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Abstract

The changes in women’s and men’s work lives have been considerable in recent decades. Yet much of the recent research on gender differences in employment and earnings has been of a more snapshot nature rather than taking a longer comparative look at evolving patterns. In this paper, we use 50 years (1964–2013) of US Census Annual Demographic Files (March Current Population Survey) to track the changing returns to human capital (measured as both educational attainment and potential work experience), estimating comparable earnings equations by gender at each point in time. We consider the effects of sample selection over time for both women and men and show the rising effect of selection for women in recent years. Returns to education diverge for women and men over this period in the selection-adjusted results but converge in the OLS results, while returns to potential experience converge in both sets of results. We also create annual calculations of synthetic lifetime labor force participation, hours, and earnings that indicate convergence by gender in worklife patterns, but less convergence in recent years in lifetime earnings. Thus, while some convergence has indeed occurred, the underlying mechanisms causing convergence differ for women and men, reflecting continued fundamental differences in women’s and men’s life experiences.

Details

Gender Convergence in the Labor Market
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-456-6

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Article
Publication date: 2 May 2017

SeEun Jung

The purpose of this paper is to consider a new way of estimating the gender wage gap by introducing individual risk attitudes that is applied to representative Korean data.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to consider a new way of estimating the gender wage gap by introducing individual risk attitudes that is applied to representative Korean data.

Design/methodology/approach

The selection bias via risk attitudes results in the overestimation of this wage gap. Women are more risk averse and hence prefer not to be active in the labour market or, if they are active, prefer to work in the public sector, where wages are generally lower than in the private sector. This paper explains the reduced gender wage gap by developing an appropriate sample-selection model, with wage decompositions corrected for selection.

Findings

Self-selection based on risk attitudes is shown to partly explain the gap that is popularly perceived as reflecting gender discrimination.

Originality/value

It is the first attempt to explain the gender wage gap by looking at the individual risk preference through work status selection.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 38 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Article
Publication date: 9 November 2012

Núria Quella and Silvio Rendon

The purpose of this paper is to measure the effect that knowing the Catalan language has on individuals’ comparative advantage to perform certain jobs in Catalonia…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to measure the effect that knowing the Catalan language has on individuals’ comparative advantage to perform certain jobs in Catalonia (Spain), where Catalan and Spanish coexist.

Design/methodology/approach

Using census data for 1991 and 1996, and for individuals born in Spain, the paper first estimates a Probit model for individuals’ level of Catalan proficiency in order to correct for the possible endogeneity of Catalan knowledge, as it may be jointly determined with occupational selection or be a reflection of unobserved human capital or innate ability. Then, it estimates a bivariate Probit model for the probability of choosing a given occupation conditional on a given Catalan proficiency level.

Findings

The paper finds that advanced proficiency in Catalan reinforces selection into being employed, being an entrepreneur, and into white‐collar occupations and communication‐intensive jobs. Being able to read and speak Catalan increases selection into white collar occupations by between 11 and 16 percentage points, while writing Catalan increases by 4 to 7 percentage points the probability of engaging in services, and government and educational activities.

Practical implications

Because census data are cross‐sectional panel effects on language selection cannot be analyzed. Nevertheless, the paper's results suggest that investing in learning the local language, at the firm and the government level, improves job matching and assimilation of workers to multilingual economies. The authors suggest a cost‐benefit analysis to assess the effectiveness of language policies for further research.

Originality/value

The results contribute to the scarce literature on the economic value of a language, i.e. on how much language knowledge as a form of human capital reinforces individuals’ comparative advantage to perform certain tasks.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 33 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Article
Publication date: 5 October 2015

Miao Chi

– The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether immigrants in the USA receive an earnings premium associated with marrying a native.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether immigrants in the USA receive an earnings premium associated with marrying a native.

Design/methodology/approach

The raw premium revealed by the 2000 US Census data is suspect due to possible endogeneity and selection bias. Instrumental variables estimation, a sample selection model, and a counterfactual construction method are used to address these issues.

Findings

Results suggest a positive and modest intermarriage premium, although the magnitude varies with the estimation technique. The evidence is particularly strong for immigrants with high English proficiency, college graduates, and immigrants older than 12 upon arrival in the USA.

Originality/value

It is shown that the size of intermarriage premiums varies significantly across different immigrant groups. The empirical results provide insights into the economic assimilation process and mechanisms through which intermarriage influences the labor market outcomes of immigrants.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 36 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2006

Patrick L. O'Halloran and David J. Bashaw

This paper aims to determine the characteristics of board certification among US physicians and to test whether accounting for the expected gains to certification alters…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to determine the characteristics of board certification among US physicians and to test whether accounting for the expected gains to certification alters the pattern of the determinants of board certification.

Design/methodology/approach

Splitting the sample into sub‐samples by characteristics associated with certification/non‐certification identified in a probit, the incremental gain to certification from log‐earnings equations is identified. Realizing that these methods are susceptible to sample selection, correction is made for it using the Heckman approach. Using the sample selection corrected equations, the expected gain to certification among those who certify is then predicted and those who do not certify is then predicted and this difference is included as a proxy for the expected gain in the original probit to ascertain whether including the expected gain alters the determinants of certification.

Findings

Accounting for the expected gain alters the pattern of the determinants of certification. Although some groups such as blacks appear less likely to certify, after accounting for their expected return to certification, they are not as less likely. This is explained in terms of the expected marginal return to certification, market structure and practice setting.

Research limitations/implications

The data used in the analysis apply only to young physicians in the USA. Also, these results may be applicable only to the particular cohort used in this analysis.

Practical implications

The findings help to explain the absence of minority board certified physicians within the USA.

Originality/value

This paper is the first to simultaneously estimate the returns to physician board certification and the decision to obtain certification.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 27 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Book part
Publication date: 23 November 2020

Carolina Castagnetti, Luisa Rosti and Marina Töpfer

This paper analyzes the age pay gap in Italy (22%), particularly as it is of interest in an aging society and as it may affect social cohesion. Instead of the traditional…

Abstract

This paper analyzes the age pay gap in Italy (22%), particularly as it is of interest in an aging society and as it may affect social cohesion. Instead of the traditional approach for model selection, we use a machine-learning approach (post double robust Least Absolute Shrinkage Operator [LASSO]). This approach allows us to reduce Omitted Variable Bias (OVB), given data restrictions, and to obtain a robust estimate of the conditional age pay gap. We then decompose the conditional gap and analyze the impact of four further potential sources of heterogeneity (workers', sectors', and occupations' permanent heterogeneity as well as sample selection bias). The results suggest that age discrimination in pay is only perceived but not real in Italy for both men and women.

Details

Change at Home, in the Labor Market, and On the Job
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-933-5

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1990

A.J. Dolby

A case study of the analysis of operator reponse times following an abnormal event is presented. A number of timings of operator responses on a full‐scale nuclear plant…

Abstract

A case study of the analysis of operator reponse times following an abnormal event is presented. A number of timings of operator responses on a full‐scale nuclear plant simulator have been taken. These timings are compared with the human cognitive reliability (HCR) model. Agreement with the basic framework of the model is shown. Based on the data collected and on operators′ judgements on behaviour differences on simulators and the plant, criticisms of some aspects of the model are raised. The principal findings are: (1) the technique relies on the judgement of the analyst in the correct selection of behaviour type. The results of the analysis are very sensitive to this behaviour type; (2) the methods proposed for estimating the median response time are questioned, particularly when applying data from simulator measurements to the plant.

Details

International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, vol. 7 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-671X

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1995

Keith C. Bendall

A very wide variety of alloy types are available for selection to combat the potential corrosion problems posed in a diverse range of industries. Although in today's…

Abstract

A very wide variety of alloy types are available for selection to combat the potential corrosion problems posed in a diverse range of industries. Although in today's climate cost reduction is an important goal, the price of unexpected failure of equipment is often measured as risk to human life, and materials selection must always be given a prime place in design, engineering and construction. Material selection should not be based simply on low installed cost of equipment — the need to maintain safety standards and effective long‐term utilization of a production asset, with minimum costly maintenance and downtime, mandate the selection of materials which can be justified on the basis of life‐cycle cost and risk analysis. The material chosen should provide the lowest cost viable, and if possible, “fit and forget” solution. In the Offshore Oil and Gas industry in the North Sea the solution adopted would need to address the CRINE cost reduction strategy.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 42 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Article
Publication date: 30 October 2019

Li Li, Atsushi Tsunekawa, Ian MacLachlan, Guicai Li, Atsushi Koike and Yuanyuan Guo

The purpose of this paper is to examine the factors (including conservation payments) that influence household decisions to participate in off-farm work and estimate the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the factors (including conservation payments) that influence household decisions to participate in off-farm work and estimate the impact of participation on household welfare under the auspices of the Grain for Green (GfG) program.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors used survey data from 225 farm households on the Loess Plateau and addressed the possible sample selection and endogeneity problems by employing a jointly estimated endogenous switching regression (ESR) model.

Findings

The findings of this paper are as follows: off-farm participation is positively related to households’ educational attainment and negatively related to their land resource endowment and the presence of children; participation in off-farm work exerts positive effects on household income and per capita household income, but negative effects on farm productivity; and conservation payments show no significant impact on off-farm participation, no significant impact on any of the three household welfare indicators for off-farm non-participant households, but a significantly negative impact for off-farm participant households.

Originality/value

This paper makes two contributions. First, the authors address the selection bias and endogeneity problem of GfG participating households by employing the ESR method and explicitly estimating the treatment effects of off-farm participation on their household welfare. Neglecting these problems leads to biased estimates and misleading policy implications. Second, this analysis stresses the important role of government in reducing market or institutional failure and other barriers that impede farmers’ efficient allocation choices instead of compensating households for conserving sloping land, shedding new light on the most effective policy options to achieve the program’s goals.

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

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Abstract

Details

Review of Marketing Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-726-1

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