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Article
Publication date: 18 April 2017

Jakob Lauring, Poul Houman Andersen, Marianne Storgaard and Hanne Kragh

This paper aims to identify antecedents for, and consequences of, low-intensity inter-unit conflict in multinational corporations (MNCs). Inter-unit conflict in MNCs is an…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to identify antecedents for, and consequences of, low-intensity inter-unit conflict in multinational corporations (MNCs). Inter-unit conflict in MNCs is an important and well-researched theme. However, while most studies have focused on open conflict acknowledged by both parties, much less research has dealt with low-intensity conflicts. Still, low-intensity conflicts can be highly damaging – not least because they are rarely resolved.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors used a qualitative approach to understanding low-intensity conflict relying on 170 interviews in four Danish MNCs.

Findings

They describe consequences of low-intensity conflict and identify three types of actions by headquarters’ representatives that could lead to the development of low-intensity conflicts, namely, ignoring, bypassing and educating.

Originality/value

Very few studies have dealt with low-intensity conflict – not least in international business research. The authors argue that the study of low-intensity conflict in MNCs can provide relevant, novel knowledge of MNC functioning.

Details

Multinational Business Review, vol. 25 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1525-383X

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Article
Publication date: 16 October 2007

Ping Kit Lam, Kwai Sang Chin and Kit Fai Pun

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the distribution of conflict over various NPD phases and identify the main sources of conflict and the five conflict handling…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the distribution of conflict over various NPD phases and identify the main sources of conflict and the five conflict handling styles in new product development (NPD) from the context of buyer‐supplier collaboration.

Design/methodology/approach

A list of the sources of conflict was developed and five conflict handling styles in NPD were identified based on literature review and the opinions of manufacturing experts in Hong Kong. An empirical study comprising a series of personal interviews and a mailed survey was conducted to acquire empirical findings from industry practitioners and suppliers on the conflict issues in collaborative NPD. The relationships between NPD performance and conflict intensity as well as conflict handling styles were analysed. Both reliability and construct validity of the study construct were measured.

Findings

The study identified 16 sources of conflict and demonstrated that conflict has a significant negative relationship with NPD performance in terms of product quality, and meeting of target development costs and delivery schedule. The results also showed that cooperative styles (i.e. integrating and obliging) are effective and uncooperative styles (i.e. dominating and avoiding) are ineffective, whereas compromising is a neutral approach.

Research limitations/implications

This research was based on four industry sectors including electronics, toys, machinery, and watches and clocks in Hong Kong. Generalisability to other industries or countries may be limited.

Practical implications

The findings verified that a negative relationship exists between conflict intensity and NPD performance. Both the clients and suppliers should maintain a sustainable level of conflict and should enhance their conflict handling efforts and skills for effective conflict resolutions.

Originality/value

From a suppliers' viewpoint, this paper provides some insights into how client‐supplier collaboration and conflict resolutions could improve NPD performance.

Details

International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, vol. 24 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-671X

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Article
Publication date: 12 June 2017

Peter T. Coleman, Katharina G. Kugler and Ljubica Chatman

Although mediation has increased considerably in popularity and usage, it lacks a coherent framework and evidence base to illuminate the conditions under which different…

Abstract

Purpose

Although mediation has increased considerably in popularity and usage, it lacks a coherent framework and evidence base to illuminate the conditions under which different types of mediation strategies are most effective. This has resulted in a wide array of strategies and tactics being offered to mediators, with little sense of which may work best under different conditions. This paper aims to further develop a contingency model of adaptive mediation.

Design/methodology/approach

The current paper extends previous research on adaptive mediation by presenting findings from focus group and survey research with experienced mediators that help to further develop and specify a new adaptive model of mediation.

Findings

The findings support the utility of a contingency model of adaptive mediation based on the four fundamental dimensions of mediation situations (conflict intensity, situational constraints, cooperative vs competitive disputant relationships and overt vs covert issues and processes) for better understanding and predicting changes in mediator strategies independent of mediator style preferences.

Research limitations/implications

The present studies reflect the behavioral tactics experienced mediators recommend when facing the four distinct challenges to mediation. Research has yet to determine whether the sets of tactics recommended would actually be more successfully used in mediations presenting the four challenges. Subsequent research should assess the relative effects of the use of the different behavioral strategies under these conditions.

Originality/value

The program of research described and extended in this paper is an attempt to develop an integrative model of adaptive mediation, which can ultimately enhance the critical link between mediation research on the one hand and mediation practice on the other.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 28 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

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Article
Publication date: 3 October 2008

Oluremi B. Ayoko and Andre A. Pekerti

Although a great deal of research has focused on the effect of trust on conflict, little research has examined the impact of conflict on trust. The purpose of this paper…

Abstract

Purpose

Although a great deal of research has focused on the effect of trust on conflict, little research has examined the impact of conflict on trust. The purpose of this paper is to present a model that investigates the relationship between conflict types (task, relationship and process), conflict features (intensity and duration), communication openness (CO) and workplace trust.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 510 employees from public sector organizations. The authors tested the direct effects of the hypothesized links with linear regressions while the mediation effects were tested using the Sobel test. Finally, the authors followed Kenny and Baron's procedure to test the moderation effects.

Findings

Results from the regression analyses confirm that conflict features (intensity and duration) fully mediated the link between conflict types (task, relationship and process) and trust, while CO moderated the relationship between conflict features and trust. In addition, prolonged conflict duration was linked with trust. Implications of the findings are discussed.

Research limitations/implications

The study is cross sectional and some of our scales have few items. In future, more robust scales in a longitudinal study should be used to further deepen our understanding of the association between the variables in our model. In addition, we have studied the concept of trust as perceived by the employees without distinguishing between high‐ and low‐trust perceptions. Future studies should compare levels of trust associated with the different types of conflict and especially varying magnitude of conflict intensity (e.g. low, mid and high) at different times.

Originality/value

The study provides new insights into the influence that conflict (task, relationship and process) may have on trust and the moderating role of CO in the link between conflict and trust. The paper also offers a practical assistance to group members and leaders that are interested in building trust especially in the presence of conflict.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 19 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2002

Kevin L. Webb and John E. Hogan

Today’s dynamic markets are forcing firms to design increasingly complex channel strategies involving multiple channels of distribution. As the complexity of these systems…

Abstract

Today’s dynamic markets are forcing firms to design increasingly complex channel strategies involving multiple channels of distribution. As the complexity of these systems increases, so too does the opportunity for conflict between individual channel coalitions within the firm. Whereas this hybrid channel conflict can reduce channel performance, it can also serve as a mechanism forcing internal channel coalitions to work harder and smarter to serve their markets. In this paper, we develop and test six hypotheses related to hybrid channel conflict. The findings indicate that hybrid channel conflict is an important determinant of both channel performance and satisfaction. The results suggest further that the relationship between hybrid channel conflict and channel performance is moderated by the lifecycle stage. Moreover, our data support the view that the frequency of conflict, but not its intensity, has a negative effect on channel system performance. We conclude with a discussion of the theoretical and managerial implications of this study.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 17 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2003

Oluremi B. Ayoko, Victor J. Callan and Charmine E.J. Härtel

Using a multi‐method approach, this paper presents both a qualitative and quantitative examination of workplace conflict, the emotional reactions to bullying and…

Abstract

Using a multi‐method approach, this paper presents both a qualitative and quantitative examination of workplace conflict, the emotional reactions to bullying and counterproductive behaviors. Three studies were undertaken for the present research. Data for Study 1 emerged from semi‐structured interviews conducted with 50 group leaders and members from six workgroups in two large organizations. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using systematic interpretative techniques. Findings from Study 1 showed that conflict induced a variety of emotional and behavioral responses. Data from Study 2 were collected from 660 employees from 7 public sector organizations using a structured open‐ended survey. Results from Study 2 revealed that the majority of respondents perceived their managers as bullies. Study 3 surveyed 510 staff in 122 workgroups from five organizations. Regression analysis revealed that differing conflict events were associated with bullying, emotional reactions and counterproductive behaviors. In particular, prolonged conflict increased incidents of bullying. Higher levels of bullying were predictive of workplace counterproductive behaviors such as purposely wasting company material and supplies, purposely doing one's work incorrectly and purposely damaging a valuable piece of property belonging to the employer.

Details

The International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1055-3185

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Article
Publication date: 17 October 2019

Partha Gangopadhyay and Siddharth Jain

This paper aims to examine the interrelationships between subnational conflicts in Myanmar and other variables of interests from the following four major domains…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the interrelationships between subnational conflicts in Myanmar and other variables of interests from the following four major domains: economic, human security and vulnerability of people, aggressiveness or militancy of the armed forces and global and regional climates.

Design/methodology/approach

Autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach has been applied on annual data from 1960-2017, to deal with the problems of autocorrelation and non-stationarity of key variables.

Findings

First, an increase in crop yield, cereal productivity, food productivity and per capita availability of arable land unequivocally and significantly lower the severity of conflict in Myanmar in the long run. Second, the authors uncover strong evidence that the intensity of conflicts bears a positive relationship with the vulnerability of the people of Myanmar. Third, the authors detect that both regional and global climate variables have limited and rather inconsistent impacts on subnational conflicts in Myanmar. Finally, the authors find that the aggressiveness (militancy index) of the armed forces has significant impacts upon subnational conflicts and economic variables of Myanmar in the long run.

Originality/value

This paper is completely data-driven and explains the long-term dynamics of the intensity of the civil war in Myanmar. ARDL bounds testing approach has been used to examine the interrelationships between subnational conflicts in Myanmar and other variables of interests. It is a novel approach, which overcomes the problems of autocorrelation and nonstationarity and offers reliable results.

Details

Indian Growth and Development Review, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8254

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Article
Publication date: 17 August 2018

Augustine Ujunwa, Chinwe Okoyeuzu and Ebere Ume Kalu

West Africa represents a very good case of a sub-region currently plagued with the problem of food insecurity. Traditional theories have attributed the increasing food…

Abstract

Purpose

West Africa represents a very good case of a sub-region currently plagued with the problem of food insecurity. Traditional theories have attributed the increasing food insecurity in the region to problems of poor governance, corruption and climate change. In view of the persistent and increasing nature of armed conflict in the sub-region, the purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of increasing armed conflict on food security in Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) member countries.

Design/methodology/approach

The study utilized the dynamic generalized method of moments (GMM) to investigate the effect of conflict intensity on food security in the 14 member states of the ECOWAS using annualized panel data from 2005 to 2015.

Findings

The findings reveal that armed conflict is a significant predictor of food security in West Africa.

Research limitations/implications

The findings of the study bring to fore, the urgent need to rethink global initiative for combating food insecurity. The effort must also identify the causes of armed conflicts and design sound strategies for de-escalating the armed conflicts. Resolving the escalating armed conflict entails developing a conflict resolution framework that is extremely sensitive to the causes of conflict in Africa and adopting localized ex ante institutional diagnostics that would help in understanding the nature of the conflicts.

Originality/value

Traditional theory perceives climate change, social injustices, property right, food insecurity, religious extremism and bad governance as the predictors of armed conflicts. In this study, the authors departed from the traditional theory by demonstrating that the nature and trend of armed conflict could also pose a serious threat to food security.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 46 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Book part
Publication date: 24 May 2011

Nasser Elkanj and Partha Gangopadhyay

Violent conflicts have become one of the major concerns of modern nation states. Regardless of their political, social, and economic conjunctures, nations are increasingly…

Abstract

Violent conflicts have become one of the major concerns of modern nation states. Regardless of their political, social, and economic conjunctures, nations are increasingly exposed to the risk of conflicts. Conflicts are generally categorized as “major” and “minor” based on the level of intensity and the number ofcasualties. The Middle East has experienced a dramatic increase in the number of conflicts since the early 1990s. In this chapter we examine the causes that triggered unprecedented changes in conflicts by using a panel of conflict estimates for 10 Middle Eastern nations for the period 1963–1999. The fixed effects model is used to control for unobservable country-specific effects that result in a missing-variable bias in cross-sectional studies. More importantly, the fixed effects model is chosen since the main goal of this study is to investigate what factors have caused statistically significant changes in conflicts over time within nations rather than to explain variation in conflicts across these nations. On the basis of the panel data, we explain the roles of inequality, inflation, growth, military spending, foreign direct investment, and remittances in the surge in conflicts in the Middle East.

Details

Frontiers of Peace Economics and Peace Science
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-701-8

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1995

Andreas G. Nikolopoulos

Power reserves such as money, information, support, knowledge, and time are essential in handling conflicts. These power reserves are, as a rule, limited in that they are…

Abstract

Power reserves such as money, information, support, knowledge, and time are essential in handling conflicts. These power reserves are, as a rule, limited in that they are insufficient in handling existing multi‐conflicting relationships. This paper presents an episodic model for the rational planning of power reserves that can aid in effective power use. How much and to what extent this power should be used depends on the following: (1) determining the significance of the various activity fields (i.e., arenas) in which conflict arises; (2) calculating the decision maker's conflict intensity with the other party(ies) in the attainment of each goal; (3) identifying the facilitating or inhibitory factors in power use; and (4) estimating the likely consequences of using power to resolve any conflict.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

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