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Article
Publication date: 31 May 2013

Hsin Hsin Chang, Hamid Rizal and Hanudin Amin

The aim of this study was to develop a theoretical model of email advertising effectiveness and to investigate differences between permission‐based email and spamming. By…

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8957

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this study was to develop a theoretical model of email advertising effectiveness and to investigate differences between permission‐based email and spamming. By examining different types of email (i.e. permission‐based email and spamming), the present study empirically tested the theoretical linkage between email advertising values, perceived instrusiveness, and the attitudinal‐behavioural dispositions towards email advertising.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey was conducted using 221 respondents from Taiwan. Two scenarios were designed for the present study. The questionnaires were equally divided into two sets, with the first half containing a scenario depicting permission‐based email, and the other half containing a scenario describing a spamming email. Each respondent only received one set of the survey.

Findings

Results from a survey of 221 Internet users in Taiwan indicate that values and attitudes toward, and the perceived intrusiveness of, email advertising significantly affect consumers’ behavioral dispositions toward email advertising. The results suggest that permission‐based email is more effective as compared to spam email advertising. For solicited email, consumers perceived less intrusiveness if the email advertisement offered them financial incentives.

Research limitations/implications

The authors acknowledge four limitations in this study. These limitations however provide further direction for future studies in the discipline. The discussion of these limitations is provided.

Practical implications

Importantly, this study yields significant theoretical and managerial implications. Concerned with the context of email advertising, the authors’ work provides theoretical support for both constructs of advertising values and perceived intrusiveness as important. Concerned with the advertisers, this study renders important implications for better planning of marketing mix strategy using email.

Originality/value

This study provides new theoretical insights into factors influencing consumers’ acceptance of email advertising by incorporating perceived intrusiveness as a mediator in the relationship between advertising values and attitudinal‐behavioral dispositions. By empirically comparing the different types of email advertisements of permission‐based email and spamming, the present study also offers better understanding and extending of the current literature on email advertising research.

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Book part
Publication date: 13 November 2017

Robert Kozielski, Grzegorz Mazurek, Anna Miotk and Artur Maciorowski

It seems that the Internet boom, which started at the end of the 1990s and finished with the spectacular collapse of the so-called dotcoms, is probably over. We are…

Abstract

It seems that the Internet boom, which started at the end of the 1990s and finished with the spectacular collapse of the so-called dotcoms, is probably over. We are currently enjoying a period of fast and stable growth. This is manifested by the growing number of both Internet users and companies which – to an ever-increasing extent – use the Internet as a form of communication (both internal and external), promotion, sales etc. Expenditures on Internet advertising are growing continuously and now constitute more than 25% of all advertising expenditure. A natural consequence of this development is the need for the standardisation and organisation of the world of the Internet. These activities will result in a greater awareness of the benefits which this medium provides, increasing the possibilities of its use, and – most importantly – the opportunity to evaluate the return on investments made on the Internet. Nowadays, it is clear that many companies are striving to increase the quality of their activities on the Internet or to improve the effectiveness of such activities. As a consequence, the number of companies that look for indices which would enable the making of more precise and effective decisions in the scope of online operations is growing.

This chapter is dedicated to the phenomenon of the increasing role of the Internet in business, including the scale of its use by Polish and international companies. We present the most commonly used measures of marketing activities on the Internet and in social media. This group includes the indices which make it possible to determine whether a company actually needs a website. Other measures allow for the improvement in the effectiveness of the activity on the Internet, whereas others specify the costs of activities on the Internet and often serve as the basis for settlements between a company and advertising agencies or companies specialising in website design. It is worth emphasising that the Paid, Earned, Shared, Owned (PESO) model, worked out by Don Bartholomew,1 is the basis for creation and description of indices concerning social media. This model has gained certain popularity in the social media industry. It does not, however, specify how individual indices should be named and calculated. It maps already existing indices and adapts them to specific levels of marketing communication measurement. All the measures indicated by the author of the model have been grouped into five major areas: exposure, engagement, brand awareness, action and recommendations. This model– similarly to all models of performance measurement – inspired by the sales funnel concept, adjusts certain standard indices and proposals of measurements for specific levels. Additionally, the measures are divided into four types, depending on who the owner of the content is: Paid (P) – refers to all forms of paid content; Owned (O) – all websites and web properties controlled by a company or brand; Earned (E) – the contents about a given brand created spontaneously by Internet users; and Shared (S) – the contents shared by Internet users.

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Mastering Market Analytics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-835-2

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Article
Publication date: 20 August 2010

Malte Brettel and Andrea Spilker‐Attig

The internet has gained enormous importance as an advertising medium. At the same time, the question of marketing accountability has become one of the top areas of…

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13977

Abstract

Purpose

The internet has gained enormous importance as an advertising medium. At the same time, the question of marketing accountability has become one of the top areas of research for researchers and practitioners who aim at optimal marketing budget allocations. This paper aims to show that national culture has an impact on how consumer behavior is influenced by online advertising.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper compares the effectiveness of internet advertising in the USA and France by analyzing a real data sample with more than 1.2 million transactions using partial least squares and structural equation modeling.

Findings

It is found that on‐demand channels have a stronger effect on short‐term success than push‐channels and that this effect is strongly moderated by the culture. It is recommended that spending and efforts in the various advertising channels be adjusted to reflect the product offered and the customers to whom it is offered, as customers in both countries should be targeted by advertising in different ways. The channel effectiveness of affiliate price comparison sites and search engines has significantly different impacts on customer behavior in the USA and France.

Originality/value

Until now, most companies have utilized a suboptimal allocation of resources to advertising channels because of missing and misleading data. Focusing on this problem, the paper suggests that advertisers apply the methodology to identify the total effect of clicks in each advertising channel. Combining these total effects with the associated costs allows practitioners to optimize their online advertising spending.

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Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing, vol. 4 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7122

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2006

Janet Durgin and Joseph S. Sherif

This paper aims to advance research that accurately portrays the alarming rate at which spam is infiltrating and eroding the security of the internet.

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969

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to advance research that accurately portrays the alarming rate at which spam is infiltrating and eroding the security of the internet.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper discusses the political, legal and ethical controversy surrounding the spam dilemma as well as the high costs of spam to telecommunications bandwidth, QoS and e‐commerce effectiveness.

Findings

Spam problem is a technological epidemic that multiplies exponentially each day. A dynamic digital jam is in prospect.

Practical implications

Presents viable options for a quick resolve, and unveils the changing strategies that integrity‐driven marketers are facing in lieu of the raging battle.

Originality/value

Tackles one of the most pressing issues in the business world today.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 35 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

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Article
Publication date: 8 August 2016

Mari Hartemo

The purpose of this paper is to clarify why, when and how e-mail marketing can be used to empower consumers and to give ideas for future scholarly research.

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10350

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to clarify why, when and how e-mail marketing can be used to empower consumers and to give ideas for future scholarly research.

Design/methodology/approach

Systematic literature review studies 41 e-mail marketing and 54 consumer empowerment articles published in variety of academic journals between 1998 and 2014.

Findings

E-mail allows an active, interactive and personalized communication fulfilling the preferences of an empowered consumer. E-mail marketing can be used to empower consumers by sending e-mails based on permission, by making consumers active participants in the communication process and by making e-mails relevant for the recipients. However, current e-mail marketing strategies need to be updated to get the maximum benefit out of the channel.

Research limitations/implications

The limitation of the study is the broad domain of research, which hampered the in-depth analysis. However, the study was able to synthesize the scattered literature and create an overall picture of the topic as planned.

Practical implications

The paper encourages managers to use empowering e-mail marketing strategies and presents several suggestions for future e-mail marketing research.

Originality/value

The paper uses a new perspective, consumer empowerment as a lens for understanding e-mail marketing. Because e-mail marketing is currently very popular among marketers but is threatened by its negative image among consumers, it is important to understand how e-mail marketing can be developed so that it can also survive in the future.

Details

Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7122

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Article
Publication date: 6 January 2012

Hongwei “Chris” Yang, Hui Liu and Liuning Zhou

The purpose of this paper is to integrate the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and Palka et al.'s model to predict young Chinese…

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4373

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to integrate the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and Palka et al.'s model to predict young Chinese consumers' mobile viral attitudes, intents and behavior.

Design/methodology/approach

A paper survey was administered to 835 college students in Beijing, Shanghai, Kunming, and Liuzhou in summer and fall, 2010. The data were subject to statistic analyses including Pearson correlation, structural equation modeling, and backward regression with SPSS and AMOS.

Findings

The SEM model testing results confirmed the chain of young Chinese consumers' viral attitudes to intents to actual behavior. Subjective norm, perceived cost and pleasure were significant predictors of their viral attitudes. Their viral attitudes, perceived utility and subjective norm predicted their intent to pass along entertaining electronic messages. Their intent to forward useful electronic messages was determined by their viral attitudes, perceived utility and market mavenism. Their viral attitudes, intents and market mavenism predicted their mobile viral behavior.

Practical implications

It pays to foster Chinese consumers' favorable attitudes toward mobile viral marketing. It is advisable to know both target consumers and their associates very well. It is recommended to convince Chinese consumers that their friends and relatives can benefit greatly from viral content forwarding. Mobile messages with entertaining, useful, relevant and self‐involved values can go viral more easily.

Originality/value

The paper is probably the first study the integration of the TPB, TAM and Palka et al.'s model to predict Chinese consumers' mobile viral attitudes, intents and behavior.

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 2011

Melodena Stephens Balakrishnan

Managing brands during crisis (in the context of terrorism) does not have much historical research and the studies that exist focus on communication. Terrorism is more…

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2439

Abstract

Purpose

Managing brands during crisis (in the context of terrorism) does not have much historical research and the studies that exist focus on communication. Terrorism is more frequent; not easily prevented; and rarely a top management priority for risk management. The purpose of this paper is to use exiting theory on brand components and architecture to prevent brand burn. Brand burn is defined as the accidental negative impact formed on a brand due to a crisis outside the control of an organization, which may not be perceived as directly related to the organization's product or management.

Design/methodology/approach

Crises are characterized by an overload of information. The exploratory study uses a case study methodology to get insights on how to manage a brand through a crisis. To validate findings, triangulation using independent reviewers, theory and secondary reports is used.

Findings

First, a conceptual framework to manage brand burn is presented. Second, from the practitioner's point of view, the paper provides a checklist that gives strategic tips for preparing for and managing brand crisis. The findings show that both brand components and brand architecture can be used to manage brands through crisis.

Research limitations/implications

The findings contribute to theory by adding to the evolving literature on brand architecture, brand components and crisis management. Key challenges were organizing and prioritizing the vast amount of data from secondary sources, including social media sites; time was an issue as memories fade; and another limitation was getting official confirmation since perceptions play a key role.

Originality/value

This is the first study looking at a terrorist crisis from a brand management point of view. This paper contributes to theory by adding to the research in brand architecture and brand components and crisis management. Future studies can look at the model robustness in other crisis situations and the impact of managing social media.

Details

Management Research Review, vol. 34 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8269

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2003

Elizabeth Gadd, Charles Oppenheim and Steve Probets

This is the first of a series of studies emanating from the UK JISC‐funded RoMEO Project (Rights Metadata for Open‐archiving) which investigated the IPR issues relating to…

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1924

Abstract

This is the first of a series of studies emanating from the UK JISC‐funded RoMEO Project (Rights Metadata for Open‐archiving) which investigated the IPR issues relating to academic author self‐archiving of research papers. It considers the claims for copyright ownership in research papers by universities, academics, and publishers by drawing on the literature, a survey of 542 academic authors and an analysis of 80 journal publisher copyright transfer agreements. The paper concludes that self‐archiving is not best supported by copyright transfer to publishers. It recommends that universities assert their interest in copyright ownership in the long term, that academics retain rights in the short term, and that publishers consider new ways of protecting the value they add through journal publishing.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 59 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 1998

Yuehong Yuan, Jonathan P. Caulkins and Stephen Roehrig

Explores the question of whether the traditional practice of bundling advertisements with content will prevail or become less common on the Internet. Given that revenue…

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5065

Abstract

Explores the question of whether the traditional practice of bundling advertisements with content will prevail or become less common on the Internet. Given that revenue from advertisers is desirable to content providers, the answer mainly depends on whether advertisers will choose to deliver their advertisements by bundling. The decision to bundle in turn depends on the response of customers to bundling and to other advertising strategies. In particular, the relationship between advertising and content provision on the Internet may be affected by this medium’s distinctive characteristics, which affect the choices of advertisers and the response of customers. Thus, one needs to investigate the choices of advertisers, the behavior of customers, and their dependence on the distinctive technological features of the Internet.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 32 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Book part
Publication date: 13 November 2017

Robert Kozielski, Michał Dziekoński and Jacek Pogorzelski

It is generally recognised that companies spend approximately 50% of their marketing budget on promotional activities. Advertising belongs to the most visible areas of a…

Abstract

It is generally recognised that companies spend approximately 50% of their marketing budget on promotional activities. Advertising belongs to the most visible areas of a company’s activity. Therefore, it should not be surprising that the average recipient associates marketing with advertising, competitions and leaflets about new promotions delivered to houses or offices. Advertising, especially Internet advertising, is one of the most effective forms of marketing and one of the fastest developing areas of business. New channels of communication are emerging all the time – the Internet, digital television, mobile telephony; accompanied by new forms, such as the so-called ambient media. Advertising benefits from the achievements of many fields of science, that is, psychology, sociology, statistics, medicine and economics. At the same time, it combines science and the arts – it requires both knowledge and intuition. Contemporary advertising has different forms and areas of activity; yet it is always closely linked with the operations of a company – it is a form of marketing communication.

The indices of marketing communication presented in this chapter are generally known and used not only by advertising agencies but also by the marketing departments of many organisations. Brand awareness, advertising scope and frequency, the penetration index or the response rate belong to the most widely used indices; others, like the conversion rate or the affinity index, will get increasingly more significant along with the process of professionalisation of the environment of marketing specialists in Poland and with increased pressure on measuring marketing activities. Marketing indices are used for not only planning activities, but also their evaluation; some of them, such as telemarketing, mailing and coupons, provide an extensive array of possibilities of performance evaluation.

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