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As students increasingly incur debt to finance their undergraduate education, there is heightened concern about the long-term implications of loans on borrowers…
As students increasingly incur debt to finance their undergraduate education, there is heightened concern about the long-term implications of loans on borrowers, especially borrowers from low socioeconomic backgrounds. Drawing upon the concepts of cultural capital and habitus (Bourdieu & Passeron, 1977), this research explores how student debt and social class intersect and affect individuals’ trajectory into adulthood. Based on 50 interviews with young adults who incurred $30,000–180,000 in undergraduate debt and who were from varying social classes, the findings are presented in terms of a categorization schema (income level by level of cultural capital) and a conceptual model of borrowing. The results illustrate the inequitable payoff that college and debt can have for borrowers with varying levels of cultural resources, with borrowers from low-income, low cultural capital backgrounds more likely to struggle throughout and after college with their loans.
Media characterizations of the state of higher education in America often seem bipolar. They emphasize either the accomplishments of the most successful elite schools or…
Media characterizations of the state of higher education in America often seem bipolar. They emphasize either the accomplishments of the most successful elite schools or the failures of colleges that are beset by problems and falling behind the performance of schools in other developed societies. A more complete understanding of higher education is obtained by embracing an organization field perspective, which recognizes the multiplicity of schools that exist – their varying origins, missions, structures, and performance metrics. This diversity is concretized by focusing on the evolving characteristics of colleges in one metropolitan region: the San Francisco Bay Area. The field perspective also calls attention to the support and governance systems that surround colleges and account for much of the stability of the field.
Organization fields are shaped by both isomorphic and competitive processes. Isomorphic processes have been dominant for many years, but now competitive processes are in ascendance. All fields are embedded in wider societal structures, and the field of higher education is richly connected in modern societies with the economic, stratification, and political spheres. Some of these interdependences reinforce within-field processes, some recast them, and still others disrupt them. The appearance of new technologies, new types of students, and changing work requirements have begun to unsettle traditional field structures and processes and encourage the development of new modes of organizing. Over time, the dominant professional mode of organizing higher education is being undercut and, in many types of colleges, supplanted by one based on market forces and managerial logics.
Can having more education than a job requires reduce one’s chances of being offered the job? We study this question in a sample of applications to jobs that are posted on…
Can having more education than a job requires reduce one’s chances of being offered the job? We study this question in a sample of applications to jobs that are posted on an urban Chinese website. We find that being overqualified in this way does not reduce the success rates of university-educated jobseekers applying to college-level jobs, but that it does hurt college-educated workers’ chances when applying to jobs requiring technical school, which involves three fewer years of education than college. Our results highlight a difficult situation faced by the recent large cohort of college-educated Chinese workers: They seem to fare poorly in the competition for jobs, both when pitted against more-educated university graduates and less-educated technical school graduates.
The community college model is evolving in the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam. During June 2009, 11 of the 12 existing higher education institutions with “community college…
The community college model is evolving in the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam. During June 2009, 11 of the 12 existing higher education institutions with “community college” in their official name were examined utilizing a qualitative multiple-case study approach. Data were collected in the field from June 1 to 23, 2009, while making visits to each of the 11 colleges, the Ministry of Education and Training (MOET), and the Vietnam Association of Community Colleges (VACC). Five data collection techniques were utilized to examine the bounded system: (a) semi-structured interviews, (b) survey of the college rectors, VACC informant and MOET informant, (c) participant observation with field notes, (d) document review, and (e) photographs taken during each site visit. After the field study stage, e-mail communication with the study informants between August 2009 and March 2010 clarified questions and developed a deeper level of understanding of the Vietnamese community college model. Results of the study (Epperson, 2010) indicate that although legislation does not exist to permanently establish the higher education institutions named community colleges, a community college model does exist and is in a state of evolution. The model can be defined by a set of core characteristics which emerged from the data. Five themes were particularly prominent: (a) public higher education institutions with community ownership at the provincial or city level, in conjunction with MOET oversight for academic matters; (b) multidisciplinary programs designed to meet the unique needs of the community; (c) multi-level certificates and diplomas conferred up through the college level (three year) of higher education and articulation agreements with universities enable students to earn a university bachelor's degree; (d) domestic and international partnerships are actively sought to develop social capital; (e) scientific and technological research based on community needs as required in the 2005 Education Law.
The purpose of this chapter is to expand our understanding of the types of Black families that are using Parent PLUS, the types of institutions that rely on Parent PLUS…
The purpose of this chapter is to expand our understanding of the types of Black families that are using Parent PLUS, the types of institutions that rely on Parent PLUS the most, and the outcomes of students who use Parent PLUS to finance their first year of college.
I used descriptive analyses on several datasets collected by the U.S. Department of Education: IPEDS, BPS:04/09, and NPSAS.
The data revealed that (a) of Parent PLUS borrowers, greater shares of low-income Black families are borrowing than White families; (b) many institutions that serve Black students (including HBCUs) give out small amounts of institutional aid but also have much smaller endowments than non-Black-serving institutions; and (c) many families who borrow in their first year stop borrowing in their second year – and of those who stop borrowing, many transfer institutions.
Serving as a starting point in the conversation to Black families borrowing PLUS, this study is not causal and is limited by the unavailability of student-level data on PLUS borrowers. Estimating from nationally representative studies and examining Black-serving institutions is the next-best approximation.
The efforts to standardize financial aid award letters and provide better consumer information to parents must also include PLUS. Moreover, we need to find sustainable solutions for PLUS-reliant institutions to increase their capacity to provide institutional aid.
This chapter contributes to conversation around a controversial financial aid product that has been largely understudied, and in particular for Black families who borrow PLUS at the highest rates.
The purpose of this paper is to describe the state of police education in California. There is limited national data on the topic and this study aims to improve our…
The purpose of this paper is to describe the state of police education in California. There is limited national data on the topic and this study aims to improve our knowledge by studying the state with the highest number of law enforcement officers in the USA.
A total of 162 local law enforcement agencies (police and sheriffs’ departments) in California completed a 32-question electronic survey about police education and training.
Findings reveal that California agencies are more likely than agencies nationwide to offer incentives to encourage officers to pursue higher education. Although most departments require only a high school diploma, 35 percent of sworn officers are college graduates. Most college-educated officers are employed by medium and large sized agencies in urban counties which pay above-average salaries.
This paper demonstrates how the prevalence of educated police officers varies and that higher education requirements do not adversely affect the hiring of female officers. It also provides insight from police managers regarding their concerns about requiring a four-year degree and perceptions of whether college-educated officers are actually better officers than non-college-educated officers.
Research findings may be instructive to police managers wanting to increase the number of sworn officers in their agency who hold a college degree.
It adds to the literature by describing the education level of police officers in California and providing information about the educational requirements and incentives offered to officers by law enforcement agencies. No previous study has addressed this topic, even though California employs 12 percent of all sworn peace officers in the USA.
Entrepreneurship in most cases can provide new products and services to the market and play an active role in an industry. Nowadays, colleges entrepreneurship education is…
Entrepreneurship in most cases can provide new products and services to the market and play an active role in an industry. Nowadays, colleges entrepreneurship education is becoming more of a “business incubator” for future entrepreneurship. This paper reviews the relative literature with entrepreneurship education in China and USA's colleges, aims to identify Chinese colleges' issues, then develops suggestions of Chinese colleges' entrepreneurship education and illustrated its future trends.
It revealed the theoretical framework of American main entrepreneurship education modes, analyzing three representative entrepreneurship modes in American colleges, its spirit, capability of innovation, entrepreneurship ability contribute to the basic frame of entrepreneurship education in American colleges, then by comparative research between American and Chinese colleges.
This paper is based on discussing the differences between US and Chinese colleges with entrepreneurship education as well as the enlightenment. Meanwhile, it was pointed out the disadvantages relating to our colleges' entrepreneurship education and its future trends.
By introducing the entrepreneurship modes of US colleges and analyzing the modes together with Chinese colleges entrepreneurship education, it draws out the conclusion to carry out practical activities and establish a good entrepreneurship environment, to strengthen teacher training in entrepreneurship education and entrepreneurial consultant team building and to deploy entrepreneurship research.
Teacher colleges played a significant role in the preparation of teachers for over 100 years in New Zealand. Teacher training colleges opened in the 1880s and served as…
Teacher colleges played a significant role in the preparation of teachers for over 100 years in New Zealand. Teacher training colleges opened in the 1880s and served as the main institutions for teacher preparation. Toward the end of the twentieth century, the plight of teachers’ colleges once again fell victim to the ‘decline and demand cycle’ for teachers. Fueled by discussions regarding the extent teacher training should be “practically based in the classroom”, new government directions and policy priorities for the preparation of the teaching workforce were implemented. All teacher colleges experienced either staged amalgamations or ultimate closure. In the late 1970s and 1980s, the preparation of teachers entered a new phase as the responsibility shifted to the university sector, which included the training of kindergarten teachers. While the policy rhetoric imagined this to be an amalgamation, the reality was a process fraught with a number of anxieties, not the least of which were the intellectual shifts.
This chapter presents the findings of a Gender and Leadership study on promoting gender responsiveness and equality in Ghanaian Colleges of Education (CoEs) conducted in…
This chapter presents the findings of a Gender and Leadership study on promoting gender responsiveness and equality in Ghanaian Colleges of Education (CoEs) conducted in 2017. Specifically, this chapter explores CoEs actors’ perspectives on and experiences with using predetermined gender-responsive scorecard (GRS) as a strategy for promoting gender equality within the CoEs. Multiple-case study involving 10 CoEs selected purposively was used to explore the GRS implementation. Data collection and analysis methods included semi-structured interviews and “processual” analysis. The findings revealed a general contradiction among respondents regarding which gender actions/strategies had been implemented in the case study CoEs. Nonetheless, amid reported implementation challenges, there was general acknowledgment of the importance of the GRS in running gender-responsive CoEs in Ghana. The study concludes that the effective use and implementation of the GRS strategies appear imperative in promoting female success in CoEs, not only in Ghana but also in contexts where gender gap is an issue in teacher education.