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Article
Publication date: 27 April 2020

Anna Maria Nikodemska-Wolowik, Piotr Zientara and Anna Zamojska

The purpose of this study is to find out how consumers respond to a proposed family-enterprise collective certification trademark and how they perceive family firms in general.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to find out how consumers respond to a proposed family-enterprise collective certification trademark and how they perceive family firms in general.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper employs a quantitative approach. It draws on a questionnaire survey conducted among 1,091 Polish consumers in January 2018. Statistical methods, such as exploratory factor analysis, were applied.

Findings

Polish consumers responded positively to the proposed trademark. It also turned out that those who pay attention to the producer or the brand owner in a given sector also pay attention to the symbols placed on products or services from these sectors. There was a strong relationship between consumers' positive perceptions of family firms and their assessments of the proposed trademark. This did not extend to negative perceptions. The findings from this study may be generalisable to other post-communist societies.

Practical implications

Family firms should redouble their efforts to introduce a family-enterprise collective certification trademark (not only in Poland, but also in those countries where such a trademark is non-existent). This should be handled by umbrella bodies for family business.

Originality/value

Little research work, based on a large and representative sample, has so far focussed on the issue of how consumers respond to a family-enterprise identity. The value of this study lies in deepening understanding of the processes and mechanisms that underlie the organisation–consumer relationship within the context of family-enterprise operation.

Details

Journal of Family Business Management, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2043-6238

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 January 2018

Ross D. Petty

The purpose of this paper is to examine the debate about brand marketing that occurred as part of the 1930s consumer movement and continued after the Second World War in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the debate about brand marketing that occurred as part of the 1930s consumer movement and continued after the Second World War in academic and regulatory circles.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper presents an historical account of the anti-brand marketing movement using a qualitative approach. It examines both primary and secondary historical sources as well as legal statutes, regulatory agency actions, judicial cases and newspaper and trade journal stories.

Findings

In response to the rise of brand marketing in the latter 1800s and early 1900s, the USA experienced an anti-brand marketing movement that lasted half a century. The first stage was public as part of the consumer movement but was overshadowed by the product safety and truth-in-advertising concerns. The consumer movement stalled when the USA entered the Second World War, but brand marketing continued to raise questions during the war as the US government attempted to regulate the provisions of goods during the war. After the war, the public accepted brand marketing. Continuing anti-brand marketing criticism was largely confined to academic writings and regulatory activities. Ultimately, many of the stage-two challenges to brand marketing went nowhere, but a few led to regulations that continue today.

Originality/value

This paper is the first to recognize a two-stage anti-brand marketing movement in the USA from 1929 to 1980 that has left a small but significant modern-day regulatory legacy.

Details

Journal of Historical Research in Marketing, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-750X

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Article
Publication date: 10 October 2008

Magdalena Florek and Andrea Insch

The purpose of this paper is to present the opportunities for and challenges of the trademark protection of country brands.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present the opportunities for and challenges of the trademark protection of country brands.

Design/methodology/approach

Insights into the challenges and possibilities of country brand trademark protection are identified using New Zealand as a case study. This evaluation is divided into four sections. In the first section, the relations and differences between brands and trademarks are discussed in the context of the country trademark. Then, possible sources of country trademarks are identified. Next, the benefits and challenges of creating and managing country trademarks are discussed based on the case of the New Zealand Fern Mark. The final section addresses the determiners of country trademark implementation and offers recommendations for country brand managers.

Findings

This study makes the case that a nation's heritage is a rich source of country trademarks. The selection of country trademarks must ensure that the chosen symbol conveys meaning and associations that serve a country's often broad range of offerings and resonate with a diversity of stakeholder audiences.

Practical implications

Governance structures need to be established to manage a country trademark to ensure the country brand's integrity. This includes a licensing system and protocols to prevent successive governments from altering the brand's essence which would destroy its equity built up over time.

Originality/value

This paper extends the concept of trademarks, once the domain of products and service brands, to the emerging field of place brand management.

Details

Journal of Place Management and Development, vol. 1 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8335

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 1991

Howard Johnson

“Companies, particularly those which sell goods or services direct to the public, regard their trade marks (whether brand names or pictorial symbols) as being among their…

Abstract

“Companies, particularly those which sell goods or services direct to the public, regard their trade marks (whether brand names or pictorial symbols) as being among their most valuable assets. It is important therefore for a trading nation such as the United Kingdom to have a legal framework for the protection of trade marks which fully serves the needs of industry and commerce. The law governing registered trade marks is however fifty years old and has to some extent lost touch with the marketplace. Moreover it causes some of the procedures associated with registration to be more complicated than they need be.” This introductory paragraph to the Government's recent White Paper on “Reform of Trade Marks Law” indicates that reform is in the air. The primary pressure for reform has emanated from Brussels with the need to harmonise national trade mark laws before the advent of the Single European market on 1st January 1993. To this end the Council of Ministers adopted a harmonisation directive in December 1988 which must be translated into the national laws of member states by 28th December 1991.

Details

Managerial Law, vol. 33 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

Article
Publication date: 4 November 2014

Rashmi Aggarwal, Harvinder Singh and Sanjeev Prashar

The purpose of this paper is to identify inherent deficiencies of the geographical indications (GIs) as protective brands adding to the premium value of the products as…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify inherent deficiencies of the geographical indications (GIs) as protective brands adding to the premium value of the products as compared to the protection guaranteed to brands under the trademark route. Whereas the former protects the attributes of the goods, the latter adds to the brand equity of the goods. The paper attempts to find means to assign a strong visible identity that creates a premium visibility for GIs to help them emerge as strong brands just like the brands envisaged for the trademarks.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a qualitative research based on primary and secondary source of information. Secondary sources comprise statutory provisions of two main acts on GIs and trademarks, articles/news items available in academic/trade journals and information generated from Government of India websites. Primary research involved face-to-face interactions with practicing advocates and select holders of GIs. Information was collected on parameters related to efficacy, applicability, enforceability, monitoring, marketability and legal issues of GIs and trademarks.

Findings

Though the GI Act was enacted to improve the commercial prospects of manufactured/grown outputs by entities based in a particular geographical limit, it has not delivered to the extent it was expected. The GI product still faces the challenges of poor awareness, fratricidal competition and threat of ingenuine products. The same concept under the trademarks is adequately promoted and protected by ensuring visibility through the logos. And hence, the same can be made mandatorily under the grant of GIs.

Originality/value

Most of the research done so far on GIs is from a legal perspective. It is perhaps the first work on the theme that takes up the cross-functional approach and explores adding a marketing dimension to a concept that was considered only under the domain of law. The article tries to assimilate best of both the worlds in terms of legal protection and marketing appeal for the geographical indicators.

Details

International Journal of Law and Management, vol. 56 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-243X

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 20 November 2020

Sangeetha K. Prathap and Sreelaksmi C.C.

Consumers often face a dilemma regarding the purchase decisions of traditional handloom apparel because of the non-availability of information cues that would enable them…

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Abstract

Purpose

Consumers often face a dilemma regarding the purchase decisions of traditional handloom apparel because of the non-availability of information cues that would enable them to assess the quality of the product. The spread of counterfeit products in the market adds to information asymmetry. The study aims to examine factors influencing purchase intention of traditional handloom apparel that have Geographical Indication (GI) certification, which follows the certification procedure specified by the World Intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO).

Design/methodology/approach

A survey was conducted among 202 traditional handloom apparel consumers in India and the data was analysed using structural equation modelling. The purchase intention of GI certified handloom apparels was examined as the dependent variable, whereas quality consciousness, product diagnosticity, perceived information asymmetry were placed as independent variables. The mediating role of perceived quality and product trust in the relation between perceived information asymmetry and purchase intention was also looked into.

Findings

Results reveal that quality consciousness positively influences product diagnosticity (facilitated by the GI label certification) which in turn reduces perceived information asymmetry. Further, a reduction in perceived information asymmetry was found to increase the purchase intention of traditional handloom apparel, fully mediated by the perceived quality and product trust.

Research limitations/implications

The customers who are facing a dearth of information while making purchase of traditional handlooms will be benefitted from the GI certification label which provides authenticity regarding product attributes confirming quality. Further, the study adds to the theory by establishing the relation between quality consciousness and perceived information asymmetry.

Practical implications

The findings imply that GI handloom apparel sellers should design marketing strategies that would project GI certification labels for traditional handloom apparel to effectively communicate product quality attributes, thus enhance product diagnosticity reducing information asymmetry. While organic certification for agricultural products is done at the individual producer’s level, GI certification is done under the producer’s collective label. Further, studies may be extended to agricultural products (Darjeeling tea, Alphonso mangoes, etc.), food items (rasgulla, Thirupathi laddoo, etc.) and handicrafts (Aranmula Mirror, Payyannur pavithra ring) that have acquired GI label in India. GI certification is adopted worldwide and studies may be extended to such products also [example Parma ham (Italy), Hessian wine (Germany)].

Originality/value

Empirical research on determinants of consumer purchase intentions of GI certified traditional handloom apparel is a novel attempt done in the context of a developing country such as India. The study brings out the importance of the GI certification label envisaged by the WIPO, which can serve as a tool for reducing uncertainties faced by consumer in framing purchasing intentions. This can be extended to any product type such as agricultural, food products and handicrafts that has acquired GI certifications in different countries. The study revealed that product diagnosticity (through GI certification) could reduce perceived information asymmetry that leads the consumer to the perception of quality and product trust which results in the purchase intention of traditional handloom apparel. The outcomes of the study can be instrumental in designing marketing strategies for capturing market share.

Details

Journal of Humanities and Applied Social Sciences, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN:

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 April 2022

Jeffrey Alwang, Alexis Villacis and Victor Barrera

This study explores the determinants of growth of credence-based exports of yerba mate from Paraguay, potential for increased export growth, and the fragility of the…

Abstract

Purpose

This study explores the determinants of growth of credence-based exports of yerba mate from Paraguay, potential for increased export growth, and the fragility of the credence-based export model. Much of the growth in value of yerba mate exports from Paraguay is due to positioning of the good within the universe of products where consumption is driven by perceptions of sustainable production and health benefits to consumers. Credence claims for yerba mate—benefits to indigenous producing communities, environmental sustainability under certain production processes, healthful alternatives to energy drinks—are now widely known, but the growth of this awareness came via a new entrepreneurial strategy of a single firm.

Design/methodology/approach

Primary information was collected through interviews of actors in the Paraguayan yerba mate value chain during spring/summer 2020. These included representatives from three exporting companies, processors, public institutions and indigenous producers.

Findings

The Paraguayan yerba mate export boom was stimulated through the careful cultivation of an image of healthful consumption and sustainable production processes. The cost of this cultivation was borne mainly by a single firm. Findings suggest that future marketing efforts will need to reinforce credence claims, highlighting the benefits to indigenous producers.

Research limitations/implications

This case study explores the determinants of growth of credence-based exports of yerba mate from Paraguay, potential for increased growth, and the fragility of the credence-based model.

Originality/value

Findings are supported by field interviews with value chain participants and detailed analysis of extant data. The paper is the first to discuss the fragility of relying on credence attributes for long-term demand growth.

Details

Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-0839

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 June 2017

Marta Fernández-Barcala, Manuel González-Díaz and Emmanuel Raynaud

The aim of this paper is to explain the organizational changes along supply chains when a geographical brand, i.e. a place name that has value for commercial purposes…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to explain the organizational changes along supply chains when a geographical brand, i.e. a place name that has value for commercial purposes, becomes a geographical indication (GI).

Design/methodology/approach

Using a case study research design, this paper compares GI vs non-GI supply chains in the European Union and describes the organizational changes that occur in supply chains when a GI is adopted.

Findings

When a GI is adopted, an additional “public” level of governance is added along the supply chain that forces it to reallocate and specialize quality controls between the public and private levels of governance to avoid redundancies and to adopt more market-oriented mechanisms of governance in dyadic relationships. The paper argues that these changes occur because the private and public levels of governance complement one another.

Research limitations/implications

More aspects of supply chain management (the power balance or relationship stability) and a more systematic longitudinal analysis using supply chains in various agrifood industries should be considered to generalize the conclusions. An econometric analysis formally testing the main conclusions (propositions) is also required.

Practical implications

The changes needed to successfully adopt a GI are identified, and an explanatory map of these changes is offered.

Originality/value

The structural governance tensions created by the use of common-pool resources within supply chains are explored. It is hypothesized, first, that when a “common-pool resource”, namely, a geographical name, is used in a supply chain, some type of public level of governance that promotes cooperation is required to preserve its value. Second, this public level of governance complements the dyadic mechanisms of governance, requiring the specialization and reallocation of quality controls and the move toward more market-oriented transactions.

Article
Publication date: 17 May 2013

Alastair Michael Smith

The purpose of the article is to move beyond positivistic political economy analysis of fair trade, and to examine competitive dynamics between competing interpretations…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the article is to move beyond positivistic political economy analysis of fair trade, and to examine competitive dynamics between competing interpretations in terms of the very fair trade concept itself.

Design/methodology/approach

Grounded in an ideational ontology, the paper provides a theoretical framework concerned with the contestation of meaning. Analysis applies this framework through a heuristic reading of fair trade's history, drawing on secondary literature, documents and primary qualitative research; and the discursive construction of Fair for Life – a new programme seeking to negotiate the “constitutive rules” of fair trade.

Findings

The article identifies that the history of fair trade and its current competitive dynamics are constituted by a negotiation and contestation of the constitutive rules that set the parameters of the fair trade concept.

Research limitations/implications

The paper complements political economy analysis of socially constructed governance such as fair trade, and adds value to academic analysis by exposing important, yet previously unconsidered, micro‐politics of language and practice. The description and initial analysis of “Fair for Life” opens a new area of empirical interest for scholars of fair trade and sustainability governance.

Practical implications

Analysis highlighting the important implication of discourse and practice for the very definition of fair trade offers practitioners important insights into little considered implication of their practices and their representations in language.

Originality/value

The article complements political economy analysis by demonstrating the value of an ideationally grounded analysis of fair trade and similar socially constructed governance systems.

Book part
Publication date: 14 August 2015

Laura A. Heymann

Artists operating under a studio model, such as Andy Warhol, have frequently been described as reducing their work to statements of authorship, indicated by the signature…

Abstract

Artists operating under a studio model, such as Andy Warhol, have frequently been described as reducing their work to statements of authorship, indicated by the signature finally affixed to the work. By contrast, luxury goods manufacturers decry as inauthentic and counterfeit the handbags produced during off-shift hours using the same materials and craftsmanship as the authorized goods produced hours earlier. The distinction between authentic and inauthentic often turns on nothing more than a statement of authorship. Intellectual property law purports to value such statements of authenticity, but no statement has value unless it is accepted as valid by its audience, a determination that depends on shared notions of what authenticity means as well as a common understanding of what authenticity designates.

Details

Special Issue: Thinking and Rethinking Intellectual Property
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-881-6

Keywords

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