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Book part
Publication date: 7 September 2020

Oleg E. Afanasiev, Alexandra V. Afanasieva, Mikhail A. Sarancha and Matvey S. Oborin

The present chapter has reviewed the opportunities and limitations of the Russian Federation to situate as a leading international destination. There are significant

Abstract

The present chapter has reviewed the opportunities and limitations of the Russian Federation to situate as a leading international destination. There are significant methodological and conceptual issues during the assessment of the world countries and regions safety level. They are caused by lack of the universal assessment method of such risks, incompleteness of the risk criteria taken into consideration, subjective assessment factors, and occasional substitution of the risk factors with the political–competitive ones. Still, the safety issue is one of the most important for a modern tourist. The available information resources, providing their own safety level assessment of the world countries and regions for travellers, differ between them in terms of the selected categories, specified safety levels of the countries and regions and also in terms of understanding and details of the travel risk notion itself. But the greatest challenge for an ordinary tourist, who does not have experience in searching specialised information, is to become familiar with these information resources.

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Tourism, Terrorism and Security
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-905-7

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Article
Publication date: 29 July 2014

Norbert Gaillard

This paper aims to shed new light on the inability of credit rating agencies (CRAs) to forecast the recent defaults and so-called quasi-defaults of rich countries. It also…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to shed new light on the inability of credit rating agencies (CRAs) to forecast the recent defaults and so-called quasi-defaults of rich countries. It also describes how Moody’s sovereign rating methodology has been modified – and could be further improved – to solve this problem.

Design/methodology/approach

After converting bond yields into yield-implied ratings, accuracy ratios are computed to compare the respective performances of CRAs and market participants. Then Iceland’s and Greece’s ratings at the beginning of the Great Recession are estimated while accounting for the parameters included in the new methodology implemented by Moody’s in 2013.

Findings

Market participants outperformed Moody’s and Standard & Poor’s in terms of anticipating the sovereign debt crisis that hit several European countries starting in 2008. However, the new methodology implemented by Moody’s should lead to more conservative and accurate sovereign ratings.

Originality/value

The chronic inability of CRAs to anticipate public debt crises in rich countries is dangerous because the countries affected – which are generally rated in the investment-grade category – are substantially downgraded, amplifying the sovereign debt crisis. This study is the first to demonstrate that Moody’s has learned from its recent failures. In addition, it recommends ways to detect serious threats to the creditworthiness of high-income countries.

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Article
Publication date: 12 November 2018

Mohamed Battour, Fatemeh Hakimian, Mohd Ismail and Erhan Boğan

This paper aims to explore the perceptions of non-Muslim tourists towards halal tourism in Malaysia and Turkey. It also investigates the extent to which non-Muslim…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore the perceptions of non-Muslim tourists towards halal tourism in Malaysia and Turkey. It also investigates the extent to which non-Muslim tourists are willing to purchase certain types of halal products and services.

Design/methodology/approach

Qualitative data were collected by conducting 35 semi-structured interviews with non-Muslim tourists in Malaysia and another 25 in Turkey.

Findings

Six major aspects are identified that describe the perceptions of non-Muslim tourists towards halal tourism. This paper also provides some suggestions for destination marketers on how best to cater for Western tourists and increase international arrivals.

Originality/value

This paper explores the perceptions of non-Muslim tourists towards halal tourism which is totally new research in destination marketing. It provides some original insights into the interactions between the religion of Islam and non-Muslim tourists. The insight should be of value to authorities, the industry and academics in both the Muslim and non-Muslim worlds.

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Journal of Islamic Marketing, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0833

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Book part
Publication date: 23 September 2019

Ido Davidovich

In this chapter, I analyze former US president Barack Obama’s foreign policy decision-making process during his two terms of presidency between the years 2008 and 2016…

Abstract

In this chapter, I analyze former US president Barack Obama’s foreign policy decision-making process during his two terms of presidency between the years 2008 and 2016. The analysis covers six decisions with an emphasis on decisions concerning conflicts that embodied a potential for the use of force.

Using the Applied Decision Analysis (ADA) method, I find that Barack Obama’s decision-making pattern in these decisions fits the poliheuristic decision theory, where the domestic politics dimension constitutes a non-compensatory dimension. By understanding President Obama’s use of the poliheuristic decision code, this study can offer an explanation to his willingness to use force in some cases, and his avoidance of the use of force in others.

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Article
Publication date: 12 January 2015

Anthony Feinstein and Stephen Starr

More journalists died in Syria during 2013 than in any other country experiencing conflict. This statistic raises concerns about the psychological wellbeing of journalists…

Abstract

Purpose

More journalists died in Syria during 2013 than in any other country experiencing conflict. This statistic raises concerns about the psychological wellbeing of journalists covering the internecine violence. The paper aims to discuss this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

The study sample was made up of 59 western journalists currently covering the Syrian conflict. To place these results in the broader context of war journalism previously collected data from a group of 84 journalists who had reported the war in Iraq were used as a control sample. Outcome measures included indices of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (Impact of Event Scale-revised) and psychological distress (General Health Questionnaire-28 item version (GHQ-28)).

Findings

Compared to journalists who covered the Iraq war, the journalists working in Syria were more likely to be female (p=0.007), single (p=0.018), freelance (p=0.0001) and had worked fewer years as a journalist (p=0.012). They were more depressed according to the GHQ-28 (p=0.001) and endorsed more individual symptoms of depression including worthlessness (p=0.012), helplessness (p=0.02) and suicidal intent (p=0.003). A linear regression analysis revealed that the group differences in depression data could not be accounted for by demographic factors.

Research limitations/implications

An absence of structured interviews. Results not applicable to local Syrian journalists.

Practical implications

Western journalists covering Syrian appear to be particularly vulnerable to the development of depression. Journalists and the news organizations that employ them need to be cognizant of data such as these. Given that depression is treatable, there needs to be a mechanism in place to detect and treat those in need.

Originality/value

This is the first study that highlights the emotional toll on western journalists covering the Syrian conflict.

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Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-6599

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Article
Publication date: 11 December 2017

Sebastian Stoermer, Samuel E. Davies, Oliver Bahrisch and Fedor Portniagin

Corporate business activities can require expatriates to relocate to dangerous countries. Applying the expectancy value theory, the purpose of this paper is to investigate…

Abstract

Purpose

Corporate business activities can require expatriates to relocate to dangerous countries. Applying the expectancy value theory, the purpose of this paper is to investigate differences in female and male expatriates in their relocation willingness to dangerous countries as a function of sensation seeking. The authors further examine money orientation as a moderator of the effects of sensation seeking.

Design/methodology/approach

The sample is comprised of 148 expatriates currently residing in safe host countries. The authors build and examine a moderated mediation model using the PROCESS tool.

Findings

The results show that male expatriates are more sensation seeking than female expatriates. Further, the results indicate a positive main effect of sensation seeking on relocation willingness to dangerous countries. Most importantly, sensation seeking was found to mediate the effects of gender on relocation willingness. Accordingly, male expatriates are more willing to relocate to dangerous countries due to higher sensation seeking. Money orientation was not found to interact with sensation seeking.

Research limitations/implications

The authors analyzed cross-sectional data. Future studies are encouraged to use multi-wave research designs and to examine further predictors, as well as mediators and moderators of relocation willingness to dangerous countries. Another limitation is the low number of organizational expatriates in the sample.

Practical implications

The study provides implications for the process of selecting eligible individuals who are willing to relocate to dangerous countries.

Originality/value

The study is among the first research endeavors to investigate antecedents of expatriates’ relocation willingness to dangerous countries. The authors also introduce the sensation seeking construct to the literature on expatriation management.

Details

Journal of Global Mobility, vol. 5 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-8799

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Book part
Publication date: 11 August 2014

Nikolaos Georgantzis and Efi Vasileiou

This article tests whether workers are indifferent between risky and safe jobs provided that, in labor market equilibrium, wages should serve as a utility equalizing…

Abstract

This article tests whether workers are indifferent between risky and safe jobs provided that, in labor market equilibrium, wages should serve as a utility equalizing device. Workers’ preferences are elicited through a partial measure of overall job satisfaction: satisfaction with job-related risk. Given that selectivity turns out to be important, we use selectivity corrected models. Results show that wage differentials do not exclusively compensate workers for being in dangerous jobs. However, as job characteristics are substitutable in workers’ utility, they could feel satisfied, even if they were not fully compensated financially for working in dangerous jobs.

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New Analyses of Worker Well-Being
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-056-7

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1979

In order to succeed in an action under the Equal Pay Act 1970, should the woman and the man be employed by the same employer on like work at the same time or would the…

Abstract

In order to succeed in an action under the Equal Pay Act 1970, should the woman and the man be employed by the same employer on like work at the same time or would the woman still be covered by the Act if she were employed on like work in succession to the man? This is the question which had to be solved in Macarthys Ltd v. Smith. Unfortunately it was not. Their Lordships interpreted the relevant section in different ways and since Article 119 of the Treaty of Rome was also subject to different interpretations, the case has been referred to the European Court of Justice.

Details

Managerial Law, vol. 22 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

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Article
Publication date: 11 December 2017

Pia Charlotte Faeth and Markus G. Kittler

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the differing perceptions of fear of expatriates operating in terror-exposed Nairobi and the high-crime environment of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the differing perceptions of fear of expatriates operating in terror-exposed Nairobi and the high-crime environment of Johannesburg and its impact on stress and well-being. It illustrates how expatriates cope with the challenges associated with these two regions.

Design/methodology/approach

Following an interpretative and inductive research approach, qualitative content analyses were conducted using evidence from in-depth interviews with 12 expatriates in senior management or officer positions within a large global organisation, with respondents based in South Africa and Kenya.

Findings

Data suggest that expatriates in the more terrorism-exposed context perceive fear less strongly than expatriates in environments categorised by high degrees of conventional crime. Fear seems to relate to physical well-being via restricted freedom of movement, but there is little evidence that fear affects mental well-being. The study finds that respondents in terror-exposed Nairobi tend to engage more in avoidance-oriented coping strategies, whereas their counterparts in the high-crime environment of Johannesburg predominantly rely on problem-focused coping.

Practical implications

The qualitative design allows practitioners to better understand expatriates’ perceptions of fear, its consequences for stress, and well-being and potential coping strategies expatriates employ. It discusses a set of practical recommendations focussing on the deployment of expatriates assigned to dangerous locations.

Originality/value

This study develops a distinction between terror and conventional crime and contributes with practical insights for assignments into dangerous work environments. The geographic lens of the study provides an in-depth look at expatriation challenges in an arguably neglected regional context.

Details

Journal of Global Mobility: The Home of Expatriate Management Research, vol. 5 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-8799

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Book part
Publication date: 18 November 2020

Elliott Currie

A central focus of Sustainable Development Goal 16 is to ‘Significantly reduce all forms of violence and related death rates everywhere’. This chapter explores the…

Abstract

A central focus of Sustainable Development Goal 16 is to ‘Significantly reduce all forms of violence and related death rates everywhere’. This chapter explores the magnitude of this task, focussing on the persistence – and in some cases intensification – of stark differences both within and between societies around the world in the level of suffering and death imposed by ‘ordinary’ violence in the streets and homes. These differences dramatically shape the lived experience of people on different sides of what I call the ‘violence divide’. At the extreme, they produce rates of violent death that are over 200 times higher in the most dangerous countries than in the least. These disparities are both a consequence and a cause of failures of sustainable and equitable development. They are sharpest and most consequential between parts of the global South and most of the advanced industrial societies, but they also appear in stark relief within some advanced societies, most notably the United States, reflecting broader, enduring inequities that are only weakly challenged, if at all, in the current political climate. Reducing these fundamental disparities in life and death will require moving well beyond the relatively minor criminal justice reforms and limited prevention efforts that often dominate national and international dialogue, to grapple seriously with the structural forces that breed them.

Details

The Emerald Handbook of Crime, Justice and Sustainable Development
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-355-5

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