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Book part
Publication date: 12 November 2018

Jason A. Smith

Racism in the United States is complex given the cultural logics that uphold notions of “post-race” or “colorblindness” as a means for understanding racialized events. The various…

Abstract

Racism in the United States is complex given the cultural logics that uphold notions of “post-race” or “colorblindness” as a means for understanding racialized events. The various forces at play within media institutions create paradoxes in the power that the media wields in society. Utilizing the concept of “media spectacle” and putting it into dialogue with colorblind racism, the author looks at local coverage of the 2009 arrest of Henry Louis Gates. The author’s primary concern is to identify not only the narratives that uphold or challenge colorblind racism during racialized events, but also the dynamic in which racialized events are mediated in contemporary society. Through a critical discourse analysis of two Boston newspapers, the author demonstrates the way colorblind racism adapts during a racialized event. This study demonstrates the contested nature of the media and nuance to the ways we understand colorblind racism in an increasingly mediated society.

Details

Media and Power in International Contexts: Perspectives on Agency and Identity
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-455-2

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 20 May 2019

Lucius Couloute

Over 600,000 people are released from federal and state prisons each year, up from about 160,000 in 1980. As such, the reentry literature is framed around these individuals and…

Abstract

Over 600,000 people are released from federal and state prisons each year, up from about 160,000 in 1980. As such, the reentry literature is framed around these individuals and the personal barriers to reintegration they face. Less work, however, explicitly investigates the role reentry professionals and organizations play in actively shaping the reentry terrain. Using ethnographic observations, document analysis, and interviews with both criminal justice professionals and ex-prisoners, this chapter examines how an organizational field constructs reentry as a racially colorblind process. Although race and racism shape criminal justice, labor market, and other institutional experiences, I find that the positioning of reentry as meritocracy operates to both explain and justify the inequalities experienced by ex-prisoners.

Details

Race, Organizations, and the Organizing Process
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-492-3

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1991

R.D. Rust, D.A. Doane and I. Sawchyn

The bonding of surface mounted components to printed wiring boards (PWBs) is critical to the high yield assembly of components to the PWB. This process is one of the last steps…

Abstract

The bonding of surface mounted components to printed wiring boards (PWBs) is critical to the high yield assembly of components to the PWB. This process is one of the last steps performed in a complicated manufacturing and assembly sequence. Poor bondability at this late stage of assembly produces costly scrap. Aggressive wet‐chemical processes may succeed in cleaning the residues from the metal bonding lands, but in the process the polymeric materials that surround the land areas may be mechanically or visually damaged. Even when processing is carefully controlled during the final formation of land areas in the conformal coating, a thin residue, often invisible to the eye, can partially or fully cover the bonding land area. The residue may be extremely thin, but it inhibits bonding and is very resistant to conventional wet‐chemical cleaning methods. Plasma chemical etching is the one chemical process which can remove the residue from the metal lands and restore bondability without damaging other surfaces of the ready‐to‐assemble PWB. This paper reports examples of plasma removed residues from PWB surface mount bonding lands. The land areas are defined in photodefinable conformal coatings by conventional photolithographic techniques and have a non‐visible surface residue which inhibits the subsequent plating or soldering of the copper land. Auger analyses of the copper land surfaces prior to plasma processing show significant carbon peaks indicative of a polymeric residue. Auger analyses of the copper land surfaces following plasma processing show that the strong carbon peaks are gone.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 17 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Book part
Publication date: 20 May 2019

Victor Ray and Danielle Purifoy

This chapter connects colorblind ideology to organizational processes. Despite advances in our thinking about colorblindness as the current dominant racial ideology, scholars are…

Abstract

This chapter connects colorblind ideology to organizational processes. Despite advances in our thinking about colorblindness as the current dominant racial ideology, scholars are reluctant to tie this ideology to organizational processes – creating the impression that colorblindness is an individual attribute rather than a structural phenomenon. Because the frames of colorblindness are usually interpreted through interviews – as opposed to organizational practices – focusing on the frames reinforces the sense that ideologies are free-floating prejudices unconnected to social structures. In this theoretical piece, we draw on the organizational literature, to tie Bonilla-Silva’s colorblind frames – abstract liberalism, cultural racism, the minimization of racism, and naturalization – to organizational processes, showing how mundane organizational procedures reinforce structural inequality. We argue that organizational policies and practices rely on normative Whiteness, devaluing the cultural norms of nonwhites, and passing those practices to successive administrations. Ostensibly nonracial procedures such as hiring, promotion, and performance reviews are rife with racialized meanings.

Details

Race, Organizations, and the Organizing Process
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-492-3

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 22 February 2023

Jason A. Smith and Richard T. Craig

Racialization is an important concept when looking at structural mechanisms that perpetuate racial inequalities. The State, and its various organizational spaces of action, is…

Abstract

Racialization is an important concept when looking at structural mechanisms that perpetuate racial inequalities. The State, and its various organizational spaces of action, is often seen as a site for race to be enacted. Policy sectors such as housing, education, taxation, and immigration have been ripe areas of research that reflect this. However, media policy research has not effectively engaged with this critical conception. Media policy research has been driven by political economy perspectives within the field of Mass Communication and Media Studies, and can benefit from an approach that analyzes it in relation to social science perspectives that focus on processes which constitute, or are constituted by, actors, groups, and organizations. Our hope is that future researchers will find this volume useful in further developing critical studies of media policy that take into account race as a social force.

Details

Racializing Media Policy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80455-736-5

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1993

J. Lau, T. Krulevitch, W. Schar, M. Heydinger, S. Erasmus and J. Gleason

The mechanical and thermal responses of encapsulated flip chip solder bumps on a surface laminar circuit (SLC) board have been determined in this study. The mechanical responses…

Abstract

The mechanical and thermal responses of encapsulated flip chip solder bumps on a surface laminar circuit (SLC) board have been determined in this study. The mechanical responses of the solder bumps and encapsulant have been obtained by shear, tension and torsion tests. The thermal stress and strain in the solder bumps and encapsulant have been determined by a non‐linear finite element method and the thermal fatigue life of the corner solder bump is then estimated based on the calculated plastic strains, Coffin‐Manson law and isothermal fatigue data of solders. Also, an assembly process of the test boards is presented.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 19 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Article
Publication date: 2 February 2018

Wojciech Stęplewski, Andrzej Dziedzic, Kamil Janeczek, Aneta Araźna, Krzysztof Lipiec, Janusz Borecki and Tomasz Serzysko

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the behavior of embedded passives under changing temperature conditions. Influence of different temperature changes on the basic…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the behavior of embedded passives under changing temperature conditions. Influence of different temperature changes on the basic properties of embedded passives was analyzed. The main reason for these investigations was to determine functionality of passives for space application.

Design/methodology/approach

The investigations were based on the thin-film resistors made of Ni-P alloy, thick-film resistors made of carbon or carbon-silver inks, embedded capacitors made of FaradFlex materials and embedded inductor made in various configurations. Prepared samples were examined under the influence of a constant elevated temperature (100, 130 or 160°C) in a long period of time (minimum of 30 h), thermal cycles (from −40 to +85°C) or thermal shocks (from −40 to +105°C or from −40 to +125°C).

Findings

The achieved results revealed that resistance drift became bigger when the samples were treated at a higher constant temperature. At the same time, no significant difference in change in electrical properties for 50 and 100 Ω resistors was noticed. For all the tests, resistance change was below 2 per cent regardless of a value of the tested resistors. Conducted thermal shock studies indicate that thin-film resistors, coils and some thick-film resistors are characterized by minor variations in basic parameters. Some of the inks may show considerable resistance variations with temperature changes. Significant changes were also exhibited by embedded capacitors.

Originality/value

The knowledge about the behavior of the operating parameters of embedded components considering environmental conditions allow for development of more complex systems with integrated printed circuit boards.

Article
Publication date: 1 April 1994

T. zur Nieden

The driving forces behind recent significant improvements in organic packages for microelectronic applications are electrical performance, product weight, size and manufacturing…

Abstract

The driving forces behind recent significant improvements in organic packages for microelectronic applications are electrical performance, product weight, size and manufacturing cost. A very careful selection of optimum manufacturing processes, equipment and materials, and stringent control of critical manufacturing operations are prerequisites for success in this emerging market place. Major technical and business related challenges to a printed circuit board manufacturer who plans to enter this market are discussed.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 21 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Article
Publication date: 7 January 2014

Dmitriy Chulkov

– This study aims to examine the economic factors that determine innovation pattern in centralized and decentralized economies and organizations.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the economic factors that determine innovation pattern in centralized and decentralized economies and organizations.

Design/methodology/approach

Empirical evidence on innovation in the centralized economy of the Soviet Union is reviewed. Existing theoretical literature in this area relies on the incentives of decision-makers in centralized organizations and on the concept of soft budget constraint in centralized command economies and hard budget constraint in market economies. This study advocates applying the hierarchy/polyarchy model of innovation screening to explain the pattern of innovation in centralized economic systems.

Findings

Screening and development of innovation projects can be organized in a centralized or decentralized fashion. The differences in innovation between centralized and decentralized economic systems may be explained by elements of the principal-agent theory, the soft budget constraint model, and the theory of decision-making in hierarchies and polyarchies. Empirical evidence shows a sharp slowdown in both innovation and economic growth in the Soviet economy following the economic decision-making reform of 1965. The theoretical explanation most consistent with this evidence is the hierarchy decision-making model.

Originality/value

Comparisons of innovation in centralized and decentralized economies traditionally relied on decision-makers' incentives and the concept of soft budget constraint. Upon analysis of empirical evidence from the centralized Soviet economy, this study advocates explaining innovation patterns based on decision-making theory of hierarchy.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 41 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 December 2005

Stevina U. Evuleocha

The purpose of this paper is to examine how shadow constituents are redefining corporate social responsibility (CSR) through activism, and how oil companies in Nigeria are…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine how shadow constituents are redefining corporate social responsibility (CSR) through activism, and how oil companies in Nigeria are responding to this development.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper contributes to the conceptual framework of CSR which asserts that whereas all stakeholders of a company do not have an equal say in its strategic direction, they are affected by such direction, and must hence be considered.

Findings

The findings reveal these points: activists are gaining a strong foothold in forcing oil companies to cooperate with their vision of social change; Nigeria lacks legislation compelling oil companies to contribute to the development of their host communities; and although internal oil company documents suggest efforts to help their hosts communities have been made, no meaningful agreement between the oil companies and the indigenous communities have been reached.

Research limitations/implications

The paper encourages a broader conception of CSR. Shadow constituents have become such influence wielding stakeholders in organizations today that we need to explore more fully the role they play in dictating public agenda and influencing policy globally.

Practical implications

Multinational corporations can develop a better understanding of strategies and techniques that can enable them to balance the interests of a wider group of stakeholders and manage the interconnected social, environmental and economic impacts of their businesses.

Originality/value

This paper enriches the research database on CSR.

Details

Corporate Communications: An International Journal, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-3289

Keywords

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