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Article
Publication date: 8 July 2014

Carla Corroto

Taking Community Design Centers (CDC) in the USA as case studies, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of a type of service learning increasingly found…

Abstract

Purpose

Taking Community Design Centers (CDC) in the USA as case studies, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of a type of service learning increasingly found in colleges of architecture. Typically, the CDC is a model of architecture's civic engagement that makes claims to “give back” to under-served communities and enhance student learning with applied architectural design work.

Design/methodology/approach

This project is part of a long-term engagement as participant observer and ethnographer in the field of architecture. Fieldwork in this investigation is presented as four case studies in separate and specific contexts.

Findings

Initial findings suggest there are conflicting intentions and aspirations at work through service learning in architecture and its implementation calls into question who or what is served. The author argues architecture's epistemology, pedagogical structure, and ideology precludes effective civic engagement.

Originality/value

The value of this research is the understanding of how those with power and resources are able to frame their work in low-income communities as service, even though there is little of worth given. It also demonstrates how stratification is reinforced through institutional arrangements in the USA.

Details

Qualitative Research Journal, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1443-9883

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Book part
Publication date: 23 November 2011

Marc-David L. Seidel and Katherine J. Stewart

This chapter seeks to enhance organizational theory's current typology of organizational architectures to explain a flourishing modern architecture that has developed…

Abstract

This chapter seeks to enhance organizational theory's current typology of organizational architectures to explain a flourishing modern architecture that has developed utilizing the inexpensive communication paths created by technology such as the Internet and wireless networks. As communication and coordination costs have dropped, new organizing methods have grown that are difficult to understand using the traditional organizational architectures. In this chapter, we introduce a new community architecture, the “C-form,” which is categorized by (1) fluid, informal peripheral boundaries of membership; (2) significant incorporation of voluntary labor; (3) information-based product output; and (4) significantly open sharing of knowledge. Although the domain of open source software (OSS) is frequently cited as an example of such communities, we argue that the form expands well beyond the domain of software to a wide variety of information-based products. Drawing on a culture frame, we develop an initial set of principles of C-forms and finally explore the implications of the C-form for the modern organizational world.

Details

Communities and Organizations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-284-5

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Article
Publication date: 22 September 2020

Mohammad Gharipour and Amber L. Trout

Our lived experiences are complex, dynamic and increasingly connected locally and globally through virtual realities that call for an evolution and responsiveness from the…

Abstract

Purpose

Our lived experiences are complex, dynamic and increasingly connected locally and globally through virtual realities that call for an evolution and responsiveness from the field of architecture education. To ensure future built environments are designed to nurture healing and health, this paper aims to address a critical need in architecture education to integrate knowledge of health and social-behavioral disciplines in students' course work. The authors will outline the process of preparing a new multidisciplinary course on health and the built environment (HBE) at the School of Architecture and Planning at Morgan State University in Baltimore, USA, as an effort to challenge the barriers of discipline-specific pathways to learning in the field of architecture.

Design/methodology/approach

The central question is how to develop an active learning pedagogy to foster a multidisciplinary learning environment focused on the “practice” (how to) of human-design-oriented approaches to improve the capability of built and natural environments to promote health and healing. The course intentionally centered on the real-life experiences of students to ground their new understanding of health and well-being fields. The course proposal went through an extensive peer-review process of reviewers from the National Institute of Health (NIH) and other departments at Morgan State University to ensure a balance between health- and architecture-specific curricula with a transdisciplinary approach to understanding complex health issues.

Findings

This paper shows the effectiveness of tools and techniques applied in the course to challenge architectural students to integrate various health and behavior perspectives in their designs and to apply health and healing principals to their current and future design projects.

Originality/value

While there are courses in American universities that offer a traditional introduction to health concerns related to the built environment, there is limited focus on the perspective of the design field approach to improve health and healing outcomes.

Details

Archnet-IJAR: International Journal of Architectural Research, vol. 14 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2631-6862

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Book part
Publication date: 21 November 2011

Stephen Gilson and Elizabeth DePoy

Purpose – This chapter discusses a study in which we examined campus architecture, spatial design, aesthetics, and cultural policy with regard to the manner in which…

Abstract

Purpose – This chapter discusses a study in which we examined campus architecture, spatial design, aesthetics, and cultural policy with regard to the manner in which attributes in these visual and textual entities shape the full range of diversity of the student body or the individuals and collective group who study within the university.

Methodology – This chapter presents the qualitative element of a larger multi-method inquiry. The data for this study were generated from a sample composed of eight universities in four states in the United States and of cultural policy documents from multiple universities in addition to the eight specific universities that were visited on-site.

Findings – Twelve themes emerged from data derived from campus visits to eight universities representing diverse geographies and institutional structures and from analysis of the cultural policies of 30 institutions of higher education. Taxonomic analysis (analysis of the organization of themes and their relationships to one another) revealed important directional associations among the themes yielding rich findings for future theory development and testing.

Implications – The findings yielded important understandings about the influence of cultural policy as reflected in the campus community, on inclusion, exclusion, and diversity. Of particular note were the unexpected thematic findings regarding the political, proprietary preferences of “disabled” groups related to space ownership and the future implications of occupying specialized designated architectures. We conclude with conceptual and methodological directions for expanding this research agenda internationally and for informing change in cultural policy and architectures on campus communities.

Details

Disability and Community
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-800-8

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2004

Ramesh Srinivasan

This paper introduces a new approach toward applying ideas of knowledge management toward the domain of culture and communities. A set of precedents are discussed, all of…

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Abstract

This paper introduces a new approach toward applying ideas of knowledge management toward the domain of culture and communities. A set of precedents are discussed, all of which have focused on the design of digital media systems for communities. Two knowledge management techniques, previously not discussed within prevailing literature, are introduced within specific projects. The application of these techniques, anticipated and received results, and general implications of this research on the field of knowledge management are highlighted. This paper finds that approaching new cultural and community‐focused domains yields new, satisfying techniques toward the management of knowledge. The techniques of community‐driven ontology and proactive agents are discussed and evaluated as design approaches toward the problem of creating meaningful knowledge architectures for community‐focused media systems. Knowledge management, as a paradigm, can apply to a number of domains that are not solely business‐focused. The re‐application of these principles can generate meaningful approaches toward how the knowledge architectures that mediate digital media systems for communities and cultures. Discussion of two new approaches toward knowledge management and knowledge architectures. This research is a focus on of these techniques in the new, critical environment of communities, culture, and narratives. This paper allows researchers and students of knowledge management to begin to approach the ideas of mediating knowledge more broadly. It engages the language and approach of design into the field of knowledge management. Finally, it creates an opportunity to begin to apply more heterogeneous research to the burgeoning field of knowledge management.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 8 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

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Article
Publication date: 8 April 2021

Angeliki Paidakaki, Rani De Becker, Yana De Reu, Febe Viaene, Shareen Elnaschie and Pieter Van den Broeck

This paper explores social resilience through the lenses of migration. It specifically studies the role of community architects in building socially resilient refugee…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper explores social resilience through the lenses of migration. It specifically studies the role of community architects in building socially resilient refugee camps which are human settlements characterized by a transient and heterogeneous community with unique vulnerabilities. These settlements are managed through exceptional governance arrangements between hegemonic and counter-hegemonic humanitarian organizations.

Design/methodology/approach

Empirical evidences are drawn from the Office of Displaced Designers (ODD), a design-focused creative integration organization active on Lesvos island. During one-month ethnographic research with ODD, empirical data were harvested through an extensive review of project archive materials including transcripts and audio files of interviews with project participants and collaborators conducted by ODD, architectural drawings and teaching materials, photo and video archives and administrative documents. The ethnographic research was complemented with semi-structured interviews with the founding members and former volunteers and partners of ODD; key site visits to the Moria Hotspot and the surrounding Olive Groves; as well as a desk study on European Union (EU) policies and legislative papers and legal information regarding the asylum seeker application procedure in Europe and Greece.

Findings

Reflecting on the potential and limitations of community architects in building socially resilient refugee camps, the paper concludes that in order for community architects to make long lasting improvements they must think holistically and design flexible structural solutions for the entire camp, leverage existing expertise within communities and assist other organizations through administrative, financial and design consultancy support. Community architects are also expected to take active roles in forming pro-equity governance structures and steering pro-resilient humanitarian trajectories by acting as mediators, lobbying their partners, advocating for inclusive practices and social spaces and documenting their projects to build an evidence base across practices and contexts and to strengthen their voice as a collective of community architects.

Originality/value

The role of community architects in building socially resilient human settlements in post-disaster place-based recovery processes has been widely discussed in the disaster scholarship. These studies have primarily emphasized permanent and in situ reconstruction efforts in disaster-affected areas. What remains limitedly discussed is the resilience-building potential of community architects in extraterritorial temporary human settlements characterized by displacement and temporality such as in refugee camps. In light of these observations, the aim of this paper is to push the boundaries of knowledge on post-crisis recovery by re-approaching the notion of social resilience from a migratory perspective and revealing the potential and limitations of community architects in fostering socially resilient refugee camps in new (national) territories.

Details

Archnet-IJAR: International Journal of Architectural Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2631-6862

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Article
Publication date: 8 January 2020

Nguyen Thi Hanh Nguyen and Hung Thanh Dang

The purpose of this paper is to show the adaptation of participatory concept: “from passive to active community” which is the key point to achieve successes of the case…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to show the adaptation of participatory concept: “from passive to active community” which is the key point to achieve successes of the case study project – a cultural village in Tam Thanh, Tam Ky, Quang Nam, Vietnam. Its achievements result from the employment of three principal steps including identifying core issues in the community, creating changes in human perceptions and living conditions, and demanding operation and maintenance of the community further. The project can seem to be an outstanding showcase for the applicability and possibility of other community projects around Vietnam.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses the previous community projects developed in Vietnam. However, they are less effective for the community in long-term due to ignoring/underestimating the role of local people. The case study is an impoverished residential neighbourhood in Tam Thanh, Quang Nam. The authors along with the colleagues observed and conducted the workshops on site to understand the problems, values and expectations of people and the land. The paper likes as a summary for achievements and lessons extracted from that field study. The comparison to the previous projects shows the efficiency of participatory design with the active involvement of the local community.

Findings

The practical experiences to find successes for the community projects in Vietnam: collaboration of experts, architects, volunteers and local people; classification of roles for groups of participants; the involvement of the local government. engagement of a collaborative relationship with the community under the patience, comprehension and sympathy of all members of the community; and role of the architects involving the projects should be supported for people’s participation to come up with the idea instead of proposing strict ideas.

Practical implications

The appropriate approaches on the right subjects and right time are the key of successes and sufficiency for the community projects, particularly to the impoverished neighbourhoods or places with sensitive issues. The Tam Thanh village is a typical example and its experiences can be disseminated for the other projects. It indicates the active and respectful involvement of like-minded people (experts, volunteers, sponsors, managers and in particular local people) is very important to achieve the final expected destination in the purpose for/by/with the community.

Social implications

The huge effect of community projects is directly on the local people. The approaching and understanding them is challenging. An achievable community project is that the real needs of the people are provided; they are aware of their roles and benefits; and finally, the values are retained and developed sustainably in long term. The community projects are characterised by the participation of many people in many different stages: analysis, design and implementation. Therefore, for the experts, volunteers and managers, they learn to listen to the voice of the local people and to avoid the forced thoughts and underestimation of local people’s involvement.

Originality/value

The value of the study is that the nature of participatory design method is shown through activities and results of the community project in Tam Thanh. The delivery from theoretical features to practical works is not easy and needs observation and understanding of local culture and life. Depending on each specific location, the application of this design theory is flexible and adaptive. An idea for every project is initiation; however, the participation of local people is key to the project’s achievement.

Details

Smart and Sustainable Built Environment, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-6099

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2008

Fons Wijnhoven and Jeroen Kraaijenbrink

The purpose of this paper is to give a structured literature review, design concepts, and research propositions related to a product‐oriented design theory for information…

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2134

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to give a structured literature review, design concepts, and research propositions related to a product‐oriented design theory for information services. Information services facilitate the exchange of information goods with or without transforming these goods. Exemplar information services are e‐publishing, electronic communities‐of‐practice, and management reporting. The importance of information services in the current economy merits the development of an explicit product‐ and process‐oriented design theory.

Design/methodology/approach

This article focuses on the product‐oriented design theory by applying Walls et al.'s framework. A product‐oriented design theory of information services identifies relevant descriptive and explanatory insights (i.e. content, use, value, and revenue), meta‐requirements, and meta‐designs. The paper describes design problems for information services, and gives key requirements for information services. Next, it describes the information, organizational and information technological components of an information service, and identifies at least four information service architectures. Finally, it gives research hypotheses, research ideas, and discusses practical implications.

Findings

The results form a product‐oriented design theory for information services. The paper gives a structured way for practitioners to analyze information service design challenges, and suggestions are given for requirements and design decisions on three aspects (content, use feature, and revenue).

Originality/value

Given the previously fragmented nature of the literature, this paper gives new opportunities for research and practice.

Details

Internet Research, vol. 18 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1996

Jayne Seagrave

Discusses the definitions and interpretations of community policing (CP) given in academic literature. Looks at the wider concept of “community”. Analyzes the responses of…

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3190

Abstract

Discusses the definitions and interpretations of community policing (CP) given in academic literature. Looks at the wider concept of “community”. Analyzes the responses of 31 police leaders and 144 police officers in British Columbia, Canada who gave their interpretations of CP. Finds that the two groups interpret CP in different ways. Suggests that research on police perceptions of CP should be conducted at every level of the hierarchy and that findings should be analyzed in the light of various structures (social, etc.) in which the officer is employed and with regard to the roles in which the officer must operate.

Details

American Journal of Police, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0735-8547

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Book part
Publication date: 25 April 2014

Jonathan Tummons

There is considerable variety in the use and citation of Wenger’s framework of communities of practice in educational research. In some cases, citations and references to…

Abstract

There is considerable variety in the use and citation of Wenger’s framework of communities of practice in educational research. In some cases, citations and references to Wenger’s work are superficial and lack meaningful theoretical application. In others, citations and use of Wenger’s work are critical and insightful, thoughtfully applying Wenger’s framework to a range of educational settings. The effect of these variable uses is a conceptual slippage that leads to the framework being misapplied, misunderstood and over-simplified. In this chapter I foreground the under-used idea of learning architectures. A learning architecture consists of an assemblage of components that may allow learning to take place. Such an assemblage might consist of a place (rooms, workshops, facilities), tools and equipment (textbooks, materials, handbooks, reading lists) and activities that require and encourage mutual engagement (seminars, tutorials, group presentations). In this chapter, drawing on previously published ethnographic research, one teacher-training course is used to model a learning architecture approach. At the same time, the chapter introduces and resolves one of the more contested aspects of Wenger’s framework, namely the position of pedagogy and assessment within a community of practice.

Details

Theory and Method in Higher Education Research II
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-823-5

1 – 10 of over 19000