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Article
Publication date: 10 May 2021

Kenneth Eunhan Kim

This study aims to examine how the relative importance of a search versus a credence attribute, strategically addressed in a flu vaccination advertisement, varies as a…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine how the relative importance of a search versus a credence attribute, strategically addressed in a flu vaccination advertisement, varies as a function of message sidedness. A search attribute was designed to highlight the affordability of flu shots, and a credence attribute addressed the potential health benefits of flu vaccination.

Design/methodology/approach

Two experiments were designed to explore how the relative persuasiveness of search versus credence attributes varies as a function of message sidedness in the context of flu vaccination advertising. In Experiment 1, the search–credence attribute type was manipulated by addressing either the affordability (e.g. “Get free flu shots”) or indirect health benefits of flu vaccines (e.g. “Improve herd immunity/community health”). In Experiment 2, an individual-level credence attribute (e.g. “Strengthen your immune system”) was created and compared to the other two attribute conditions used in Experiment 1: a search versus a societal credence versus an individual credence attribute.

Findings

Experiment 1 (N = 114) revealed the relative advantage of a search attribute (free flu shots) in the two-sided persuasion. Experiment 2 (N = 193) indicated that the persuasive impact of a societal credence attribute (herd immunity/community health) was greater in the two-sided message condition (vs one-sided message condition).

Originality/value

Relatively little research has examined how consumers respond to strategic flu prevention and vaccination messages promoting either credence or search attributes. Motivated by the need to investigate the relative effectiveness of stressing “herd immunity” versus “free flu shots” in flu vaccination advertising, this study examines how the effects of these distinct attributes on flu vaccination judgments differ between two-sided (e.g. “No vaccine is 100% effective”) and one-sided persuasion.

Details

International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6123

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2000

Tilman Becker

A model for analysis of consumer behaviour towards food is developed. This model is intended to bridge the gap between the objective quality approach pursued in food…

Abstract

A model for analysis of consumer behaviour towards food is developed. This model is intended to bridge the gap between the objective quality approach pursued in food sciences, the product characteristics approach, and the subjectively perceived quality approach, the product attribute approach as pursued in the consumer behaviour literature. The focus is on the information processing by the consumer. Information on the product quality is supplied to the consumer in the form of cues received while shopping or consuming. A distinction is made between extrinsic and intrinsic cues, and between search‐, experience‐, and credence‐quality attributes. Within the credence attributes, three categories are distinguished: food safety, health, and all other credence quality attributes. It is demonstrated that public policy should use minimum standards for regulating food safety, information and consumer education on health issues and definitional standards to regulate the other credence qualities. In the case of search quality, no public intervention is needed. In the case of experience quality, reputation is a means of reducing the quality erosion inherent for experience quality attributes. In the case of those foods which are not sold prepacked over the counter, these means are restricted. Here the public regulators could consider backing up the private quality policy efforts on labelling by implementing traceability schemes and defining the requirements for specific label claims.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 102 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2002

Srini S. Srinivasan and Brian D. Till

Previous researchers have established that brand names are important in determining perceptions of brand quality and attitude towards the product. In this research we…

Abstract

Previous researchers have established that brand names are important in determining perceptions of brand quality and attitude towards the product. In this research we investigate the role of brand name in shaping consumers’ evaluation of search, experience, and credence attributes. The findings confirm that, prior to trial, brand name increases consumers’ perception of experience and credence attribute performance evaluations. However, prior to trial, brand name is found not to affect consumers’ perception of search attributes. Trial of the brand is found to reduce (and not eliminate) the advantage branded products have in enhancing consumers’ perception of experience and credence attributes.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 11 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Article
Publication date: 24 August 2020

Kunter Gunasti, Selcan Kara and William T. Ross, Jr

This research aims to examine how credence, search and experience attributes compete with suggestive brand names that are incongruent with the attributes they cue (e.g…

Abstract

Purpose

This research aims to examine how credence, search and experience attributes compete with suggestive brand names that are incongruent with the attributes they cue (e.g. expensive EconoLodge Motel, short-lasting Duracell battery and joint-stiffening JointFlex pill).

Design/methodology/approach

This study relies on experimental studies, together with analyses of variance, t-tests and logistic regressions.

Findings

Incongruent suggestive brand names can distort product evaluations and alter perceptions of product performance in joint product judgments involving contradictory credence attributes; they can misdirect product evaluations even if the search attributes conflict with competitor brands. Furthermore, they are more likely to backfire if contradictory experience attributes are readily available to consumers.

Research limitations/implications

This test of the role of incongruence between suggestive brand names and actual product features includes key concepts that can inform continued studies, such as search attributes that consumers can readily observe, experience attributes that can be observed only after product use and credence attributes that might not be observed even after use.

Practical implications

This study provides applicable guidelines for managers, consumers and policymakers.

Originality/value

The findings expand beyond prior literature that focuses on memory-based, separate evaluations of advertised benefits and inferences or expectations of unavailable attributes. Specifically, this study details the implications of congruence between the suggestive brand names and different types of attributes observable at different consumption stages.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 54 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2000

James R. Northen

This paper develops a conceptual framework, based on quality attributes and quality cues, to demonstrate the necessary requirements for effective communication of quality…

Abstract

This paper develops a conceptual framework, based on quality attributes and quality cues, to demonstrate the necessary requirements for effective communication of quality cues to customers in the supply chain and consumers at place of purchase. The “perceived quality” approach to product quality is adopted and the links between intrinsic/extrinsic cues and experience/credence attributes of a product are developed. The framework is applied to the UK meat sector by considering which attributes/cues are altered by farm assurance schemes and, hence, which type of cue is needed to signal these attributes, and what elements are necessary for effective signalling of this type of cue. It is shown that the necessary requirements for effective communication of each type of cue (intrinsic and extrinsic) vary considerably. Farm assurance schemes are shown to affect credence attributes; hence extrinsic cues must be used to signal these standards. It is concluded that the credibility of scheme standards and inspections to those standards is of crucial importance for the assurance scheme extrinsic cue (certificate/label) to be effective in predicting these credence attributes.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 102 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2001

Balaji C. Krishnan and Michael D. Hartline

While the brand equity associated with tangible goods has received a great deal of attention in the literature, a basic understanding of the nature of brand equity for…

Abstract

While the brand equity associated with tangible goods has received a great deal of attention in the literature, a basic understanding of the nature of brand equity for services has yet to emerge. Most of what is known about brand equity for services is based on theoretical or anecdotal evidence. In addition, the presumed differences in brand equity associated with search‐dominant, experience‐dominant, and credence‐dominant services has yet to be empirically examined. The objectives of this study are threefold: to empirically test whether brand equity is more important for services than for tangible goods, to test whether the presumed differences in brand equity for search‐, experience‐, and credence‐dominant services can be confirmed in an empirical examination, and to assess whether consumer knowledge of a product category has an effect on the importance of brand equity across product types. Contrary to suppositions in the literature, the results indicate that brand equity is more important for tangible goods than for services. In addition, the results do not support the presumed differences between service types as brand equity for search‐dominant services is more important than for both experience‐ and credence‐dominant services. The same pattern of results is achieved when consumer knowledge of each product category is included as a covariate.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 15 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1995

Paul N. Bloom and James E. Pailin

Learning about whether target markets face search, experience, orcredence situations when assessing a company′s product or service canhelp in formulating more effective…

Abstract

Learning about whether target markets face search, experience, or credence situations when assessing a company′s product or service can help in formulating more effective marketing strategies. Depending on the information situation of the targets, a company may want to vary the information content and amount of its advertising, its use of brand names and warranties, its emphasis on personal selling, and other elements of its marketing program. Offers several propositions to guide marketing decision making.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article
Publication date: 19 June 2017

Yi-Fen Liu, Yingzi Xu and I-Ling Ling

This research aims to investigate how backstage visibility affects intangibility and perceived risk at the pre-purchase stage and how service credence moderates the effect…

Abstract

Purpose

This research aims to investigate how backstage visibility affects intangibility and perceived risk at the pre-purchase stage and how service credence moderates the effect of backstage visibility on intangibility and perceived risk. It also focuses on the effect of backstage visibility on perceived service quality and value at the post-purchase stage and the moderating role of the service contact level.

Design/methodology/approach

This research tests the causal relationships between backstage visibility and customers’ service evaluations through two experimental studies.

Findings

Study 1 shows that customers who are exposed to backstage cues perceive less pre-purchase risk in the service than those who are not exposed. Pictures plus text information are more effective than text illustrations alone for risk reduction. This risk reduction effect is stronger for high-credence than for low-credence services and is partially mediated by the perceived intangibility of the service. Study 2 reveals that customers with access to backstage cues perceive higher service quality and higher overall value from service experiences. The value increase is more significant for high-contact than for low-contact services.

Research limitations/implications

Future research could apply different methods to different data sources to provide further insight about backstage visibility.

Originality/value

The findings of this research suggest that allowing customers to view some backstage activities before purchase helps tangibilize the service, achieve more effective communication with customers and create more positive service experiences.

Details

International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-669X

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Article
Publication date: 25 May 2020

Mas Wahyu Wibowo, Dudi Permana, Ali Hanafiah, Fauziah Sh Ahmad and Hiram Ting

The purpose of this paper is to introduce the variable of halal food knowledge (HFK) into the theory of planned behavior framework to investigate Malaysian non-Muslim…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to introduce the variable of halal food knowledge (HFK) into the theory of planned behavior framework to investigate Malaysian non-Muslim consumers’ decision-making process in purchasing halal food.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected through 350 distributed questionnaires toward non-Muslim consumers on five most visited grocery stores (hypermarket-based) in Kuala Lumpur and Selangor. The collected data was analyzed by using Statistical Package for Social Sciences and SmartPLS.

Findings

Purchasing halal food remain an uneasy task for the non-Muslim consumers, thus rely on their personal evaluation and closest relative’s approval.

Research limitations/implications

This study is focusing only on two halal food credence attributes namely health attribute and animal-friendly attributes.

Practical implications

Both health and animal friendly credence attributes of halal food should be the main message to be conveyed to the non-Muslim consumers. In addition, the inclusion of non-Muslim consumers within the Malaysian halal ecosystem might provide a solution to tackle the resistance of halal food from foreign countries.

Originality/value

The value of this study is the finding of halal food credence attributes of health and animal friendly, which are the dimensions of HFK.

Details

Journal of Islamic Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0833

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Article
Publication date: 13 July 2015

Dong-Mo Koo

This paper aims to investigate whether the interactional effects of recommendation valence, tie strength and service type produce different effects on attitude and buying…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate whether the interactional effects of recommendation valence, tie strength and service type produce different effects on attitude and buying intention in a social networking context.

Design/methodology/approach

A 2 × 3 × 3 between-subject experiment was carried out, involving 616 participants, and MANOVA was used to test hypotheses.

Findings

The interactions of valence by tie strength and valence by service type affect attitude, but not intention. The review valence × tie strength × service type interaction influences both attitude and intention, and its effect on intention is fully mediated by attitude.

Research limitations/implications

Negative recommendations for credence and experiential services communicated by individuals with no-tie relationships have a strong negative effect on attitude. However, positive recommendations from strong and weak ties for search and experience services are more influential than recommendations from no ties for credence services.

Originality/value

The results are explained by using cue sufficiency theory, which suggests that a single extreme cue serves as a defining feature.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 49 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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