The possibility of an established firm repelling a newcomer's cost reducing technical advances by providing the newcomer access to its currently superior technology, is explored. The oldtimer is supposed to offer his technology in return for the newcomer either ceasing R&D or sharing her findings. It is found that newcomers with the R&D potential to drive the oldtimer out of business cannot be coopted, but that less potent newcomers can. Whenever newcomers are deterred, the product price is higher and technical advance lower than it would be in the absence of a deal.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the operation of the Institute of Chartered Accountants in Ireland's (ICAI) complaint process from the complainant's perspective…
The purpose of this paper is to examine the operation of the Institute of Chartered Accountants in Ireland's (ICAI) complaint process from the complainant's perspective. The findings are interpreted drawing on key elements of Parker's private interest model of professional accounting ethics, particularly the private interest roles of professional authority and professional insulation.
The primary evidence used is drawn from numerous sources. These include: extensive “private” documentation comprising original correspondence between the complainant in the case examined (or his advisors) and various representatives of the ICAI spanning a five‐year period; detailed supporting documentation included with this correspondence; Independent Experts' Reports on the complaints submitted; and in‐depth interviews with the complainant prior to, during, and post the examination of the documentary evidence.
The paper reveals how high levels of professional authority and professional insulation worked in tandem to prevent complaints entering the complaint process and deny the complainant reasons for decisions taken. It demonstrates how a key structural barrier in the complaint process, the screening role of the professional accounting body's secretary, created a complainant impression of a process concerned primarily with protecting members' interests. Subsequent to complaint process changes, an erosion of professional insulation is unveiled. However, this proves fleeting and, in response to persistent complainant challenges to heightened demonstrations of professional authority, the degree of professional insulation intensifies further.
The paper focuses on a specific case where the complainant was dissatisfied with the ICAI's procedures. It reveals the extent to which complainants using professional body complaints procedures may, often by virtue of the structures in place, feel that profession protection motives are overriding purported concerns for society protection.
The paper extends and advances the literature examining professional accounting body disciplinary and complaint procedures. Prior research investigating the operation of these procedures has neglected to examine complaint processes in depth to inform their evaluations, particularly from the perspective of potential users of these processes.
Purpose and approach – We examine theoretically and experimentally how unequal abilities to contribute affect incentives and efficiency when players compete for membership…
Purpose and approach – We examine theoretically and experimentally how unequal abilities to contribute affect incentives and efficiency when players compete for membership in stratified groups based on the contributions they make. Players have either a low or a high endowment. Once assigned to a group based on their group contribution, players share equally in their group’s collective output. Depending on the parameters, the mechanism has several distinct equilibria that differ in efficiency.
Findings – Somewhat counter to conventional expectation our theoretical analysis indicates that as long as certain assumptions are satisfied, efficiency increases rather than decreases the more abilities to contribute differ. The analysis also suggests various follow-up experiments about equilibrium selection, tacit coordination, and the effect of unequal abilities in systems with endogenous grouping. We conduct an experiment that shows that subjects tacitly coordinate the mechanism’s asymmetric payoff-dominant equilibrium with precision; this precision is robust to a change in the structure and complexity of the game.
Implications – The results suggest that people respond to merit-based grouping in a natural way and that competitive contribution-based grouping encourages public contributions even when abilities to contribute differ, which is the case in all communities and societies.
A large number of microprocessors (μPs) have been widely used in many practical fields and the demand for improvement of their reliabilities have recently increased…
A large number of microprocessors (μPs) have been widely used in many practical fields and the demand for improvement of their reliabilities have recently increased. Watchdog processors (WDPs) are small and simple coprocessors that can detect errors by monitoring the behavior of μPs. This paper formulates three reliability models of μP systems with WDPs: model 1 considers the system where a main processor (MPu) has n WDPs with self checking. Next, model 2 considers the system with upper limit number of resets. Further, model 3 discusses the system with limit processing time. The expected costs of each model are derived and the optimal policies which minimize them are discussed analytically. Finally, the numerical examples are given.
In this study, a multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) approach for evaluating airworthiness factors were presented. The purpose of this study is to develop an acceptable…
In this study, a multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) approach for evaluating airworthiness factors were presented. The purpose of this study is to develop an acceptable rationale for operational activities in civil and military aviation and for design, production and maintenance activities in the aviation industry that can be used in-flight safety programs and evaluations.
In aviation, while the initial and continuing airworthiness of aircraft is related to technical airworthiness, identifying and minimizing risks for avoiding losses and damages are related to operational airworthiness. Thus, the airworthiness factors in civil and military aviation were evaluated under these two categories as the technical and operational airworthiness factors by the analytic hierarchy process and analytic network process. Three technical and five operational airworthiness criteria for civil aviation, three technical and nine operational airworthiness criteria for military aviation were defined, evaluated, prioritized and compared in terms of flight safety.
The most important technical factor is the “airworthiness status of the aircraft” both in civil (81.9%) and military (77.6%) aviation, which means that aircraft should initially be designed for safety. The most significant operational factors are the “air traffic control system” in civil (30.9%) and “threat” in the military (26.6%) aviation. The differences within factor weights may stem from the design requirements and acceptable safety levels (frequency of occurrences 1 in 107 in military and 1 in 109 in civil aircraft design) of civil and military aircraft with the mission achievement requirements in civil and military aviation operations. The damage acceptance criteria for civil and military aircraft are different. The operation risks are accepted in the military and acceptance of specific tasks and the risk levels can vary with aircraft purpose and type.
This study provides an acceptable rationale for safety programs and evaluations in aviation activities. The results of this study can be used in real-world airworthiness applications and safety management by the aviation industry and furthermore, critical factor weights should be considered both in civil and military aviation operations and flights. The safety levels of airlines with respect to our airworthiness factor weights or the safety level of military operations can be computed.
This is the first study considering technical and operational airworthiness factors as an MCDM problem. Originality and value of this paper are defining critical airworthiness factors for civil and military aviation, ranking these factors, revealing the most important ones and using MCDM methods for the evaluations of airworthiness factors for the first time. In civil aviation flight safety is the basic tenet of airworthiness activities in risk analysis, on the other hand in military aviation high levels of risks are to be avoided in peace training or operational tasks. However, even high risks have to be accepted during the war, if the operational requirements impose, as mission achievement is vital. The paper is one of a kind on airworthiness evaluations for flight safety.
Constructing a simple dynamic North–South model in which factors of production are internationally immobile and there is no international credit market, it is possible…
Constructing a simple dynamic North–South model in which factors of production are internationally immobile and there is no international credit market, it is possible that a persistent and unilateral foreign aid makes both North and South better off. We also show that the Pareto-improving transfer involves local indeterminacy.
This is the second in a series of papers focused on alcohol and substance abuse rehabilitation centers. Centers face the ongoing challenge of validating outcomes to meet…
This is the second in a series of papers focused on alcohol and substance abuse rehabilitation centers. Centers face the ongoing challenge of validating outcomes to meet the burden of evidence for insurance companies. In the first paper, data mining was used to establish baseline patterns in treatment success rates, for the Futures: Palm Beach Rehabilitation Center, that have a direct impact on a client’s ability to receive insurance coverage for treatment programs. In this paper, we examine 2016 outcomes and report on facility efficacy, alumni progression and sobriety, and forecast treatment success rates (short and long term) in support of client insurability. Data collection has been standardized and includes admissions data, electronic medical records data, satisfaction survey data, post-discharge survey data, Centers for Disease Control (CDC) data, and demographic data. Clustering, partitioning, ANOVA, stepwise regression and stepwise Logistic regression are applied to the data to determine statistically significant drivers of treatment success.
Examines trend rules in conjunction with other well‐knownsupplementary runs rules to assess their impact when used in controlcharting. Focuses on a set of 613 trend rules…
Examines trend rules in conjunction with other well‐known supplementary runs rules to assess their impact when used in control charting. Focuses on a set of 613 trend rules deemed as potential candidates to increase the sensitivity of the control chart. The examined rules are viewed in the light of a stable environment, which determines the false alarm rate, and then in an environment in which the process mean is subjected to drift. Results indicate that there are subsets of trend rules that aid in the detection of out‐of‐control conditions depending on the severity of the drift and the number of zonal‐based supplementary runs rules used.
Presents a repetitive group sampling plan for three‐attribute classes where items are classified into three categories, namely good, marginal and bad. Derives various…
Presents a repetitive group sampling plan for three‐attribute classes where items are classified into three categories, namely good, marginal and bad. Derives various performance characteristics of interest to quality control engineers and plan designers through the approach of the Graphic Evaluation and Review Technique (GERT). In order to facilitate the operation and construction of the plan, tabulates Poisson unity values for a useful subset of the proposed plan.
THE 28th International Air and Space Show at Le Bourget will be the largest yet held. One hundred and twenty‐five British companies will be taking part and this number…
THE 28th International Air and Space Show at Le Bourget will be the largest yet held. One hundred and twenty‐five British companies will be taking part and this number represents well over 90 per cent of the British aerospace industry's production and research capacity. The theme of British participants will be ‘Aerospace through the Seventies’ and displays will include illustrations of projects for the next decade, as well as current products and research programmes. The Salon has been organized so that each day will be devoted to emphasizing a particular aspect of aeronautical activity: 29th May Press Preview; 30th May Official Opening Day; 31st May Philatelists Day and Aerospace Orientation Day; 1st June General and Business Aviation; 2nd June Aeromedical Aviation; 3rd June Electronics Industry; 4th June Equipment Industry; 5th June Rotary Wing Industry and Special Steel Studies; 6th June Foreign Missions Day; 1th June International Flying Display; 8th June International Air Display. The Show will be open to the public every day from 9.30 a.m. to 6.30 p.m., except on Friday 6th June which will be Foreign Missions Day and admission will then be by invitation only.