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Article
Publication date: 21 August 2003

Shu Yamada and Jun Harashima

A reducing variation of quality characteristics is a typical example of quality improvement. In such a case, we treat the quality characteristic, as a response variable…

Abstract

A reducing variation of quality characteristics is a typical example of quality improvement. In such a case, we treat the quality characteristic, as a response variable and need to find active factors affecting the response from many candidate factors since reducing the variation of the response will be achieved by reducing variation of the active factors. In this paper, we first derive a method of selecting an active factor by linear regression. It is well known that correlation between factors deteriorates the precision of estimators. We, therefore, examine robustness of the selecting method against the correlation in the data set and derive an evaluation method of the deterioration brought by the correlation. Furthermore, some examples of selecting and evaluation methods are shown to demonstrate practical usage of the methods.

Details

Asian Journal on Quality, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1598-2688

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Article
Publication date: 2 January 2018

Keyur D. Vaghela, Bhavesh N. Chaudhary, Bhavbhuti Manojbhai Mehta, V.B. Darji and K.D. Aparnathi

There are various Kreis tests reported in the literature with wide variations in the procedure. The purpose of this paper is to select the most suitable and reliable…

Abstract

Purpose

There are various Kreis tests reported in the literature with wide variations in the procedure. The purpose of this paper is to select the most suitable and reliable method for the rancidity evaluation in ghee.

Design/methodology/approach

Ghee samples were prepared from butter by the direct cream method. They were assessed for early-stage oxidative deterioration by four Kreis tests in an accelerated storage trial at intervals of 48 h. The amount of ghee samples, amount of reagents (chloroform, 30 percent trichloroacetic acid, 1 percent phloroglucinol, and ethanol), incubation temperature and duration were different in the four tests. For each method, the ghee samples were also monitored for changes in flavor at intervals of 48 h by sensory evaluation. Relationships among the Kreis values determined by the four different Kreis tests and flavor scores were established using a correlation analysis.

Findings

The correlation coefficient of the Kreis values determined by different Kreis tests was in decreasing order of: Kreis test-2 (−0.904) > Kreis test-4 (−0.792) > Kreis test-3 (−0.648) > Kreis test-1 (−0.469). Thus, among the four different Kreis tests, Kreis Test-2 reported by Pool and Prater (1945) was found to be more sensitive and more consistent, and have the highest coefficient of correlation (−0.904) with flavor score of ghee during storage at 80±2°C.

Practical implications

The finding of this study will be useful for the selection of an appropriate and reliable Kreis test that can be used for detecting rancidity in ghee at an incipient stage. The development of rancidity in the ghee leads to formation of off-flavor and such an oxidized product is not accepted by the consumer; this leads to economic loss to the manufacturer. Detection of traces of rancidity at an early stage provides an opportunity for industry personnel to take suitable control measures and/or make decisions regarding utilization of the product.

Originality/value

The use of a reliable Kreis test that detects traces of rancidity in a ghee can be very useful for enabling suitable measures to be taken to prevent further oxidative deterioration or to dispose of the ghee as early as possible.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 120 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 14 September 2012

Magda Kandil

The purpose of this paper is to study the role of public and private imbalances in the cyclicality of the current account balance in a sample of advanced and developing…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the role of public and private imbalances in the cyclicality of the current account balance in a sample of advanced and developing countries. Within developing countries, the evidence does not establish the dependency of private investment on private savings and private consumption is the main driver of the saving/investment balance. In contrast, private savings seem to be better mobilized to finance private investment and the latter is the main driver of the saving/investment balance in advanced countries. Deterioration in the current account balance in response to higher private consumption could be detrimental to growth and external stability. In contrast, an investment strategy that promotes growth is likely to attract financial flows and reduce the risk of a widening current account deficit on external stability.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper studies determinants of the current account deficit. It studies current account fluctuations in the short‐run and explains these fluctuations by analyzing movements in the underlying components: public and private savings as well as investments and resulting imbalances. Of particular interest is the interaction between the government budget deficit, the private saving/investment balance, and the current account balance.

Findings

Using time‐series estimates, co‐movements indicate that fluctuations in the current account balance in many advanced countries appear to be driven by private investment that determines cyclicality in imports. In contrast, cyclicality in the current account appears to be driven by private consumption that determines fluctuations in imports in many developing countries. In general, fluctuations in the government budget deficit are mostly driven by government investment and fluctuations in the private saving/investment balance are mostly driven by fluctuations in private investment. Further, fluctuations in the current account balance appear to be mostly driven by fluctuations in the private saving/investment balance.

Originality/value

The paper explains the dynamics of the current account in relation to developments in public and private imbalances and its underlying components. It shows the effects of changes in the budget deficit and its underlying components on cyclicality in the current account. Similarly, cyclicality in the current account balance with cyclical movements in private savings and investment is studied, along with which factors affect the components of the current account balance. In particular, the paper establishes which components of the current account significantly respond to the cyclical changes in macroeconomic variables.

Details

International Journal of Development Issues, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1446-8956

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Article
Publication date: 4 June 2018

Kong Fah Tee, Ejiroghene Ekpiwhre and Zhang Yi

Automated condition surveys have been recently introduced for condition assessment of highway infrastructures worldwide. Accurate predictions of the current state, median…

Abstract

Purpose

Automated condition surveys have been recently introduced for condition assessment of highway infrastructures worldwide. Accurate predictions of the current state, median life (ML) and future state of highway infrastructures are crucial for developing appropriate inspection and maintenance strategies for newly created as well as existing aging highway infrastructures. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper proposes Markov Chain based deterioration modelling using a linear transition probability (LTP) matrix method and a median life expectancy (MLE) algorithm. The proposed method is applied and evaluated using condition improvement between the two successive inspections from the Surface Condition Assessment of National Network of Roads survey of the UK Pavement Management System.

Findings

The proposed LTP matrix model utilises better insight than the generic or decoupling linear approach used in estimating transition probabilities formulated in the past. The simulated LTP predicted conditions are portrayed in a deterioration profile and a pairwise correlation. The MLs are computed statistically with a cumulative distribution function plot.

Originality/value

The paper concludes that MLE is ideal for projecting half asset life, and the LTP matrix approach presents a feasible approach for new maintenance regime when more certain deterioration data become available.

Details

International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, vol. 35 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-671X

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Article
Publication date: 22 June 2021

Olajide Julius Faremi, Oluranti Olupolola Ajayi, Kudirat Ibilola Zakariyyah and Olumide Afolarin Adenuga

The study investigates the extent to which defects in coastline buildings are influenced by the climatic conditions within the coastal zones.

Abstract

Purpose

The study investigates the extent to which defects in coastline buildings are influenced by the climatic conditions within the coastal zones.

Design/methodology/approach

The study conducted both desk study and field survey. The primary data for the study were collected through a cross-sectional survey of facilities and maintenance managers of randomly selected coastline buildings. Of the 120 self-administered structured questionnaires, 102 were successfully retrieved representing an 85% response rate. Data collected were analysed using charts, relative prevalence index and Spearman's rho correlation visualization technique.

Findings

Saltwater intrusion, ocean overflow, extreme rainfall, debris flow, floods and droughts are the prevalent climatic conditions along the coastline. Steel corrosion, foundation settlement, spalling of concrete and fading of finishes are prevalent defects in coastline buildings. The result shows a positive significant correlation between climatic conditions and defects in coastline buildings.

Research limitations/implications

The study compliments literature on buildings resilience and maintenance management, and also provides a basis for streamlining future research on coastline buildings.

Practical implications

The results provide information on climatic conditions and prevalent defects that should be considered during the design and construction of coastline buildings. The information provided could assist construction stakeholders in improving the resilience of coastline buildings.

Originality/value

The study established that coastline buildings are vulnerable to a rapid rate of defect and deterioration which threatens the sustainability of coastline cities. It suggests measures that could improve the resilience of the elements and components of coastline buildings and consequently enhance the safety of life and property, and improve the physical and economic performance of coastline buildings.

Details

Built Environment Project and Asset Management, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-124X

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Article
Publication date: 5 February 2018

Ranganayakulu Chennu

The purpose of this study is to find the thermo-hydraulic performances of compact heat exchangers (CHE’s), which are strongly depending upon the prediction of performance…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to find the thermo-hydraulic performances of compact heat exchangers (CHE’s), which are strongly depending upon the prediction of performance of various types of heat transfer surfaces such as offset strip fins, wavy fins, rectangular fins, triangular fins, triangular and rectangular perforated fins in terms of Colburn “j” and Fanning friction “f” factors.

Design/methodology/approach

Numerical methods play a major role for analysis of compact plate-fin heat exchangers, which are cost-effective and fast. This paper presents the on-going research and work carried out earlier for single-phase steady-state heat transfer and pressure drop analysis on CHE passages and fins. An analysis of a cross-flow plate-fin compact heat exchanger, accounting for the individual effects of two-dimensional longitudinal heat conduction through the exchanger wall, inlet fluid flow maldistribution and inlet temperature non-uniformity are carried out using a Finite Element Method (FEM).

Findings

The performance deterioration of high-efficiency cross-flow plate-fin compact heat exchangers have been reviewed with the combined effects of wall longitudinal heat conduction and inlet fluid flow/temperature non-uniformity using a dedicated FEM analysis. It is found that the performance deterioration is quite significant in some typical applications due to the effects of wall longitudinal heat conduction and inlet fluid flow non-uniformity on cross-flow plate-fin heat exchangers. A Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) program FLUENT has been used to predict the design data in terms of “j” and “f” factors for plate-fin heat exchanger fins. The suitable design data are generated using CFD analysis covering the laminar, transition and turbulent flow regimes for various types of fins.

Originality/value

The correlations for the friction factor “f” and Colburn factor “j” have been found to be good. The correlations can be used by the heat exchanger designers and can reduce the number of tests and modification of the prototype to a minimum for similar applications and types of fins.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 28 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

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Article
Publication date: 14 November 2016

Jiang Hu

The multi-scale numerical simulation method, able to represent the complexity of the random structures and capture phase degradation, is an effective way to investigate…

Abstract

Purpose

The multi-scale numerical simulation method, able to represent the complexity of the random structures and capture phase degradation, is an effective way to investigate the long-term behavior of concrete in service and bridges the gap between research on the material and on the structural level. However, the combined chemical-physical deterioration mechanisms of concrete remain a challenging task. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the degradation mechanism of concrete at the waterline in cold regions induced by combined calcium leaching and frost damage.

Design/methodology/approach

With the help of the NIST’s three-dimensional (3D) hydration model and the random aggregate model, realistic 3D representative volume elements (RVEs) of concrete at the micro-, the meso-, and the macro-scales can be reconstructed. The boundary problem method is introduced to compute the homogenized mechanical properties for both sound and damaged RVEs. According to the damage characteristics, the staggering method including a random dissolution model and a thermo-mechanical coupling model is developed to simulate the synergy deterioration effects of interacted calcium leaching and frost attacks. The coupled damage procedure for the frost damage process is based on the hydraulic pressure theory and the ice lens growth theory considering the relationship between the frozen temperature and the radius of the capillary pore. Finally, regarding calcium leaching as the leading role in actual engineering, the numerical methodology for combined leaching and frost damage on concrete property is proposed using a successive multi-scale method.

Findings

On the basis of available experimental data, this methodology is employed to explore the deterioration process. The results agree with the experimental ones to some extent, chemical leaching leads to the nucleation of some micro-cracks (i.e. damage), and consequently, to the decrease of the frost resistance.

Originality/value

It is demonstrated that the multi-scale numerical methodology can capture potential aging and deterioration evolution processes, and can give an insight into the macroscopic property degradation of concrete under long-term aggressive conditions.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

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Article
Publication date: 15 August 2016

Sridhar N. Ramaswami, Sekar Raju and Dana C. Page

This research aims to examine two constructs that define loyal brand relationships – greater resistance to changing their brand beliefs and attitudes (resistance to…

Abstract

Purpose

This research aims to examine two constructs that define loyal brand relationships – greater resistance to changing their brand beliefs and attitudes (resistance to change) and greater willingness to shun competitor brands (determinism). The paper develops and tests psychometrically sound scales to measure these two constructs and proposes and tests a model that identifies antecedent and outcome linkages between resistance and determinism and other brand relationship measures across two studies.

Design/methodology/approach

Scale development was done following the guidelines recommended by Nunnally and Bernstein (1994) and Churchill (1979). Factor analysis was used to test scale item fit. Discriminant validity, scale reliability tests, nomological and predictive validity tests were conducted.

Findings

This study adds to the literature by identifying the specific dimensions that compose the resistance concept. It finds that strong resistance leads to determinism at the high end. It also finds that brand engagement is an outcome of resistance. In addition, three sub-components of the resistance dimension – resistance to new products that offer higher value, resistance to value improvements of competing offerings and resistance to quality deterioration for the focal or object brand – are also identified and scale items developed to measure them.

Research limitations/implications

Resistance to change and determinism are less understood and researched concepts in the context of brand relationships. Further, these two dimensions are of particular importance in emerging markets such as India because of the changes taking place in these markets with the introduction of many global brands competing with traditional strong brands. For new brands, a key question is how to reduce the resistance that consumers exhibit toward trying out new brands. For existing brands, the key question is how to leverage the resistance that consumers have in trying out a new brand so that greater determinism is built and defections are minimized. This research helps answer some of these questions.

Originality/value

The primary purpose of the study was to identify the specific dimensions that compose the resistance concept. An important aspect of brand relationships is the ability to foster greater strength in the relationship. While the important of resistance has been known, a good scale to measure it has been lacking.

Details

Journal of Indian Business Research, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-4195

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Book part
Publication date: 18 July 2016

Ran Xie, Olga Isengildina-Massa and Julia L. Sharp

Weak-form rationality of fixed-event forecasts implies that forecast revisions should not be correlated. However, significant positive correlations between consecutive…

Abstract

Weak-form rationality of fixed-event forecasts implies that forecast revisions should not be correlated. However, significant positive correlations between consecutive forecast revisions were found in most USDA forecasts for U.S. corn, soybeans, wheat, and cotton. This study developed a statistical procedure for correction of this inefficiency which takes into account the issue of outliers, the impact of forecast size and direction, and the stability of revision inefficiency. Findings suggest that the adjustment procedure has the highest potential for improving accuracy in corn, wheat, and cotton production forecasts.

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Article
Publication date: 7 April 2015

Dr Daniel W.M. CHAN and Henry T.W. Hung

This paper aims to review the current state of building decay in Hong Kong, and attempts to identify and analyze the perceived benefits of implementing the Mandatory…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to review the current state of building decay in Hong Kong, and attempts to identify and analyze the perceived benefits of implementing the Mandatory Building Inspection Scheme (MBIS) via an industry-wide empirical questionnaire survey.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 340 professional respondents who have gained hands-on experience in either new building works or building management or building repair/maintenance were requested to complete a survey questionnaire to indicate the relative importance of those benefits identified in relation to MBIS. The perceived benefits were measured, ranked and compared according to the different roles of industrial practitioners, and between the residents in private premises and those in public estates.

Findings

The survey findings suggested the most significant benefits derived from implementing MBIS to be: raise the overall building safety toward residents and the general public; create more job openings and business opportunities in building repair and maintenance services; and MBIS is an effective solution to address the problems with building decay (e.g. dilapidation and control over the existing unauthorized building works). The results of factor analysis indicated that the 13 perceived benefits of implementing MBIS were consolidated under three underlying factors: addressing building dilapidation and assuring building safety; improving the living environment and upgrading property values; and creating more job openings and business opportunities.

Social implications

As MBIS was officially launched on June 30, 2012, it is expected to be one of the proposed effective measures in resolving the long-standing problems of building neglect and deterioration in Hong Kong and overseas, especially to those existing old private premises.

Originality/value

In the long run, the number of prematurely ageing buildings would be reduced, and the service life span of existing private premises would be prolonged. This is in line with the sustainability principle of providing a better living and the working environment within the community as a whole.

Details

Facilities, vol. 33 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-2772

Keywords

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