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Article
Publication date: 15 October 2019

Kong Fah Tee and Ejiroghene Ekpiwhre

The purpose of this paper is to propose and confer a strategic cost model as a concept for good decision making for highway asset treatment in the transport industry.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose and confer a strategic cost model as a concept for good decision making for highway asset treatment in the transport industry.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is based on asset performance condition and treatment renewals using a five-point performance for developing prospective treatment strategies. The strategic cost model is presented in the similitude of picturesque and its outcomes via an exploratory data analysis.

Findings

The results articulate the best maintenance plan for the forthcoming and future years. The strategic cost model uses the combination of the current condition band, the sample area and likely treatment cost for proposing the optimal treatment solution based on consideration of desired treatment level.

Practical implications

The strategic cost model is suitable for outlining the asset performance condition, treatment renewals and analytical cost optimisation. The formulated analytical cost model and developed prospective strategies enable good decision making, long-term contract negotiations and whole life cost maintenance and management.

Originality/value

Embracing eminent performance condition from the research area of lifecycle planning and deterioration models of a physical asset, a prospective cost strategy for asset maintenance is proposed in the study. The resultant treatment strategies using the analytical approach portray the ability that enables the adaptation of expected outcomes.

Details

Journal of Quality in Maintenance Engineering, vol. 26 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2511

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 10 February 2012

Keramet Ann Reiter

Supermaxes across the United States detain thousands in long-term solitary confinement, under conditions of extreme sensory deprivation. Almost every state built a…

Abstract

Supermaxes across the United States detain thousands in long-term solitary confinement, under conditions of extreme sensory deprivation. Almost every state built a supermax between the late 1980s and the late 1990s. This chapter examines the role of federal prisoners’ rights litigation in the 1960s and 1970s in shaping the prisons, especially supermaxes, built in the 1980s and 1990s in the United States. This chapter uses a systematic analysis of federal court case law, as well as archival research and oral history interviews with key informants, including lawyers, experts, and correctional administrators, to explore the relationship between federal court litigation and prison building and designing. This chapter argues that federal conditions of confinement litigation in the 1960s and 1970s (1) had a direct role in shaping the supermax institutions built in the subsequent decades and (2) contributed to the resistance of these institutions to constitutional challenges. The history of litigation around supermaxes is an important and as-yet-unexplored aspect of the development of Eighth Amendment jurisprudence in the United States over the last half century.

Details

Studies in Law, Politics, and Society
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-622-5

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Article
Publication date: 4 June 2018

Kong Fah Tee, Ejiroghene Ekpiwhre and Zhang Yi

Automated condition surveys have been recently introduced for condition assessment of highway infrastructures worldwide. Accurate predictions of the current state, median…

Abstract

Purpose

Automated condition surveys have been recently introduced for condition assessment of highway infrastructures worldwide. Accurate predictions of the current state, median life (ML) and future state of highway infrastructures are crucial for developing appropriate inspection and maintenance strategies for newly created as well as existing aging highway infrastructures. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper proposes Markov Chain based deterioration modelling using a linear transition probability (LTP) matrix method and a median life expectancy (MLE) algorithm. The proposed method is applied and evaluated using condition improvement between the two successive inspections from the Surface Condition Assessment of National Network of Roads survey of the UK Pavement Management System.

Findings

The proposed LTP matrix model utilises better insight than the generic or decoupling linear approach used in estimating transition probabilities formulated in the past. The simulated LTP predicted conditions are portrayed in a deterioration profile and a pairwise correlation. The MLs are computed statistically with a cumulative distribution function plot.

Originality/value

The paper concludes that MLE is ideal for projecting half asset life, and the LTP matrix approach presents a feasible approach for new maintenance regime when more certain deterioration data become available.

Details

International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, vol. 35 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-671X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1999

REINI WIRAHADIKUSUMAH, DULCY M. ABRAHAM and JUDY CASTELLO

Finding the optimal solution to address problems in sewer management systems has always challenged asset managers. An understanding of deterioration mechanisms in sewers…

Abstract

Finding the optimal solution to address problems in sewer management systems has always challenged asset managers. An understanding of deterioration mechanisms in sewers can help asset managers in developing prediction models for estimating whether or not sewer collapse is likely. The effective use of deterioration prediction models along with the development and use of life cycle cost analysis (LCCA) can contribute to the goals of reducing construction, operation and maintenance costs in sewer systems. When sewer system maintenance/rehabilitation options are viewed as investment alternatives, it is important, and in some cases, imperative, to make decisions based on life cycle costs instead of relying totally on initial construction costs. The objective of this paper is to discuss the application of deterioration modelling and life cycle cost principles in sewer system management, and to explore the role of the Markov chain model in decision making regarding sewer rehabilitation. A test case is used to demonstrate the application of the Markov chain decision model for sewer system management. The analysis includes evaluation of this concept using dynamic programming and the policy improvement algorithm.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 6 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 10 August 2015

Daniel Bumblauskas

Using a case study for electrical power equipment, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the importance of dependence between series-connected system components in…

Abstract

Purpose

Using a case study for electrical power equipment, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the importance of dependence between series-connected system components in maintenance decisions.

Design/methodology/approach

A continuous-time Markov decision model is formulated to find a minimum cost maintenance policy for a circuit breaker as an independent component while considering a downstream transformer as a dependent component. Maintenance of the dependent component is included implicitly in terms of the costs associated with certain state-action pairs. For policy and cost comparisons, a separate model is also formulated that considers only the circuit breaker as the independent component. After uniformizing the continuous-time models to discrete time, standard methods are used to solve for the average-cost-optimal policies of each model.

Findings

The optimal maintenance policy and its cost differ significantly depending on whether or not the dependent component is considered.

Research limitations/implications

Data used are from manufacturer databases; additional model validation could be conducted if applied to an electric utility asset fleet within their generation, transmission, and/or distribution system. This model and methodology are already being applied in other contexts such as industrial machinery and equipment, jet engines, amusement park rides, etc.

Practical implications

The outcome of this model can be utilized by asset and operations managers to make maintenance decisions based on prediction rather than more traditional time- or condition-based maintenance methodologies. This model is being developed for use as a module in a larger maintenance information system, specifically linking condition monitor data from the field to a predictive maintenance model. Similar methods are being applied to other applications outside the electrical equipment case detailed herein.

Originality/value

This model provides a structured approach for managers to decide how to best allocate their resources across a network of inter-connected equipment. Work in this area has not fully considered the importance of dependency on systems maintenance, particularly in applications with highly variable repair and replacement costs.

Details

Journal of Quality in Maintenance Engineering, vol. 21 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2511

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1978

The Equal Pay Act 1970 (which came into operation on 29 December 1975) provides for an “equality clause” to be written into all contracts of employment. S.1(2) (a) of the…

Abstract

The Equal Pay Act 1970 (which came into operation on 29 December 1975) provides for an “equality clause” to be written into all contracts of employment. S.1(2) (a) of the 1970 Act (which has been amended by the Sex Discrimination Act 1975) provides:

Details

Managerial Law, vol. 21 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2009

XiaoHu Wang and Kuotsai Tom Liou

This study assesses the change in states’ financial condition by examining their financial data in fiscal years (FY) 2003 and 2004. It explores and explains how much the…

Abstract

This study assesses the change in states’ financial condition by examining their financial data in fiscal years (FY) 2003 and 2004. It explores and explains how much the change was, how it occurred, and whether and how closely the change might respond to states’ socioeconomic development. The study finds that states’ financial condition varied significantly from FY 2003 to FY 2004. Changes in different aspects of financial condition are interrelated, although these changes may not occur simultaneously at the same pace. The change in financial condition may result from the multi-year cumulative socioeconomic development in personal income and employment, but not in population. The impact of personal income and employment on financial condition of a government is likely long term; it may take 3-4 years for the growth in personal income and employment to benefit a government’s financial condition. The results also suggest that the cumulative improvement of personal income and employment for consecutive years prior to a fiscal year is more likely to improve the financial condition of that year than a personal income or employment increase that follows an up-and-down pattern of growth. These findings can be used to develop effective strategies to improve financial conditions in government.

Details

Journal of Public Budgeting, Accounting & Financial Management, vol. 21 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1096-3367

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Article
Publication date: 5 March 2018

Daniel Hummel

Most of the literature on the topic of alcohol consumption and externalities related to it identify adverse effects. The effects of these possible externalities on…

Abstract

Purpose

Most of the literature on the topic of alcohol consumption and externalities related to it identify adverse effects. The effects of these possible externalities on government financial condition remain relatively unexplored in the literature. In economics, the theory of social costs related to unrestricted economic behavior such as alcohol consumption has been explored since the early twentieth century which spread into the field of public administration through welfare economics. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is a study of the possible effects of alcohol consumption on state financial condition across state governments in the USA, based on a mediation analysis with PROCESS.

Findings

This paper finds that there is a significant mediated effect of alcohol consumption on state financial condition through some economic and demographic variables. The paper explores these findings as well as future research.

Originality/value

This is the first paper that takes an interdisciplinary approach to the social cost and public finance literature with a specific focus on alcohol consumption.

Details

Journal of Public Budgeting, Accounting & Financial Management, vol. 30 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1096-3367

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2010

Abstract

Details

Journal of Public Budgeting, Accounting & Financial Management, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1096-3367

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Book part
Publication date: 6 August 2014

Kenneth Y. Chay and Dean R. Hyslop

We examine the roles of sample initial conditions and unobserved individual effects in consistent estimation of the dynamic binary response panel data model. Different…

Abstract

We examine the roles of sample initial conditions and unobserved individual effects in consistent estimation of the dynamic binary response panel data model. Different specifications of the model are estimated using female welfare and labor force participation data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation. These include alternative random effects (RE) models, in which the conditional distributions of both the unobserved heterogeneity and the initial conditions are specified, and fixed effects (FE) conditional logit models that make no assumptions on either distribution. There are several findings. First, the hypothesis that the sample initial conditions are exogenous is rejected by both samples. Misspecification of the initial conditions results in drastically overstated estimates of the state dependence and understated estimates of the short- and long-run effects of children on labor force participation. The FE conditional logit estimates are similar to the estimates from the RE model that is flexible with respect to both the initial conditions and the correlation between the unobserved heterogeneity and the covariates. For female labor force participation, there is evidence that fertility choices are correlated with both unobserved heterogeneity and pre-sample participation histories.

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