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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1976

B.M. Doouss and G.L. Collins

This monograph defines distributed intelligence and discusses the relationship of distributed intelligence to data base, justifications for using the technique, and the…

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Abstract

This monograph defines distributed intelligence and discusses the relationship of distributed intelligence to data base, justifications for using the technique, and the approach to successful implementation of the technique. The approach is then illustrated by reference to a case study of experience in Birds Eye Foods. The planning process by which computing strategy for the company was decided is described, and the planning conclusions reached to date are given. The current state of development in the company is outlined and the very real savings so far achieved are specified. Finally, the main conclusions of the monograph are brought together. In essence these conclusions are that major savings are achievable using distributed intelligence, and that the implementation of a company data processing plan can be made quicker and simpler by its use. However, careful central control must be maintained so as to avoid fragmentation of machine, language skills, and application taking place.

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Management Decision, vol. 14 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 31 December 2006

Daniel Pakkala and Juhani Latvakoski

A novel distributed middleware service platform, called MidGate platform, is presented in this paper. The central contribution is description of the developed MidGate…

Abstract

A novel distributed middleware service platform, called MidGate platform, is presented in this paper. The central contribution is description of the developed MidGate platform and its architecture focusing especially on the adaptation, context‐awareness, and personalization of mobile and pervasive services. The research problem addressed is how to facilitate the development of interoperable applications and services into heterogeneous and distributed service gateway based environments. A requirement analysis of future mobile and pervasive services and key technologies has been carried out to establish a solid base and requirements for the development of the MidGate platform. The key mechanisms supporting adaptation, context‐awareness, and personalization of applications and services are presented. The novel middleware architecture solution of the MidGate platform utilizing these key mechanisms is also described. The MidGate architecture utilizes the emerging Generic Service Elements (GSE) approach, where generic and collectively utilizable services are provided to applications as middleware services that are part of a service platform. The main contribution of this research is the definition of a set of GSEs, the related MidGate platform architecture and its evaluation. The evaluation of the MidGate platform has been carried out in series of laboratory prototypes. The evaluation indicates that the MidGate platform solution is well applicable in various service gateway‐based distributed systems and extends well into resource‐constrained mobile environments.

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International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

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Article
Publication date: 20 December 2007

Tay Teng Tiow, Chu Yingyi and Sun Yang

To utilize the idle computational resources in a network to collectively solve middle to large problems, this paper aims to propose an integrated distributed computing…

Abstract

Purpose

To utilize the idle computational resources in a network to collectively solve middle to large problems, this paper aims to propose an integrated distributed computing platform, Java distributed code generating and computing (JDGC).

Design/methodology/approach

The proposed JDGC is fully decentralized in that every participating host is identical in function. It allows standard, single machine‐oriented Java programs to be transparently executed in a distributed system. The code generator reduces the communication overhead between runtime objects based on a detailed analysis of the communication affinities between them.

Findings

The experimental results show that JDGC can efficiently reduce the execution time of applications by utilizing the networked computational resources.

Originality/value

JDGC releases the developers from any special programming considerations for distributed environment, and solves the portability problem of using system‐specific programming methods.

Details

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1998

Marcel Franckson, John Hall, Alfred Helmerich, Rafael Cañadas and Martin Dehn

Application Development for the Distributed Enterprise (ADDE) is a methodological set that supports design of distributed business processes and ICT systems. ADDE provides…

Abstract

Application Development for the Distributed Enterprise (ADDE) is a methodological set that supports design of distributed business processes and ICT systems. ADDE provides a guide, a repository and supporting software tools, an underlying meta‐model, based on UML, that may be used in developing further software tools, or adapting existing tools to work with the ADDE repository. The main principles that have driven the authors’ approach to distributed system design are presented. These principles are the focus on distribution issues, the separation of organisational and technical issues, the emphasis on the design process as a decision process, the notion of technological services and the method independence of the guidance. Following this, the guidance on the definition and planning of the application development will be introduced. A presentation of the guidance on distributed application design, as well as the concepts of macro and micro decisions follows. Finally, the future work of the ADDE project will be outlined.

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Internet Research, vol. 8 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2006

Yang Xiang and Wanlei Zhou

In the last a few years a number of highly publicized incidents of Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks against high‐profile government and commercial websites…

Abstract

In the last a few years a number of highly publicized incidents of Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks against high‐profile government and commercial websites have made people aware of the importance of providing data and services security to users. A DDoS attack is an availability attack, which is characterized by an explicit attempt from an attacker to prevent legitimate users of a service from using the desired resources. This paper introduces the vulnerability of web applications to DDoS attacks, and presents an active distributed defense system that has a deployment mixture of sub‐systems to protect web applications from DDoS attacks. According to the simulation experiments, this system is effective in that it is able to defend web applications against attacks. It can avoid overall network congestion and provide more resources to legitimate web users.

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International Journal of Web Information Systems, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-0084

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Article
Publication date: 31 December 2007

Eleftheria Katsiri, Jean Bacon and Alan Mycroft

The event‐driven paradigm is appropriate for context aware, distributed applications, yet basic events may be too low level to be meaningful to users. The authors aim to…

Abstract

Purpose

The event‐driven paradigm is appropriate for context aware, distributed applications, yet basic events may be too low level to be meaningful to users. The authors aim to argue that this bottom‐up approach is insufficient to handle very low‐level sensor data or to express all the queries users might wish to make.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors propose an alternative model for querying and subscribing transparently to distributed state in a real‐time, ubiquitous, sensor‐driven environment such as is found in Sentient Computing.

Findings

The framework consists of four components: a state‐based, temporal first‐order logic (TFOL) model that represents the concrete state of the world, as perceived by sensors; an expressive TFOL‐based language, the Abstract Event Specification Language (AESL) for creating abstract event definitions, subscriptions and queries; a higherorder service (Abstract Event Detection Service) that accepts a subscription containing an abstract event definition as an argument and in return publishes an interface to a further service, an abstract event detector; and a satisfiability service that applies classical, logical satisfiability in order to check the satisfiability of the AESL definitions against the world model, in a manner similar to a constraint‐satisfaction problem.

Originality/value

The paper develops a model‐based approach, appropriate for distributed, heterogeneous environments.

Details

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. 3 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1994

William J. Caelli

Distributed computing systems impose new requirements on the security ofthe operating systems and hardware structures of the computersparticipating in a distributed data…

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Abstract

Distributed computing systems impose new requirements on the security of the operating systems and hardware structures of the computers participating in a distributed data network environment. It is proposed that multiple level (greater than two) security hardware, with associated full support for that hardware at the operating system level, is required to meet the needs of this emerging environment. The normal two layer (supervisor/user) structure may probably be insufficient to enforce and protect security functions consistently and reliably in a distributed environment. Such two‐layer designs are seen as part of earlier single computer/processor system structures while a minimum three/four‐layer security architecture appears necessary to meet the needs of the distributed computing environment. Such multi‐level hardware security architecture requirements are derived from earlier work in the area, particularly the Multics project of the mid‐1960s, as well as the design criteria for the DEC VAX 11/780 and Intel iAPX‐286 processor and its successors, as two later examples of machine structures. The security functions of individual nodes participating in a distributed computing environment, and their associated evaluation level, appear critical to the development of overall security architectures for the protection of distributed computing systems.

Details

Information Management & Computer Security, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0968-5227

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Article
Publication date: 5 February 2021

Roberta Sammut, Benjamin Briffa and Elizabeth A. Curtis

The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between perceived distributed leadership and job satisfaction among nurses. Leadership is central to improving…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between perceived distributed leadership and job satisfaction among nurses. Leadership is central to improving quality care. Reports following investigations of poor care standards, identified inadequate leadership as a contributory factor and called for a new kind of leadership. One alternative is distributed leadership. Evidence suggests associations between leadership and job satisfaction but, there is a paucity of research examining associations between distributed leadership and job satisfaction: the purpose of this study was to address this gap.

Design/methodology/approach

A cross-sectional survey design was used and data collected via questionnaires. Using census sampling, 350 nurses in a hospital in Malta were selected. A response rate of 50% (n =176) was achieved. Data were analysed using Spearman’s correlation coefficient and multiple regression. Ethical approval was obtained from relevant committees/individuals.

Findings

Results indicated a moderate application of perceived distributed leadership and application of all components of distributed leadership could be improved. Nurses were neither satisfied nor dissatisfied with their jobs. Correlation analysis showed a positive relationship between distributed leadership and job satisfaction. Multiple regression showed that commitment and participative decision-making were major predictors of job satisfaction while supervision by managers had a negative effect.

Practical implications

Improving distributed leadership is a priority in the nursing profession.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is the first to show that distributed leadership has a positive effect on job satisfaction among nurses. Supervision, a constituent of distributed leadership, was associated with reduced job satisfaction, therefore reducing this is paramount.

Details

Leadership in Health Services, vol. 34 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-1879

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1999

M.P. Evans, A.D. Phippen, G. Mueller, S.M. Furnell, P.W. Sanders and P.L. Reynolds

The World Wide Web has experienced explosive growth as a content delivery mechanism, delivering hypertext files and static media content in a standardised way. However…

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Abstract

The World Wide Web has experienced explosive growth as a content delivery mechanism, delivering hypertext files and static media content in a standardised way. However, this content has been unable to interact with other content, making the Web a distribution system rather than a distributed system. This is changing, however, as distributed component architectures are being adapted to work with the Web’s architecture. This paper tracks the development of the Web as a distributed platform, and highlights the potential to employ an often neglected feature of distributed computing: migration. Argues that all content on the Web, be it static images or distributed components, should be free to migrate according to either the policy of the server, or the content itself. The requirements of such a content migration mechanism are described, and an overview of a new migration mechanism, currently being developed by the authors, is presented.

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Internet Research, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2000

H.C.W. Lau and W.B. Lee

Attempts to propose an infrastructure of a supply chain information system, focusing on the component modules necessary for the building up of such a system with a…

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6519

Abstract

Attempts to propose an infrastructure of a supply chain information system, focusing on the component modules necessary for the building up of such a system with a description of the creation of these modules. The proposed supply chain information system embraces the concept of distributed object technology to enable efficient data exchange among various data objects which may reside in distributed platforms over geographically isolated regions, thereby leveraging the responsiveness of the supply chain network. The significance of contribution of this research is the provision of a cross‐platform data exchange system which is able to facilitate the formulation of a customer‐driven supply chain network, thereby enhancing the competitive edge of companies on a local and global basis.

Details

International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, vol. 30 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-0035

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