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Book part
Publication date: 17 July 2011

Victor J. Friedman

This chapter revisits social space and field theory, constructs foundational to the work of Kurt Lewin but largely abandoned by his followers. It describes the…

Abstract

This chapter revisits social space and field theory, constructs foundational to the work of Kurt Lewin but largely abandoned by his followers. It describes the “mystification” surrounding these concepts in the work of Lewin and the sociologist, Pierre Bourdieu. It then attempts to demystify social space and field theory by looking at their roots in the idea of “relational thinking” – an idea set forth by the philosopher Ernst Cassirer, who had a powerful influence on both Lewin and Bourdieu. Finally, it suggests how these concepts can generate innovative thinking about organizational change and development.

Details

Research in Organizational Change and Development
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-022-3

Book part
Publication date: 6 September 2021

Christian Fuchs

In 2020, the coronavirus crisis ruptured societies and their everyday life around the globe. This chapter is a contribution to critically theorising the changes societies…

Abstract

In 2020, the coronavirus crisis ruptured societies and their everyday life around the globe. This chapter is a contribution to critically theorising the changes societies have undergone in the light of the coronavirus crisis. It asks: How have everyday life and everyday communication changed in the coronavirus crisis? How does capitalism shape everyday life and everyday communication during this crisis?

This chapter focuses on how social space, everyday life and everyday communication have changed in the coronavirus crisis.

The coronavirus crisis is an existential crisis of humanity and society. It radically confronts humans with death and the fear of death. This collective experience can on the one hand result in new forms of solidarity and socialism or can on the other hand, if ideology and the far-right prevail, advance war and fascism. Political action and political economy are decisive factors in such a profound crisis that shatters society and everyday life.

Article
Publication date: 29 May 2019

Saeidi Ramyani Saleh, Ehsan Mousavi Khaneghah, Nosratollah Shadnosh and Amirhosein Reyhani ShowkatAbad

This paper aims to propose a mathematical model for describing and clarifying the relationships among the indicators governing the social values of special customers in…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to propose a mathematical model for describing and clarifying the relationships among the indicators governing the social values of special customers in business-to-consumer (B2C) e-commerce systems. This mathematical model is also able to describe the degree of adaptability of e-commerce systems to the social values of specific clients, and commercial firms are able to use the parameters described in this paper to increase the versatility and has the power to trade with special customers in different areas.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, while analyzing the issue of trading from the point of view of the customer as an element of trading, the affecting factors the trading space have been extracted. These affecting factors are categorized in three major groups: culture, technology and customers. This classification is based on the e-commerce and developing the traditional commerce. Using the mapping functions, the effects of each element in these three spaces on the concept of social values have been analyzed. The result of this analysis is the mathematical model governing each parameter and its semantic relation with the concept of social value.

Findings

The presence of a mathematical model between the indicators influencing the model adaptability and social values space allows e-commerce system designers to be able to make decisions on the adaptability of the model with a quantitative approach. To examine the proposed mathematical models, important frameworks and patterns in the field of e-commerce have been analyzed with an Islamic approach, as one of the adaptations of B2C e-commerce model.

Research limitations/implications

Regarding the innovation of the work, the case has been made, and the concept of social value and the model governing the elements of social values in this paper, in a B2C e-commerce model, has been discussed in general; the problem is parametric solved.

Practical implications

One of the key concepts in commerce is the ability of the commerce model to adapt to the requirements of special customers. This is more important in costumer-based e-commerce models. In these types of systems, if the commerce cannot match the customer’s characteristics, it will not be accepted and used by customers. This is especially more important in the field of social values for customers.

Originality/value

In this paper, a mathematical model is presented to examine the adaptability of e-commerce systems to the social values of special customers. In examining this model, the relationship between each element affecting the social value of specific customers and the factors affecting trade has been studied.

Details

Journal of Islamic Marketing, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0833

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 October 2013

Johan Hagberg and Alexander Styhre

The concept of space is commonly transcending the binary separation between materiality and abstraction structuring social theory, being both a built, immutable…

1219

Abstract

Purpose

The concept of space is commonly transcending the binary separation between materiality and abstraction structuring social theory, being both a built, immutable environment and what is derived from uncoordinated spatial practices embedded in social norms and instituted behaviours. As a consequence, organization theorists have been only marginally interested in organized spaces and spatiality, examining primarily office spaces and other visual, symbolic spaces in organizations. Organized space is relational and transductive, constructed to be able to both accommodate various needs and demands and to be able of responding to emerging information. Organized space is thus transient and fluid, only temporarily stabilized, and fundamentally open to external influences. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

A study of shopping center development practices demonstrates how various actors representing heterogeneous interests collaborate to balance various interests such as the need for both commercial and public spaces in a community, rendering social space a politicized space wherein disputes and interests are settled.

Findings

Social spaces such as shopping centers are unfolding as relational and transductive spaces capable of being modified and changes as new social needs and demands emerge. Shopping center spaces are developed in the intersection of a variety of professional domains of expertise and social interests and needs.

Originality/value

The paper combines a theoretical framework of social spaces as being what is produced in collaborative efforts and what includes both technical and material as well as social and cultural components with an empirical study of shopping mall development.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 March 2018

Norsidah Ujang, Marek Kozlowski and Suhardi Maulan

A public space is a place of significance when it fulfils the human need for social interaction and attachment. However, the scarcity of public spaces poses a challenge to…

1583

Abstract

Purpose

A public space is a place of significance when it fulfils the human need for social interaction and attachment. However, the scarcity of public spaces poses a challenge to support socialisation for people within a defined social and cultural group. The purpose of this paper is to explore the association between place attachment and social interaction within public spaces in the city centre of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Design/methodology/approach

Face-to-face interviews with urban users were conducted to examine the users’ engagement in three main public spaces in the city and the significance of these spaces to everyday social interaction. Field observations were carried out to examine patterns of users’ activities and interactions.

Findings

The authors uncover a lack of multi-functional spaces to support diverse forms of interactions in the city. A street has an important function to generate activities. However, spaces for people to sit and stay remain scarce, and are in most cases consumed by extended commercial use and thus considered private. Opportunities for social interaction are very limited. The significance of the places relates strongly to commercial and tourism functions, and hence place attachment evolves around those activities. Participants associated their familiarity and engagement with interaction between familiar people, close ethnic relationships and business acquaintances.

Practical implications

The authors argue that more robust and socially responsive public spaces should be reclaimed for the culturally diverse users.

Social implications

Development of attachment through meaningful spaces for people to stay and interact could enhance the role of public spaces in the city.

Originality/value

By understanding the social meanings of places, particularly in a multi-cultural setting, a stronger basis for designing and managing urban places towards resiliency and social sustainability can be provided.

Details

Journal of Place Management and Development, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8335

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 24 March 2017

Jessica Burshell and Will Mitchell

Studies of the social construction of markets have not determined which social environments, which we refer to as proximate social space, are most likely to trigger social

Abstract

Studies of the social construction of markets have not determined which social environments, which we refer to as proximate social space, are most likely to trigger social construction processes. We find that U.S. nonprofit fiscal sponsors respond to greater potential for category emergence when proximate social space is defined by geography but not by market segment. Further, in addition to responding to potential claimants based on geographic peers, organizations also respond to actual claimants based on peers in the market segment. The pattern suggests that geographic social proximity triggers initial label claiming, which in turn triggers responses from market segment peers.

Book part
Publication date: 12 November 2018

Fabian Mundt and Kenneth Horvath

Relational thinking and spatial analyses have become highly relevant for higher education research. However, choices of research methods and specifically of statistical…

Abstract

Relational thinking and spatial analyses have become highly relevant for higher education research. However, choices of research methods and specifically of statistical procedures do not often correspond to the epistemological underpinnings implied by relational perspectives. Against this background, this chapter illustrates the uses and challenges of geometric data analysis (GDA) for studying the complexities and dynamics of current spaces of higher education. GDA can be described as a set of statistical techniques that allow the identification, assessment and visualisation of complex relations in social science data. Using an investigation into the social topologies of first-year students as an example, we discuss the mathematical foundations, the step-by-step procedures of data analysis, the interpretation of results and strategies for integrating GDA into multimethod research designs. In sum, we argue that GDA does not only entail a comprehensive set of statistical instruments that permit visual analysis of relational structures, but also enables the systematic integration of qualitative and quantitative methods, hence supporting the development of innovative and coherent research designs and analytical strategies.

Details

Theory and Method in Higher Education Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-277-0

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Creating Spaces for an Ageing Society
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-739-6

Article
Publication date: 13 July 2021

Aseel Alja'afreh, Raed Al Tal and Anwar Ibrahim

The study hypothesized that the absence of the governing authority during the growth and expansion of informal settlements caused a highly randomized dense social fabric…

Abstract

Purpose

The study hypothesized that the absence of the governing authority during the growth and expansion of informal settlements caused a highly randomized dense social fabric that shaped their characteristics.

Design/methodology/approach

This research employs urban tactics and social theories to understand dynamic relationships in social consolidation in informal settlements in Jordan. The research adopted a mixed-methods approach, deploying qualitative and quantitative methods to understand the concepts, terms, perspectives, means and functions of open spaces in informal settlements.

Findings

The results identified that the land ownership of open spaces, gender and age have a significant impact on the relationships and social interaction of people. The results suggested that despite the informal morphology of studied areas being random, unplanned and chaotic, there is often an underlying logic to meet occupants’ needs.

Research limitations/implications

This research explores informal spatiality to help understand the mechanisms of how marginal communities create and interact with each other in public spaces. This study is limited to the investigation of socio-cultural practices in public spaces, without an in-depth consideration of the roles of physical elements and features in the spatial configuration of these spaces.

Originality/value

The importance of the research is that the exploration of informal spatiality of this neighborhood morphology will enable to understand the mechanism of how marginal communities create and interact among each other and their public spaces in different cities.

Details

Open House International, vol. 47 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0168-2601

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 October 2016

Véron Ophélie

Literature on social movements increasingly identifies everyday life as significant to understand political practices and activism. However, scholars have retained a major…

1990

Abstract

Purpose

Literature on social movements increasingly identifies everyday life as significant to understand political practices and activism. However, scholars have retained a major bias towards movement mobilisation and collective action, often relegating the everyday at the margins of social movements. While there have been notable exceptions, with studies of prefigurative activism and everyday practices of social change, they have usually focussed on alternative community spaces such as autonomous social centres and protest camps, and paid less attention to “ordinary” practices and spaces of activism. The purpose of this paper is to address these problems by suggesting that everyday life may be central to the production of activist spaces and the action of social movements.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing upon ethnography methods, interviews with vegan activists, an on-line survey of supporters of vegan movements and an examination of on-line vegan forums, it seeks to analyse the practices of the vegan movement in France.

Findings

This paper attempts to demonstrate that prefigurative activism and seemingly banal practices may be central to strategies for social change. Drawing on an anarchist perspective on activism, it further suggests that activism and everyday life should not be studied in isolation from each other but as mutually constitutive in the creation of everyday alternative spaces – hemeratopias.

Originality/value

This paper adds to the literature on activism and social movements by offering a more complex picture of the spatial politics at work in social movements and a better understanding of individual action and mobilisation.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 36 no. 11/12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

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