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Article
Publication date: 22 October 2021

Xiaoting Huang, Chun Liu, Chun LIU, Zhenda Wei and Xi Y. Leung

Drawn from flow theory, this study aims to explore children’s flow experiences in virtual reality (VR) by examining the relationships between VR experience length, arousal and…

Abstract

Purpose

Drawn from flow theory, this study aims to explore children’s flow experiences in virtual reality (VR) by examining the relationships between VR experience length, arousal and flow experience (time estimation and enjoyment).

Design/methodolog/approach

A within-subject laboratory experiment was conducted using 9D VR and iMEC 12. A total of 47 children participated in this study. Both survey data and physiological data were collected.

Findings

The results revealed that longer VR videos evoked lower arousal, higher respiratory rates and less enjoyment among child participants than shorter videos. This study also verified the mediating effects of respiratory rates measured arousal on time estimations and self-reported arousal in terms of enjoyment.

Originality/value

This study fills a research gap related to children’s flow experiences in VR, as children’s voices remain limited in tourism research. The study findings offer meaningful insights for destination marketers to leverage the growth of parent-child tours and the increasing effects of VR on the tourism industry.

儿童虚拟现实旅游体验探究: 一项基于沉浸理论的心理-生理研究

研究目的

基于沉浸理论,本研究旨在通过检验虚拟现实(VR)的体验长度、兴奋度, 以及沉浸体验(时间估计和乐趣)之间的关系来探讨儿童的VR沉浸体验。

研究设计/方法/途径

运用9D虚拟现实模拟器和iMEC12, 本研究进行了一项被试内实验。一共有47位儿童参与本研究。收集了调研数据和生理学实验数据。

研究发现

研究结果显示与短VR视频相比, 较长的VR视频导致了较低水平的兴奋度, 较高水平的呼吸率,和较少的乐趣。本研究且还证实了呼吸率测量的兴奋度对时间估计的中介作用 和自我报告的兴奋度对乐趣的中介作用。

研究原创性/价值

由于从儿童角度出发的旅游研究有限, 所以本研究填补了儿童VR沉浸体验领域的研究空白。本研究为目的地营销人员提供了有意义的参考, 从而能有效利用亲子旅游和VR对旅游业日益增长的影响。

Details

Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Technology, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9880

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 June 2021

Chun Liu and Jingjing Yang

The purpose of this study is to explore how hotels evolve their dynamic capabilities to adjust their technology-based strategy to improve performance and to gain competitive…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to explore how hotels evolve their dynamic capabilities to adjust their technology-based strategy to improve performance and to gain competitive productivity (CP) during the COVID-19 pandemic and in the aftermath.

Design/methodology/approach

In-depth interviews with hoteliers were conducted to unveil their dynamic capabilities amid the pandemic as regard adjustments and performance of self-service technology (SST)-based strategies. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the data.

Findings

Data analysis revealed four types of dynamic capabilities (i.e. sensing, learning, integrating and coordinating capabilities). Equipped with these capabilities, hotels made minor adjustments to their SST strategies. In general, during an economic downturn, hotels refrained from introducing new SSTs. SSTs introduced before the pandemic were used more frequently and received enhanced customer feedback. The findings further revealed that the factors influencing hotels’ application of SSTs before and after the outbreak of COVID-19 remained similar.

Originality/value

This is the first research integrating CP, dynamic capabilities and strategic management process to explain how hotels adjust technological strategies to recover in a suddenly changed environment. Such a framework enables scholars and practitioners from content-oriented and process-oriented perspectives to make quick but sound strategic management decisions in adapting to turbulent environments. This timely study enriches the expertise of using technology as a recovery strategy and contributes to future research on the practical application of SSTs and crisis management.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 33 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 December 2022

Qin Yuan and Chun Liu

Drawing on the transactional model of stress, this study develops a theoretical model to understand the lurking behavior on enterprise social media (ESM).

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing on the transactional model of stress, this study develops a theoretical model to understand the lurking behavior on enterprise social media (ESM).

Design/methodology/approach

Based on a questionnaire survey, this research study collected valid data from 301 ESM users in the workplace. Hierarchical regression analyses are used to analyze the conceptual framework.

Findings

The results show that Zhongyong thinking is a significant predictor of lurking and emotional exhaustion and that lurking can cause emotional exhaustion. Lurking mediates the relationship between Zhongyong thinking and emotional exhaustion. Additionally, communication overload moderates the relationship between lurking and emotional exhaustion as well as the indirect relationship between Zhongyong thinking and emotional exhaustion through lurking.

Originality/value

This article examines the antecedents of lurking by considering Zhongyong thinking and explores how lurking on ESM influences emotional exhaustion. This research contributes to the literature on techno-stressors, lurking and ESM and hopefully contributes to the growing dialog about the consequences of lurking in the workplace.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 43 no. 9/10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 31 August 2020

Puxin Zhang, Lian Wang and Chun Liu

Existing researches find that a gender difference exists in terms of Internet usage. In China, the singleton daughters resulting from China's one-child policy enjoy unprecedented…

Abstract

Purpose

Existing researches find that a gender difference exists in terms of Internet usage. In China, the singleton daughters resulting from China's one-child policy enjoy unprecedented parental support. The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether singleton daughters can, to some extent, break through the predicament of the digital divide.

Design/methodology/approach

The study collected data from a sample of 865 college students and obtained 811 valid questionnaires. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) is used to identify clusters of Internet usage from the perspective of statistical associations in various daily online activities. Two-way ANOVA and mean-comparison tests are used to analyze how singleton and non-singleton students use the Internet differently.

Findings

This study finds that singleton female students showed no significant differences from male students in aspirational activities of informational, educational use and social media use, which means that singleton female students have caught up with male students in these activities. However, female college students from multi-child families were still found to be disadvantaged in those activities.

Originality/value

There is a lack of consensus on the classification of Internet activities. We used EFA to cluster the varieties of Internet activities into three types: utilitarian use, exploratory use and aspirational use. The three identified types of Internet usage require different degrees of user initiative. We argue that initiative provides a useful lens through which to classify Internet usage. In addition, this study is among the few studies to investigate the impact of the one-child policy on the gender digital divide.

Details

Information Technology & People, vol. 34 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-3845

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 December 2023

Qin Yuan, Jun Kong, Chun Liu and Yushi Jiang

While the phenomenon of technostress has received significant attention from researchers in recent years, empirical findings concerning the consequences of specific forms of…

Abstract

Purpose

While the phenomenon of technostress has received significant attention from researchers in recent years, empirical findings concerning the consequences of specific forms of techno-stressors have remained scattered and contradictory. The authors aim to integrate the conclusions of previous studies to understand the effects of specific techno-stressors on strain and job performance.

Design/methodology/approach

This study employs meta-analytic techniques to calibrate the findings of 67 studies investigating more than 63,100 employees.

Findings

In general, not all techno-stressors have adverse effects. In particular, techno-uncertainty does not impact job performance. In addition, relative weight analyses reveal the relative importance of techno-complexity and techno-insecurity as predictors of both strain and job performance. Finally, this study finds that the effects of specific techno-stressors on job performance vary depending on research participants' gender, educational attainment and employment status.

Originality/value

First, this study provides a more nuanced view of the effects of specific techno-stressors. Second, this research clarifies the relative importance of specific techno-stressors as predictors of strain and job performance. Finally, this study reveals the moderating effects of demographic variables on the relationships between specific techno-stressors and job performance.

Details

Information Technology & People, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-3845

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 July 2022

Guoquan Xu, Fang-Chun Liu, Hsiao-Tang Hsu and Jerry Lin

The choice of accounting methods is critical in measuring the performance and sustainability of a public defined benefit pension (DBP) plan, and such measurement has an impact on…

Abstract

Purpose

The choice of accounting methods is critical in measuring the performance and sustainability of a public defined benefit pension (DBP) plan, and such measurement has an impact on the effectiveness of the entire pension system. Prior literature rarely discusses the choice and rationale of the accounting assumptions for public DBP plans. This study fills the gap by investigating whether crucial plan characteristics, including operational performance, financial health, sponsor fiscal stress, and audit quality, are associated with the accounting assumptions of public DBP plans.

Design/methodology/approach

The sample includes 1,170 plan-years from the intersection of the Center for Retirement Research and public DBPs' annual financial reports for the years 2001–2013. This study develops regression models to examine the relationship between the characteristics of public DBP practices and DBP accounting choices.

Findings

The empirical results show that the public DBPs that have better investment performance, higher funding status, less fiscal stress, and that are audited by Big 4 accounting firms are more likely to adopt conservative accounting choices.

Originality/value

The study documents the impact of crucial pension plan characteristics on public DBP managers' accounting choices, which were not extensively discussed in pension literature. The findings help us understand the rationale for employing different accounting treatments in the context of public pension fund practices. In addition, the study sheds light on policy implications for the future reform of public pension regulations.

Details

Asian Review of Accounting, vol. 30 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1321-7348

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 March 2017

Chuang-Chun Liu

Extending on flow theory, the purpose of this paper is to explore how interactivity (human-to-human interactivity and human-to-machine interactivity) and personal beliefs…

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Abstract

Purpose

Extending on flow theory, the purpose of this paper is to explore how interactivity (human-to-human interactivity and human-to-machine interactivity) and personal beliefs (perceived attractiveness, personal involvement, and perceived uncertainty) impact flow experience; this study also investigates how flow experience is related to replay intention. Furthermore, this is the first study to explore the relationship between perceived uncertainty and challenges in online gaming.

Design/methodology/approach

The proposed research model was empirically evaluated using survey data collected from online game players. The evaluation was conducted using partial least squares of structural equation modeling.

Findings

The findings revealed that flow experience was a significant predictor of replay intention. Four antecedents of flow (telepresence, focused attention, skills, and challenges) had a positive influence on flow experience. Interactivity (human-to-human interactivity and human-to-machine interactivity) and personal beliefs (perceived attractiveness, personal involvement, and perceived uncertainty) influenced these antecedents. Moreover, human-to-human interactivity exerted a greater impact on the flow experience antecedents than did human-to-machine-associated interactivity. This study reveals that human-to-human interactivity is most crucial to the effective development of online games. In addition, the author find that utilitarian motivations have positive moderating effects on the relationship between flow and replay intention. Finally, additional practical and managerial implications are discussed.

Originality/value

Few empirical studies have explored the moderating role of utilitarian motivations. This original study analyzed how utilitarian motivations moderate the relationships between flow and replay intention of online game players. Moreover, this is one of the first studies to explore the characteristic of uncertainty and its role in the context of online game playing.

Details

Information Technology & People, vol. 30 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-3845

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 September 2019

Guoquan Xu, Fang-Chun Liu, Hsiao-Tang Hsu and Jerry W. Lin

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of the public pension governance practices on the public defined benefit pension (DBP) fund performance.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of the public pension governance practices on the public defined benefit pension (DBP) fund performance.

Design/methodology/approach

To provide a holistic evaluation of public DBP performance, this study first employs the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) approach to construct a relative performance measure that simultaneously takes into account the association between investment inputs and performance outputs across DBPs in our sample. A DEA regression model is then constructed to empirically examine the impact of pension governance on public DBP performance.

Findings

Using 1,544 hand-collected observations in the USA from 2002 to 2013, the findings show that the public DBP plans with a small board, appointed board trustees, and a separate investment council exhibit better performance.

Practical implications

The effectiveness of pension governance has increasingly drawn public attention, as it affects the performance of the public DBP plans that especially matter to public employees. The empirical findings of this research offer insights into recent calls to reexamine public DBP management practices and to carry out related public pension fund policy reforms.

Originality/value

The examination of public DBP governance practices in this study enriches the governance literature, particularly research on public pension funds, by using public sector data. Second, by applying the DEA method to evaluate the relative performance of public DBP funds, this study obtains a more comprehensive analysis of the public pension governance.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. 27 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 June 2019

Chun-Wen Liu and Chao Deng

The popularity of wealth management in Taiwan has unleashed tense competition among financial advisors. Consumers are now more conscious of their financial services purchasing…

Abstract

Purpose

The popularity of wealth management in Taiwan has unleashed tense competition among financial advisors. Consumers are now more conscious of their financial services purchasing behavior. This paper aims to provide insights into local-specific investors’ characteristics and consumers’ financial product preferences and to introduce a different concept to identify localization-suitable products.

Design/methodology/approach

To understand customers’ preferred products, the paper examines consumers’ financial behavior by analyzing preference characteristics using data collected from Taiwanese investors. The study entailed a questionnaire designed for consumers using the stated preferences method and the multinomial and nested logit models to develop preference models for consumers’ financial products. A statistical test using the t-value, likelihood and ρ2 to observe investor preference product reactions was also used.

Findings

The study finds that investors are sensitive to the rate of return on investments and performance changes in foreign currency, stock and mutual funds. An elasticity analysis and prediction of the market share among interactive products show that stock and mutual funds are strongly related and the rate of return on stock undoubtedly influences the market.

Originality/value

The stated preference method and inclusion of risk appetite improve our understanding of consumer choice and investors’ financial product preferences and characteristics. The results provide suitable localization product suggestions for financial institutions to help them understand their customers’ behaviors better. This paper’s results are also useful in the context of smart financial services such as financial robot technology.

Details

Qualitative Research in Financial Markets, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-4179

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 January 2014

I-Cheng Chang, Chuang-Chun Liu and Kuanchin Chen

The focus in this study is a model that predicts continuance intention of online multi-player games. In this integrated model, the social cognitive theory (SCT) lays out the…

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Abstract

Purpose

The focus in this study is a model that predicts continuance intention of online multi-player games. In this integrated model, the social cognitive theory (SCT) lays out the foundation of two types of pre-use (pre-play) expectations, the flow theory captures the affective feeling with the game as a moderator for the effect from the two pre-use expectations, and subjective norm together with its associated antecedents cover a wide spectrum of social influences.

Design/methodology/approach

A questionnaire was designed and pre-tested before distributing to target respondents. The reliability and validity of the instrument both met the commonly accepted guidelines. The integrated model was assessed first by examining its measurement model and then the structural model.

Findings

The integration of cognitive, affective and social influence in this model explains a larger amount of variance compared to the competing models and existing studies.

Originality/value

Unlike a popular trend that studies predictors of online games from either cognitive or affect angle, the work looks at both together to study how their joint effect is related to continuance intention. This marks an important improvement as cognitive expectations derived from SCT captures the pre-use experience that may be influenced or swayed by sources including those that are inflated or incorrect. By studying flow as a moderator in conjunction with other sources of influence, the authors are able to further the understanding of how the pre-use expectations may be shaped by one's own experience.

Details

Internet Research, vol. 24 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

Keywords

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