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Article
Publication date: 5 June 2017

Alistair Anderson and Sébastien Ronteau

The purpose of this paper is to examine the explanatory power of existing theories of entrepreneurship. The authors find gaps and fragmentation and offer propose a…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the explanatory power of existing theories of entrepreneurship. The authors find gaps and fragmentation and offer propose a different approach – a theory of entrepreneuring – a theory of practice.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a conceptual paper, but the authors draw heavily on the literature. They also offer examples of what the theory can offer.

Findings

Existing theory is good at explaining aspects of entrepreneurship. However, most theories are discipline bound and operate in silos. A theory of entrepreneurship practice can connect and bridge disciplines.

Originality/value

A theory of entrepreneurship as practice will not replace current theories. It will however complement them and thus be well suited to emerging economies.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4604

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Book part
Publication date: 24 May 2017

David Higgins and Deema Refai

The field of entrepreneurial education has struggled with fundamental questions in regards to the subject’s nature and purpose – to whom and for what means are educational…

Abstract

The field of entrepreneurial education has struggled with fundamental questions in regards to the subject’s nature and purpose – to whom and for what means are educational agendas ultimately directed; these questions have become of central importance to policy makers, practitioners and academics alike in the context of the dynamic nature of the business world. Concerns have been expressed about University Business schools engaging more critically with the lived experiences of practicing entrepreneurs through alternative pedagogical approaches and methods, seeking to account for and highlighting the social, political and moral aspect of management practice. For example, in the United Kingdom where funding in higher education has become increasingly dependent on student fees there are renewed pressures to educate students for management practice as opposed to educate them about management and what it does. This latter point will be the main focus of this workshop and one which demands the inclusion of critique. Government and EU policies are calling on Business Schools to develop and enhance entrepreneurial skill sets, in order to meet these challenges entrepreneurial focused education programs must be more proactive in providing innovative educational practices that helps and facilitates life experiences and experiential learning.

Details

Entrepreneurship Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-280-0

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Article
Publication date: 27 July 2017

Amon Simba and Nathanael Ojong

The purpose of this paper is to introduce a multi-layered theoretical framework to enable engaged scholarship to develop as a practice in entrepreneurship and small…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to introduce a multi-layered theoretical framework to enable engaged scholarship to develop as a practice in entrepreneurship and small business research. To do so, it illuminates the salient features of engaged scholarship, collaborative learning and actor-network theory (ANT).

Design/methodology/approach

The paper follows a narrative or traditional literature review design. Specifically, it adopts a thematic approach for summarising and synthesising a body of literature on engaged scholarship, collaborative learning and ANT with the view to develop a new multi-layered theoretical framework.

Findings

Applying the theory of engaged scholarship to pivot entrepreneurship/SME research provides scholars with an opportunity to unlock the theory vs practice paradox. Moreover, engaged scholarship offers valuable instructions for encouraging interactionism between entrepreneurship researchers and practitioners as well as reconcile their polarised views. Co-production and co-creation of knowledge addresses the concerns often raised by the practitioner community regarding the relevance and applicability of academic research to practice.

Practical implications

The proposed multi-layered framework provides entrepreneurship researchers, and the practitioner community with a taxonomy to use to encourage a joint approach to research. Developing deep partnerships between academics and practitioners can produce outcomes that satisfy the twin imperatives of scholarship that can be of high quality as well as a value to society.

Originality/value

The paper advances the theory and practice of engaged scholarship in new ways that are not common in entrepreneurship/SME research. This enables engaged scholarship to develop as a practice in entrepreneurship and small firms’ research. Through applying the proposed multi-layered framework in research, academics can deliver fully developed solutions for practical problems. The framework is useful in the theory vs practice and entrepreneurship researchers vs practitioner debates.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 24 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

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Book part
Publication date: 23 September 2005

Ronald K. Mitchell

Most of us believe that entrepreneurs are special. We do this because both scholars and practitioners tell us so.

Abstract

Most of us believe that entrepreneurs are special. We do this because both scholars and practitioners tell us so.

Details

International Entrepreneurship
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-227-6

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Article
Publication date: 16 November 2012

Luke Pittaway and Corina Edwards

The purpose of this paper is to develop knowledge about the nature of student assessment practice in entrepreneurship education.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop knowledge about the nature of student assessment practice in entrepreneurship education.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper introduces general assessment practice issues and highlights key considerations. It explains prior research on assessment practice in entrepreneurship education and argues that there is too little empirical research on the subject. Finally, it outlines a typology of entrepreneurship education that highlights variation between different: forms; learning outcomes; subjects; and, possible methods of assessment practice. The methodology for the study gathers data from course outlines (syllabi) and explains how these were collected and analysed.

Findings

The results show that educational practice in entrepreneurship education continues to be dominated by the “About” form and highlight that there are different cultures of assessment practice in the UK and the USA. The paper finds compelling evidence that different forms are using assessment in different ways.

Research limitations/implications

This paper identifies that there have been few studies exploring assessment practice in entrepreneurship education and argues that further research is required in this area. It also highlights a need for a focus on assessment practice in disciplines beyond the business school. The work demonstrates that further research could explore other stakeholders in the assessment process and seek to understand how these external assessors affect student learning.

Practical implications

In conclusion, the paper highlights that assessment generally needs to become more innovative, more reflective in nature and include more stakeholders in the process.

Originality/value

Understanding is enhanced because the paper explores what entrepreneurship educators actually “do” when they assess entrepreneurship education and, therefore, the research moves beyond prescriptive accounts and provides a detailed understanding of actual practice.

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Article
Publication date: 12 April 2013

Elena Ruskovaara and Timo Pihkala

This study aims to highlight the entrepreneurship education practices teachers use in their work. Another target is to analyze how these practices differ based on a number…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to highlight the entrepreneurship education practices teachers use in their work. Another target is to analyze how these practices differ based on a number of background factors.

Design/methodology/approach

This article presents a quantitative analysis of 521 teachers and other entrepreneurship education actors. The paper first examines the overall picture of entrepreneurship education practices. Then, after a factor analysis, the paper builds new sum measures of entrepreneurship education practices. Finally, the paper studies the teachers’ background information to further analyze the entrepreneurship education practices.

Findings

The findings provide information on which methods appear to be used the most frequently in basic and upper secondary education, and how these practices vary between different school levels. The results also indicate that the perception teachers have of their own entrepreneurship education skills is closely connected to the implementation of entrepreneurship education. Moreover, the findings present the connection between teacher training and the implementation of entrepreneurship education.

Originality/value

Teachers’ entrepreneurship education practices and related teaching and working methods are important in many respects. As research has primarily focused on higher education where the transferability of the results to basic and upper secondary education seems vague, this paper concentrates on the teachers’ role and especially their practices in lower education. The authors consider that their article has a special value in exploring and opening dialogue in this area.

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Book part
Publication date: 25 March 2021

Robert Smith

This chapter introduces the two main topics of ‘entrepreneurial policing’ and ‘criminal entrepreneurship’ and begins in Section 1.1 by considering the concept and scope of…

Abstract

This chapter introduces the two main topics of ‘entrepreneurial policing’ and ‘criminal entrepreneurship’ and begins in Section 1.1 by considering the concept and scope of entrepreneurial policing around which this monograph is organised. Its definition and ontological development are considered. Thereafter, the author briefly discuss what entrepreneurship is (and is not) and set out examples of entrepreneurship of interest to policing, including – ‘Corporate’ and ‘Team’ Entrepreneurship, ‘Intrapreneurship’, ‘Social Entrepreneurship and Animateurship’, ‘Civic Entrepreneurship’, and ‘Public Service Entrepreneurship’. The author then discusses why entrepreneurship is of critical importance to the police service and discuss worked examples. Having developed a basic understanding of the power and utility of entrepreneurship, then in more detail what the term entrepreneurial policing means and how it evolved in practice and in the academic literature are considered. In Section 1.2, the foundations of entrepreneurial policing considering its ontological and epistemological development from ‘New Public Management’ to ‘New Entrepreneurialism’ and also the influence of the merging literatures of ‘Criminal Entrepreneurship’ and ‘Entrepreneurial Leadership’ are critically examined. In Section 1.3, our consideration to include a more nuanced understanding of the what is referred to as the ‘Entrepreneurship–Policing Nexus’ including consideration of the influence of dyslexia on policing and crime and the power of the ‘Entrepreneurial’ and ‘Gangster’ dreams on entrepreneurial motivation and propensity are expanded. In Section 1.4, an attempt is made to identify who the stakeholders of this new policing philosophy are? Finally, in Section 1.5, the chapter takeaway points which both articulates and confirms the inherent importance of entrepreneurship in policing and criminal contexts are discussed and detailed.

Details

Entrepreneurship in Policing and Criminal Contexts
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-056-6

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Article
Publication date: 23 August 2019

Farooq Rehan, Joern Block and Christian Fisch

Prior research has investigated the development of Islamic communities. The authors contribute to this line of research by analyzing the effects of Islamic values and…

Abstract

Purpose

Prior research has investigated the development of Islamic communities. The authors contribute to this line of research by analyzing the effects of Islamic values and Islamic religious practices on entrepreneurship intentions in Islamic communities. Using theory of planned behavior as a theoretical lens, they also take into account that the relationship between religion and entrepreneurial intentions can be mediated by individual’s attitude toward entrepreneurship.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors analyze primary data obtained from a sample of 1,895 Pakistani university students. They also use structural equation modeling to perform a nuanced assessment of the relationship between Islamic values and practices and entrepreneurship intentions and to account for mediating effects.

Findings

The results show that both Islamic values and Islamic practices positively influence entrepreneurship intentions. Both effects are mediated by the attitude toward entrepreneurship.

Originality/value

The authors contribute to prior research on entrepreneurship in Islamic communities by applying a more fine-grained approach to capture the link between religion and entrepreneurship. Further, they contribute to the literature on entrepreneurship intentions by showing that the influence of religion on entrepreneurship intentions is mainly due to religious values and practices, which shape the attitude toward entrepreneurship and thereby influence entrepreneurship intentions in religious communities.

Details

Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, vol. 13 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6204

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Article
Publication date: 12 June 2017

Mandy Wheadon and Nathalie Duval-Couetil

The purpose of this paper is to raise awareness of conflicts between the innovation ideologies fundamental to entrepreneurial theory and the exclusivity embedded in the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to raise awareness of conflicts between the innovation ideologies fundamental to entrepreneurial theory and the exclusivity embedded in the discipline’s research and discursive practices.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper draws upon entrepreneurship and critical theory literature to deconstruct some embedded assumptions inhibiting the participation of women as entrepreneurs.

Findings

The underrepresentation of female and minority entrepreneurs has been examined most often by researchers from the perspective of trying to discover and overcome barriers to participation, rather than seeking to understand why and how these barriers are created and sustained. The paper identifies processes contributing to the construction of obstacles inhibiting inclusivity and proposes that conscientious implementation of practices such as critical reflexivity can limit their reproduction.

Research limitations/implications

By situating critical theory and reflexivity as key practices for cultivating diversity and innovation in entrepreneurship, this paper offers a useful basis for expanding subsequent research and pedagogical practices representative of a wider variety of populations and activities.

Practical implications

Entrepreneurship is key to job creation and economic growth. Rigid conceptualizations of entrepreneurship and unexamined biases of scholars and educators limit the accessibility of research and constrain students’ entrepreneurial intentions and behaviors.

Originality/value

The paper fills a gap in the literature by exploring disciplinary practices that cultivate and sustain gender exclusivity. It provides a structured approach to understanding discrepancies between the innovation entrepreneurship idealizes and the practices that confine participation to specific populations and economic practices.

Details

International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-6266

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Article
Publication date: 2 October 2020

Robin Bell and Heather Bell

Experiential approaches have become increasingly common in entrepreneurship education in response to calls for different approaches to the traditional didactic…

Abstract

Purpose

Experiential approaches have become increasingly common in entrepreneurship education in response to calls for different approaches to the traditional didactic process-driven approach. Experiential approaches offer the potential to develop the skills and mindset that are required in entrepreneurship. Research has highlighted the critical importance of educator pedagogical competence in the delivery and quality of teaching and learning in further and higher education. Nevertheless, educator narratives and practices are often based on foundations that suggest a lack in the depth of knowledge and understanding of the underlying pedagogic learning theories and practice. This paper brings educational theory and pedagogic practice together in a three-stage framework of the experiential entrepreneurship learning process to support entrepreneurship educators within further and higher education.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper reviews and brings together the seminal educational theories and philosophies of constructivism, objectivism, Kolb's (1984) theory of experiential learning, Schön's (1983) reflection-in-action and Mezirow's (1997) theory of transformative learning, to develop a framework which underpins the experiential entrepreneurship learning process.

Findings

This paper develops a three-stage framework which informs the roles of an educator and a learner in experiential entrepreneurship education within further and higher education, based on educational theories and philosophies that inform the learning process.

Practical implications

The developed framework supports the pedagogic competence of educators in the delivery of experiential entrepreneurship education through a deeper understanding of the supporting theory that informs the pedagogic practice. This will provide consolidation to enable educators to maximise the effectiveness of their educational practice (Kaynardağ, 2019) and can increase the legitimacy of entrepreneurship education (Foliard et al., 2018).

Originality/value

This paper meets calls in the literature to provide a closer engagement between educational theory and pedagogic practice to afford guidance as to how educators can navigate some of the different educational theories and philosophies to consolidate the effective delivery of quality experiential entrepreneurship education. Applying seminal educational theories and philosophies to ensure the quality of experiential education can support the legitimacy of experiential entrepreneurship education.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 27 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

Keywords

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