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Article
Publication date: 21 May 2009

Mudrajad Kuncoro and Sari Wahyuni

This paper attempts to examine which theory is best at explaining the geographic concentration in Java, an island in which most of the Indonesia’s large and medium…

Abstract

This paper attempts to examine which theory is best at explaining the geographic concentration in Java, an island in which most of the Indonesia’s large and medium manufacturing industries have located overwhelmingly. Our previous studies on Java have found that there was a stable – albeit increasing trend – and persistent geographic concentration in Java over the period 1976‐1995. Yet some critical questions exist: Why geographic concentration in Java persisted during this period? To what extent relevant theories and empirical literature can be used as an explicit test of competing theories on agglomeration forces? In answering those questions, we compare the three major grand theories of geographic concentration: Neo‐Classical Theory (NCT), New Trade Theory (NTT) and New Economic Geography (NEG). Using the regional specialization index as a measure of geographic concentration of manufacturing industry and pooling data over the period 1991‐002, our econometric analysis integrates the perspectives of industry, region (space) and time. We further explore the nature and dynamics of agglomeration forces underpinning the industrial agglomeration in Java by testing some key variables. Our econometric results rejected the NCT hypotheses and showed that the NTT and NEG can better explain the phenomena. It’s apparent that manufacturing firms in Java seek to locate in more populous and densely populated areas in order to enjoy both localization economies and urbanization economies, as shown by the significance of scale economies and income per capita. The former is associated with the size of a particular industry, while the latter reflects the size of a market in a particular urban area. More importantly, the results suggest that there is a synergy between thickness of market and agglomeration forces. The interplay of agglomeration economies is intensified by the imperfect competition of Java’s market structure. We find that Java’s market structure may restrict competition so that firms tend to concentrate geographically. Instead of providing some important recommendations for local and central governments and practical implications for investors and manufacturing firms, this paper gives empirical evidence with respect to path dependency hypothesis. The finding supports the NEG’s belief that history matters: older firms tend to enhance regional specialization.

Details

Journal of Asia Business Studies, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1558-7894

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2005

Yoshiharu Asakura, Gen Okuyama, Yoshitaka Nakayama, Kazutoshi Usui and Yukikazu Nakamoto

A unified application management framework for Linux and Java applications on mobile phones is presented. Although Java‐based applications for mobile phones are in strong…

Abstract

A unified application management framework for Linux and Java applications on mobile phones is presented. Although Java‐based applications for mobile phones are in strong demand, the complexity of interaction between these platform independent programs and the core functionality of mobile phones has made software development difficult. The unified framework presented here provides uniform application state management and inter‐application communication between Java based and operating‐system specific applications, allowing native Linux applications to be directly replaced with the equivalent Java application. The framework is described in detail and a trial implementation of the system is evaluated.

Details

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. 1 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

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Article
Publication date: 26 August 2014

Michael Roland, Josef Langer and Rene Mayrhofer

The purpose of this paper is to address the design, implementation, performance and limitations of an environment that emulates a secure element for rapid prototyping and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to address the design, implementation, performance and limitations of an environment that emulates a secure element for rapid prototyping and debugging. Today, it is difficult for developers to get access to a near field communication (NFC)-secure element in current smartphones. Moreover, the security constraints of smartcards make in-circuit emulation and debugging of applications impractical. Therefore, an environment that emulates a secure element brings significant advantages for developers.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors' approach to such an environment is the emulation of Java Card applets on top of non-Java Card virtual machines (e.g. Android Dalvik VM), as this would facilitate the use of existing debugging tools. As the operation principle of the Java Card VM is based on persistent memory technology, the VM and applications running on top of it have a significantly different life cycle compared to other Java VMs. The authors evaluate these differences and their impact on Java VM-based Java Card emulation. They compare possible strategies to overcome the problems caused by these differences, propose a possible solution and create a prototypical implementation to verify the practical feasibility of such an emulation environment.

Findings

While the authors found that the Java Card inbuilt persistent memory management is not available on other Java VMs, they present a strategy to model this persistence mechanism on other VMs to build a complete Java Card run-time environment on top of a non-Java Card VM. Their analysis of the performance degradation in a prototypical implementation caused by additional effort put into maintaining persistent application state revealed that the implementation of such an emulation environment is practically feasible.

Originality/value

This paper addresses the problem of emulating a complete Java Card run-time environment on top of non-Java Card virtual machines which could open and significantly ease the development of NFC secure element applications.

Details

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

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Article
Publication date: 19 November 2018

Aries Susanty, Arfan Bakhtiar, Nia Budi Puspitasari and Della Mustika

The purpose of this paper is to measure and evaluate the performance of the relationships between farmers, dairy cooperatives and industrial milk processors.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to measure and evaluate the performance of the relationships between farmers, dairy cooperatives and industrial milk processors.

Design/methodology/approach

Data used in this study were primary data collected through personal interviews and closed questionnaires with 1–5 Likert scale. The sample consisted of the representative of the management of 12 dairy cooperatives located in Central Java Province, representative of the management of 12 dairy cooperatives located in West Java Province and some farmers who are members of those dairy cooperatives. This study uses balanced supply chain management scorecard for measuring the performance of dairy supply chain, importance-performance analysis (IPA) for identifying the indicators that are most in need of improvement, and strength, weakness, opportunity and threat (SWOT) analysis for formulating strategic planning.

Findings

The results of balanced supply chain management scorecard combined with IPA analysis showed that the performance relationship between farmers, dairy cooperatives and industrial milk processors in West Java Province is slightly better than that in Central Java Province. It can be seen from the average value of the score of indicator, the category of each indicator and the category of the performance index of each relationship. The major weakness of the relationship between dairy farmers, cooperatives and industrial milk processors in Central Java Province lies in the different perspective (no perspective is dominant), whereas that in West Java Province is dominated by the perspective of the customer. On the other hand, the major strength of the relationship in Central Java Province is dominated by the perspective of the customer, whereas that in West Java Province is dominated by the perspective of learning and growth.

Research limitations/implications

The limitation of this study is related to the number of the dairy cooperatives as the sample and the type of scale used to measure the performance of the relationships between farmers, dairy cooperatives and individual milk processors. So, the future research may replicate this study by surveying all the dairy cooperatives in Central Java and West Java Provinces. It may also enhance the measurement of the performance of the relationships by using a direct measure of each indicator in each perspective, rather than recording the management of dairy cooperative perceptions.

Practical implications

This research provides essential insights for the management of dairy cooperative in the context of strategic planning development. The research reveals that there is a different strategic planning for improving the performance of the relationship between dairy farmers, cooperatives and industrial milk processors in each province. It depends on the major weakness and strength of the relationships, and also, opportunity and threat faced by the dairy industry. One important thing, the management of dairy cooperative in both provinces should have strategic planning related to the use of machine milking by farmers to improve the milk quality.

Social implications

The research revealed that strategic planning could be built after analyzing the internal and external conditions carefully. It may encourage more dairy cooperatives to measure and analyze the internal and external conditions at the bottom of strategic planning of their business.

Originality/value

Although this research only used the balanced supply chain management scorecard and IPA analysis for measuring the performance, and SWOT analysis in formulating the strategic planning for improving the current performance, it will make a difference. First, instead of measuring the performance of dairy cooperatives, this research measured the performance of the relationships between dairy farmers, cooperatives and industrial milk processors. This way, the dairy cooperatives were only sources of data collection. Second, the investigation was quite complicated since the objects of the research were represented by the relationships between farmers, dairy cooperatives and industrial milk processors in Central Java Province and West Java Province.

Details

International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, vol. 67 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0401

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Article
Publication date: 4 December 2017

Aries Susanty, Arfan Bakhtiar, Ferry Jie and Mustofa Muthi

The purpose of this paper is to measure and evaluate the relationship between collaborative communication, power dependence, price satisfaction, trust, supplier loyalty…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to measure and evaluate the relationship between collaborative communication, power dependence, price satisfaction, trust, supplier loyalty, and business performance.

Design/methodology/approach

Data used in this study were primary data which were collected through personal interviews and closed questionnaires using a five-point Likert scale ranging from 1 to 5. The sample consisted of 170 individual dairy farmer and several dairy cooperatives, which were located in Central Java Province (Boyolali and Semarang Districts) and West Java Province (West Bandung District). The study used partial least squares with the aid of the SmartPLS software program to analyze the hypothesis.

Findings

The results of hypothesis testing indicate that collaborative communication and price satisfaction had a significant positive effect on trust for Central Java and West Java Province. Meanwhile, power dependence had a significant negative effect on trust only for West Java Province. Trust had a significant positive effect on supplier loyalty for both of the two provinces. Significant positive effect of supplier loyalty on business performance was supported in Central Java Province, whereas in West Java Province, supplier loyalty had a positive but not significant effect on business performance.

Research limitations/implications

The limitation of this study is related to the number of samples, the type of scale used to measure a business performance, and the focus that is only on the relationship between the fargmers and cooperative to improve the performance of cooperative without considering the role of management. So, the future research may replicate this study in another region or in the other contexts of agribusiness sector that usually depends on farmer as a producer of the raw material. It may also enhance the measurement of business performance of dairy cooperative by using a direct measure of financial performance and non-financial performance and broaden the scope of research into the role of management of dairy cooperative.

Practical implications

It is recommended that managers of dairy cooperatives always involve the farmers when making marketing decisions especially concerning prices, products, market, and promotion. As organizational stakeholders, their involvement is vital in determining the ability of the dairy to achieve its goals. The other recommendation is the managers of cooperatives must have a clear policy on the price of milk, and this policy should indicate the transparency and accountability. Then, regarding the long-term benefit of dairy cooperative, it is recommended for dairy cooperatives to add the value of the milk so they can access wider markets, which, in turn, will maximize returns to the members. Based on this recommendation, it is better if the dairy cooperative in Indonesia not only serves as a marketing cooperative, but also serves as a farm supply cooperative which may process or formulate the milk into a more valuable product.

Social implications

The research confirms that individual dairy farmer’s loyalty can benefit the business of dairy cooperative. It may encourage more dairy cooperative to tap the good relationship with the individual dairy farmer at the initial stage of the economic growth of their business. Intensifying competition between dairy cooperatives would potentially bring even better quality and quantity of milk from the loyal dairy farmer.

Originality/value

Although this research used the conceptual model from the previous study, this research will make some improvement. First, it used more indicators to measure each dimension of the construct, and the investigation was slightly more complex and broader since the object of the research was represented by two regions, namely, Central Java Province and West Java Province.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 119 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 2 May 2017

María José Cano, Eliseo Chacon-Vera and Francisco Esquembre

Computer simulations improve the knowledge of physical models and are widely used in teaching and research. Key aspects are to understand their solutions and to make…

Abstract

Purpose

Computer simulations improve the knowledge of physical models and are widely used in teaching and research. Key aspects are to understand their solutions and to make interactive changes to the models, observing their effects in real-time. The drawback of creating interactive simulations of physical models is the high level of programming expertise required. The purpose of this study is to facilitate this task.

Design/methodology/approach

Java is the perfect language for this task; it yields high-quality graphics and is widely spread in the scientific community. Because many important physical models are described by means of partial differential equations (PDEs), the combination of Java with FreeFem++, a C++ PDE solver based on the finite element method, is considered.

Findings

In this study, a Java library is introduced to numerically solve PDE equations via a run-time connection with FreeFem++. The solution is encapsulated into Java objects that are ready to be used in different programming tasks. The library also includes new Java visualization elements for solutions and meshes in the context of the Open Source Physics project library. Together, the connection features and the visualization elements facilitate the creation of Java simulations by programming researchers. For those with less programming capabilities, this work has been included into Easy Java Simulations, a tool to further ease the creation of interactive simulations.

Originality/value

The present study approach allows simulating models given PDEs. The equations are solved either in local or in remote mode (e.g. by a network accessible to a high-performance computer) and visualized locally, providing a high degree of interactivity to the end user.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 34 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

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Article
Publication date: 16 August 2021

Eddy Junarsin, Mamduh Mahmadah Hanafi, Nofie Iman, Usman Arief, Ahmad Maulin Naufa, Linda Mahastanti and Jordan Kristanto

Innovation in digital technologies has been the main force in promoting growth and inclusion. However, the impact of such innovations remains ambiguous. Within this…

Abstract

Purpose

Innovation in digital technologies has been the main force in promoting growth and inclusion. However, the impact of such innovations remains ambiguous. Within this context, this study aims to analyze the distribution of digitally empowered peer-to-peer (P2P) lending in Indonesia.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses a quantitative approach to estimate the impact of technological innovation in promoting economic development. In particular, this study employs empirical panel data from 135 financial technology (FinTech) companies from 2015 to 2019 and use the dynamic panel threshold regression approach. This study collects secondary data to build the estimated model.

Findings

Contrary to conventional wisdom, this study’s evidence suggests that there is a delayed effect between the contribution of P2P lending by FinTech firms on economic growth in the country. While the immense growth of FinTech seems promising, the findings indicate that FinTech is far from its optimal point. This study calculates the optimal combination between productive and consumptive lending and between Java and non-Java. In view of this finding, this study proposes strategies to effectively distribute lending and bring about the expected benefit to the economy.

Practical implications

Since the contribution of P2P lending on economic development has not reached its optimum, the findings expose the limitation of current technological innovation in the financial sectors. In this sense, P2P penetration on the financing market needs encouragement. The calculations for optimal allocation between productive and consumptive and between Java and non-Java provide guidance to policymakers. This study helps practitioners to shape strategy and to begin experimenting with different approaches to distribute loans effectively.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, there are no empirical studies that examine the impact of emerging FinTech companies in promoting economic growth and financial development. The findings close this research gap, especially in regard to innovation management literature, and provide insights for practitioners, policymakers and regulators.

Details

Journal of Science and Technology Policy Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4620

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Book part
Publication date: 6 October 2017

Lance Brennan, Les Heathcote and Anton Lucas

This paper attempts to understand how the interaction of natural disasters and human behaviour during wartime led to famines in three regions under imperial control around…

Abstract

This paper attempts to understand how the interaction of natural disasters and human behaviour during wartime led to famines in three regions under imperial control around the Indian Ocean. The socio-economic structure of these regions had been increasingly differentiated over the period of imperial rule, with large proportions of their populations relying on agricultural labour for their subsistence.

Before the war, food crises in each of the regions had been met by the private importation of grain from national or overseas surplus regions: the grain had been made available through a range of systems, the most complex of which was the Bengal Famine Code in which the able-bodied had to work before receiving money to buy food in the market.

During the Second World War, the loss of control of normal sources of imported grain, the destruction of shipping in the Indian Ocean (by both sides) and the military demands on internal transport systems prevented the use of traditional famine responses when natural events affected grain supply in each of the regions. These circumstances drew the governments into attempts to control their own grain markets.

The food crises raised complex ethical and practical issues for the governments charged with their solution. The most significant of these was that the British Government could have attempted to ship wheat to Bengal but, having lost naval control of the Indian Ocean in 1942 and needing warships in the Atlantic and Mediterranean in 1943 chose to ignore the needs of the people of Bengal, focussing instead on winning the war.

In each of the regions governments allowed/encouraged the balkanisation of the grain supply – at times down to the sub-district level – which at times served to produce waste and corruption, and opened the way for black markets as various groups (inside and outside government ranks) manipulated the local supply.

People were affected in different ways by the changes brought about by the war: some benefitted if their role was important to the war-effort; others suffered. The effect of this was multiplied by the way each government ‘solved’ its financial problems by – in essence – printing money.

Because of the natural events of the period, there would have been food crises in these regions without World War II, but decisions made in the light of wartime exigencies and opportunities turned crises into famines, causing the loss of millions of lives.

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Article
Publication date: 5 June 2020

Adya Hermawati

This study aims to examine the effect of transglobal leadership on quality of work life (QWL), job involvement, organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and human…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the effect of transglobal leadership on quality of work life (QWL), job involvement, organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and human resource (HR) performance of tourism sector-engaged micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs) in East Java; to examine the moderating role of QWL, job involvement and OCB in the effect of transglobal leadership on HR performance of tourism sector-engaged MSMEs in East Java; to examine the effect of HR performance of tourism sector-engaged MSMEs on responsible tourism marketing and sustainable tourism competitiveness in East Java; and to examine the mediating role of responsible tourism marketing in the effect of HR performance of tourism sector-engaged MSMEs on sustainable tourism competitiveness in East Java.

Design/methodology/approach

The population of this research was all HR executives of tourism sector-engaged MSMEs in East Java and domestic and foreign tourists in East Java. The sampling of the tourism sector-engaged MSMEs in East Java (in 16 tourism potential cities) was performed using a purposive sampling technique. Determination of the sample size was made using the minimum criterion from structural model, ranging from 100 to 200. Thus, it was determined that the number of tourism sector-engaged MSMEs studied in this research was 200 enterprises from 16 tourism potential cities in East Java. From each tourism sector MSME, four employees and three tourists were selected. In total, this research involved 800 employees and 600 tourists (both domestic and foreign).

Findings

This research found that transglobal leadership (X) , QBL (M1), job involvement (M2) and OCB (M3) had an effect on HR performance (Y). The results of this research highlighted that QWL variable (M1) moderated the effect of transglobal leadership (X) on HR performance (Y). It was found that job involvement variable (M2) moderated the effect of transglobal leadership (X) on HR performance (Y). This research also detected that OCB variable (M3) moderated the effect of transglobal leadership (X) on HR performance (Y). This research found that HR performance (Y) had an effect on responsible marketing (Z1). It was obtained in this research that HR performance (Y) also had an effect on sustainable tourism competitiveness (Z2). Finally, this research found that responsible marketing (Z1) had an effect on sustainable tourism competitiveness (Z2).

Originality/value

Regarding the originality of this research, the holistic compilation was integrated from the theoretical concept of the HR and marketing strategies through the implementation of the tourism marketing concept and application that are responsible for tourism sector-engaged MSMEs in East Java. Of course, tourists need to get a good understanding of the marketing strategy to participate in controlling the sustainable tourism competitiveness in East Java.

Details

International Journal of Tourism Cities, vol. 6 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-5607

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Article
Publication date: 18 September 2019

Mokhamad Anwar, Sulaeman Rahman Nidar, Ratna Komara and Layyinaturrobaniyah Layyinaturrobaniyah

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between rural banks’ efficiency and their lending provision for micro and small businesses (MSBs) in West Java

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between rural banks’ efficiency and their lending provision for micro and small businesses (MSBs) in West Java Indonesia. Rural banks are special banks that are generally located in the district and sub-district areas and they are very involved in providing loans to MSBs.

Design/methodology/approach

The study includes 212 rural banks in various districts in West Java province over the 2012–2016 period. Data envelopment analysis is employed to obtain banks’ technical efficiency and panel data analysis is used to reveal the impact of rural banks’ efficiency on their loan provision to MSBs.

Findings

The findings reveal that technical efficiency of the rural banks has a significant positive impact on their loan provision to MSBs in West Java Indonesia. These results have underscored the importance of rural banks in maintaining and increasing their bank efficiency levels to enhance their capacity in providing loans to MSBs.

Practical implications

The results of this study have brought some implications for practitioners (rural bank management) to maintain and improve their efficiency in order to expand their capacity to lend to MSBs. The roles of Otoritas Jasa Keuangan or the Indonesia Financial Services Authority in monitoring the efficiency of rural banks and overseeing the provision of their loans to MSBs are also very necessary in ensuring good performance of rural banks in terms of both aspects, respectively.

Social implications

This study highlights the importance of rural banks in providing loans to MSB segments. The contribution of rural banks in stimulating the development of MSBs is believed to be able to produce positive social implications in terms of empowering the economic and social life of MSBs in their local communities.

Originality/value

The study fills the literature gap by revealing a significant relationship between bank efficiency and loan provision for MSBs in the context of rural banks.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

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