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Expert briefing

Outlook for US policy engagement with Myanmar as the US presidential transition nears.

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Expert briefing

Unlike most Western powers, Russia has refused to condemn the February 1 coup in which the Myanmar army ousted the country’s democratically elected civilian government…

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Article

Theint Theint Lwin, Tawatchai Apidechkul, Jongkon Saising, Panupong Upala and Ratipark Tamornpark

This qualitative approach study aimed to understand the barriers to accessing a tuberculosis (TB) clinic in a Thai hospital as experienced by TB patients from Myanmar

Abstract

Purpose

This qualitative approach study aimed to understand the barriers to accessing a tuberculosis (TB) clinic in a Thai hospital as experienced by TB patients from Myanmar living on the Thailand-Myanmar border.

Design/methodology/approach

Twenty-two participants were asked to provide information. In-depth interviews were used to gather the information. Each interview lasted 40 min.

Findings

TB patients from Myanmar experience several barriers to accessing TB treatment and care at Mae Sai Hospital, such as language and economic problems, although they are very satisfied with the quality of service and positive attitude of the health care providers. A long waiting time and lack of explanation of the pathogenesis of TB were noted as negative aspects by the patients and their relatives. The medical staff at the TB clinic were negatively affected by the excessive workload and unsuitability of some methods or technologies. Using budgetary subsidies from agencies to fund TB care and treatment was not sustainable. Foreign TB patients are not subsidized by the national universal insurance scheme of Thailand, and sending TB patients back to their home country is sometimes unavoidable.

Originality/value

Thailand and Myanmar should strengthen their collaboration and develop a system to improve the quality of TB patient care and management for those who are living in poverty and lack education, by focusing on reducing language and economic barriers to accessing health care services including support for medicines and laboratory materials related to TB case management among these populations.

Details

Journal of Health Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0857-4421

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Article

The Su Nyein and Bonaventura H.W. Hadikusumo

To provide low-cost housing, the Myanmar Government is attempting to use public–private partnership (PPP) to attract private investors. However, there is little…

Abstract

Purpose

To provide low-cost housing, the Myanmar Government is attempting to use public–private partnership (PPP) to attract private investors. However, there is little information concerning the influencing factors for implementing PPP low-cost housing projects in Myanmar. This paper, therefore, aims to identify and analyse these factors.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 51 in-depth interviews were conducted with interviewees involved in various kinds of housing projects implemented through the adoption of PPP or other approaches. The methods of data collection and the analysis are based on grounded theory (GT) methodology.

Findings

Using the GT method to analyse the interviews, five categories emerged from 50 influencing factors regarding the establishment and implementation of the PPP model for low-cost housing in Myanmar: provision of incentives; obstacles in implementing PPP for all stakeholders; barriers to private sector participation; public sector responsibilities and challenges; and attraction factors and challenges for financial institutions. Among 12 newly found factors, the three most important for PPP low-cost housing in Myanmar are the availability of project funding, the resolution of land-acquisition issues and the development of a sound financing system.

Research limitations/implications

Our findings strengthen previous studies by identifying factors affecting PPP low-cost housing either specific to Myanmar or common among other countries. Of the 50 factors identified, 38 factors were found in previous studies, but 12 are likely specific to Myanmar.

Practical implications

Our findings can be used by governments, particularly the Myanmar Government, and financial agencies to understand the low attractiveness of PPP low-cost housing for investors and to develop/improve policies to stimulate PPP low-cost housing, especially in Myanmar.

Originality/value

Many previous studies have been undertaken to identify factors that influence the implementation of PPP for low-cost housing. However, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, there are no prior studies specific to Myanmar in this context.

Details

Journal of Financial Management of Property and Construction , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1366-4387

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Book part

Robert Edward Sterken

This chapter provides a cross-cultural look at the intersection of religion and the state with a focus on social control, social movements, political authority, and…

Abstract

This chapter provides a cross-cultural look at the intersection of religion and the state with a focus on social control, social movements, political authority, and legitimacy. To better understand the complexities of governance, this chapter examines state social control of religion with a specific focus on the effects of that control on society. State leaders often seek to control and use the power of religion to gain legitimacy, authority, and control over citizens. Conversely, religious leaders sometimes seek to engage and even control the power of the state. This chapter highlights some of what happens when religious leaders directly engage in politics and challenge the social control mechanisms of political authority.

At times religious majorities seek not only to participate in the public square, to make policy, but also to exercise complete control of political and cultural institutions. In many nations, from Christians in the United States to Buddhists in Myanmar, some religious and government leaders share the goal of complete religious control over their societies. What happens to the religions and to the society when these religious and government leaders are successful? What happens to the religion when a state controls, supports, and promotes that religion? This chapter uses the case histories of the repression of the Muslim minority by the Buddhists nationalists in Myanmar and the desires of the United States Christian Dominionists goals to illustrate and highlight the way that the twin powers of the state and religion serve as direct agents of social control by transmitting values of each institution through law, policy, and by punishing those who deviate.

Details

Political Authority, Social Control and Public Policy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-049-9

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Article

Sandar Win and Alexander Kofinas

Many transition economies are former socialist planned economies and have undergone market reforms of their financial sector to signal their transition towards democracy…

Abstract

Purpose

Many transition economies are former socialist planned economies and have undergone market reforms of their financial sector to signal their transition towards democracy. However, governments in these countries have been reluctant to relinquish the pre-existing controls on economy and have adopted nuanced and sophisticated approaches to retain control. In such context, scholars may find it challenging to investigate the role played by the state in the success or failure of attempted market reforms. This work investigates the different forms of state-induced accounting controls that may preserve the status quo within the economy during transition, using Myanmar as an example.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors adopted a longitudinal qualitative research method aiming to reveal the very processes and mechanisms used by the banks and their evolution over time. This method is in accordance with the historical institutionalist perspective that they have applied within this research.

Findings

The authors found that the Myanmar government embarked on the privatisation of their financial sector from 1990 to 2016 as a major public sector reform initiative. Under the guise of market reforms, it used both state-led and market-led controls to emulate and retain the socialist banking model where banks are used to fund the immediate government's budget deficits. This created a series of intended and unintended consequences, resulting in the ultimate failure of the government's market reforms.

Research limitations/implications

Previously, research on public sector management accounting in emerging economies was not relying consistently on using theory. The relative limited theorisation led to gaps when attempting to understand and explain the opaque forms of state control mechanisms in transition economies. By applying historical institutionalist perspective, and a more theory-driven, reflective approach to the interpretation of the data collected, the authors have provided a deeper insight and understanding on how different forms of state controls can emerge, adapt and persist in transition economies such as Myanmar.

Practical implications

The authors demonstrated that though the state may have implemented market reforms to signal regimes change, this does not necessarily mean that the government has relinquished their control on the economy. The state could take a more sophisticated, covert approach towards state controls leading to both intended and unintended consequences. Thus, even if the state's preferences change, the decisions cannot be easily reversed, as path-dependent state controls may have become pervasive affecting any further institutional and policy developments. Thus, the authors suggest that governments in both transition and developed economies should be cautious when enacting regulations on corporate control.

Originality/value

In this paper, the authors have applied a historical institutional perspective in their analysis instead of the more widely used sociological, institutionalist approach. This allowed authors to harness rich longitudinal data indicating that market reforms and their success or failure should be examined as an ongoing process rather than a completed action. This is especially important in transition economies where the state may be unwilling to renounce the existing controls on the industry and may resort to more opaque forms of state control, eventually obstructing the intended reforms.

Details

Journal of Accounting in Emerging Economies, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-1168

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Article

Deivi Gaitan, Valerie Daw Tin Shwe, Predrag Bajcevic and Anita Gagnon

The purpose of this paper is to determine the prevalence of Alcohol Use Disorders (AUDs) among Myanmar male migrant workers (> 15 years) living in Mae Sot, Thailand, and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine the prevalence of Alcohol Use Disorders (AUDs) among Myanmar male migrant workers (> 15 years) living in Mae Sot, Thailand, and their patterns of drinking.

Design/methodology/approach

A cross-sectional survey was administered to 512 participants to measure AUDs and drinking patterns. ANOVA and χ2 analyses were performed to assess demographic differences between abstainers, harmful and hazardous drinkers (HHDs) (those showing signs of AUDs) and non-harmful drinkers.

Findings

Results showed that 12.3 percent of male Myanmar migrants were HHDs, a rate only slightly higher than in Thai men (9.1 percent), but much higher than in men still living in Myanmar (2.7 percent) (WHO, 2014). Also, 19 percent of alcohol-consuming Myanmar male migrant workers reported patterns of heavy episodic drinking, which is markedly higher than in alcohol-consuming Thai (4.7 percent) and Myanmar men (1.5 percent) (WHO, 2014).

Originality/value

Given the health risks associated with AUDs and heavy episodic drinking, the findings of this study suggest a need for appropriate alcohol-related health education and intervention for Myanmar male migrant workers.

Details

International Journal of Migration, Health and Social Care, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-9894

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Article

Tipnuch Phungsoonthorn and Peerayuth Charoensukmongkol

The purpose of this paper is to examine some of the antecedents and outcomes associated with a sense of place (SOP) on the part of Myanmar migrant workers working in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine some of the antecedents and outcomes associated with a sense of place (SOP) on the part of Myanmar migrant workers working in Thailand toward their place of work. The transformational leadership of top management and diversity climate were selected as the antecedent variables, whereas turnover intention was selected as the outcome variable. Belongingness theory and social identity theory were used as the theoretical foundation to support the roles of these variables.

Design/methodology/approach

Survey data were collected from Myanmar migrant workers working at two factories in Thailand (n=736). Partial least squares regression was used for the data analysis.

Findings

The results support a negative linkage between SOP and turnover intention. The positive contribution of transformational leadership of top management and diversity climate to SOP was also supported. Moreover, diversity climate was found to partially mediate the positive contribution of transformational leadership of top management to SOP. Finally, the analysis found that the linkage between diversity climate and SOP was positively moderated by the length of stay of the Myanmar migrant workers in the organization.

Originality/value

This study provides new evidence showing that SOP also matters for foreign migrant workers in terms of developing emotional attachment to the workplace outside their home country and that these workers were less likely to leave the workplace although they were a culturally minority group in the organization. This research also provides new evidence concerning the role of the transformational leadership of top management and workplace climate, which were antecedents of an SOP toward the organization.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 39 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

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Article

Partha Gangopadhyay and Siddharth Jain

This paper aims to examine the interrelationships between subnational conflicts in Myanmar and other variables of interests from the following four major domains…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the interrelationships between subnational conflicts in Myanmar and other variables of interests from the following four major domains: economic, human security and vulnerability of people, aggressiveness or militancy of the armed forces and global and regional climates.

Design/methodology/approach

Autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach has been applied on annual data from 1960-2017, to deal with the problems of autocorrelation and non-stationarity of key variables.

Findings

First, an increase in crop yield, cereal productivity, food productivity and per capita availability of arable land unequivocally and significantly lower the severity of conflict in Myanmar in the long run. Second, the authors uncover strong evidence that the intensity of conflicts bears a positive relationship with the vulnerability of the people of Myanmar. Third, the authors detect that both regional and global climate variables have limited and rather inconsistent impacts on subnational conflicts in Myanmar. Finally, the authors find that the aggressiveness (militancy index) of the armed forces has significant impacts upon subnational conflicts and economic variables of Myanmar in the long run.

Originality/value

This paper is completely data-driven and explains the long-term dynamics of the intensity of the civil war in Myanmar. ARDL bounds testing approach has been used to examine the interrelationships between subnational conflicts in Myanmar and other variables of interests. It is a novel approach, which overcomes the problems of autocorrelation and nonstationarity and offers reliable results.

Details

Indian Growth and Development Review, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8254

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Expert briefing

The role of civil society in China-Myanmar relations.

Details

DOI: 10.1108/OXAN-DB212699

ISSN: 2633-304X

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