusselt number up to 27.7% at Re = 2,000. As compared with C4 (without slits), C1 (with slits) gains the maximum increase in the averaged Nusselt number by 5.07% at Re = 1,000.

Research limitations/implications

The constant thermo-physical properties of incompressible fluid and the steady flow are considered in this study.

Practical implications

The numerical results will profit the design of heated passageway using a slab with slits and inclined ribs protruding across to acquire better heat transfer promotion.

Originality/value

This slab with slits and inclined ribs protruding across can be applied to the heat transfer promotion and thus be viewed as a useful cooling mechanism in the thermal engineering.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

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Book part
Publication date: 1 April 2006

Koji Shimomura

Constructing a simple dynamic North–South model in which factors of production are internationally immobile and there is no international credit market, it is possible…

Abstract

Constructing a simple dynamic North–South model in which factors of production are internationally immobile and there is no international credit market, it is possible that a persistent and unilateral foreign aid makes both North and South better off. We also show that the Pareto-improving transfer involves local indeterminacy.

Details

Theory and Practice of Foreign Aid
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-444-52765-3

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Book part
Publication date: 26 October 2017

Virginia M. Miori, Kathleen Campbell Garwood and Catherine Cardamone

This is the second in a series of papers focused on alcohol and substance abuse rehabilitation centers. Centers face the ongoing challenge of validating outcomes to meet…

Abstract

This is the second in a series of papers focused on alcohol and substance abuse rehabilitation centers. Centers face the ongoing challenge of validating outcomes to meet the burden of evidence for insurance companies. In the first paper, data mining was used to establish baseline patterns in treatment success rates, for the Futures: Palm Beach Rehabilitation Center, that have a direct impact on a client’s ability to receive insurance coverage for treatment programs. In this paper, we examine 2016 outcomes and report on facility efficacy, alumni progression and sobriety, and forecast treatment success rates (short and long term) in support of client insurability. Data collection has been standardized and includes admissions data, electronic medical records data, satisfaction survey data, post-discharge survey data, Centers for Disease Control (CDC) data, and demographic data. Clustering, partitioning, ANOVA, stepwise regression and stepwise Logistic regression are applied to the data to determine statistically significant drivers of treatment success.

Details

Advances in Business and Management Forecasting
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-069-3

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Article
Publication date: 3 June 2020

Mehmet Burak Şenol

In this study, a multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) approach for evaluating airworthiness factors were presented. The purpose of this study is to develop an acceptable…

Abstract

Purpose

In this study, a multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) approach for evaluating airworthiness factors were presented. The purpose of this study is to develop an acceptable rationale for operational activities in civil and military aviation and for design, production and maintenance activities in the aviation industry that can be used in-flight safety programs and evaluations.

Design/methodology/approach

In aviation, while the initial and continuing airworthiness of aircraft is related to technical airworthiness, identifying and minimizing risks for avoiding losses and damages are related to operational airworthiness. Thus, the airworthiness factors in civil and military aviation were evaluated under these two categories as the technical and operational airworthiness factors by the analytic hierarchy process and analytic network process. Three technical and five operational airworthiness criteria for civil aviation, three technical and nine operational airworthiness criteria for military aviation were defined, evaluated, prioritized and compared in terms of flight safety.

Findings

The most important technical factor is the “airworthiness status of the aircraft” both in civil (81.9%) and military (77.6%) aviation, which means that aircraft should initially be designed for safety. The most significant operational factors are the “air traffic control system” in civil (30.9%) and “threat” in the military (26.6%) aviation. The differences within factor weights may stem from the design requirements and acceptable safety levels (frequency of occurrences 1 in 107 in military and 1 in 109 in civil aircraft design) of civil and military aircraft with the mission achievement requirements in civil and military aviation operations. The damage acceptance criteria for civil and military aircraft are different. The operation risks are accepted in the military and acceptance of specific tasks and the risk levels can vary with aircraft purpose and type.

Practical implications

This study provides an acceptable rationale for safety programs and evaluations in aviation activities. The results of this study can be used in real-world airworthiness applications and safety management by the aviation industry and furthermore, critical factor weights should be considered both in civil and military aviation operations and flights. The safety levels of airlines with respect to our airworthiness factor weights or the safety level of military operations can be computed.

Originality/value

This is the first study considering technical and operational airworthiness factors as an MCDM problem. Originality and value of this paper are defining critical airworthiness factors for civil and military aviation, ranking these factors, revealing the most important ones and using MCDM methods for the evaluations of airworthiness factors for the first time. In civil aviation flight safety is the basic tenet of airworthiness activities in risk analysis, on the other hand in military aviation high levels of risks are to be avoided in peace training or operational tasks. However, even high risks have to be accepted during the war, if the operational requirements impose, as mission achievement is vital. The paper is one of a kind on airworthiness evaluations for flight safety.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 92 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1995

James J. Divoky and Richard W. Taylor

Examines trend rules in conjunction with other well‐knownsupplementary runs rules to assess their impact when used in controlcharting. Focuses on a set of 613 trend rules…

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Abstract

Examines trend rules in conjunction with other well‐known supplementary runs rules to assess their impact when used in control charting. Focuses on a set of 613 trend rules deemed as potential candidates to increase the sensitivity of the control chart. The examined rules are viewed in the light of a stable environment, which determines the false alarm rate, and then in an environment in which the process mean is subjected to drift. Results indicate that there are subsets of trend rules that aid in the detection of out‐of‐control conditions depending on the severity of the drift and the number of zonal‐based supplementary runs rules used.

Details

International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-671X

Keywords

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